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Why were the american articles of confederation ineffective

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Book Reports/ 1984: Fact Or Fiction book report 19936. Since the articles ineffective onset of the United States, Americans have always viewed the future in two ways; one, as the perfect society with a perfect government, or two, as a communistic hell where free will no longer exists and no one is to kill jem and scout happy. Why Were The American Of Confederation Ineffective! The novel 1984 by Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Essay, George Orwell is a combination of both theories. On the bad side, a communist state exists which is enforced with surveillance technology and loyal patriots. On the good side, however, everyone in why were articles of confederation, the society who was born after the hostile takeover, which converted the once democratic government into a communist government, isn't angry about their life, nor do they wish to change any aspect of their life. For the Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster few infidels who exist, it is a maddening existence, of constant work and brainwashing.

George Orwell's novel was definitely different from the actual 1984, but how different were they? 1984 starts out with a so called traitor to the party, Winston Smith, walking through the streets nervously observing the why were articles video cameras that are watching his every move. He makes his way into his apartment and produces a journal from watch bones online his coat pocket. Articles! He thinks that even this simple act of attempting to keep track of time and history could get him vaporized. This scene portrays the strong grip the Fukushima Nuclear Essay government has on its patrons. A person either obeys them, or is killed, or put into a forced labor camp.

After Winston starts an of confederation ineffective illegal affair with a younger woman he gets careless and Intellectual Property Essay, the party finds out the american of confederation ineffective that he has committed what they call thought crimes. A thought crime is the intent to do something illegal but not actually doing it. In Winston's world a thought crime is just as severe as a physical crime. They arrest him and his girlfriend and torture them until they realize what they did was wrong and Intellectual Property, that they love the party and will never do anything to hurt it again. Since the publication in 1949, Orwell’s novel has consistently trigured heated debates about whether or not our society has become like Oceania, how accurate Orwell’s predictions were, and which political parties’ philosophies most resemble Ingsoc. The political right and the political left have both used 1984 as the vasis for the american of confederation, any number of attacks upon their counterparts. One should remember, however, that Orwell never tells us whether the Party’s genesis grew our of the chapel right or the articles of confederation ineffective left. The Party name of the lovely bones online free, Ingsoc bears no more resemblance to socialism than it does to facism. Even the old man in the bar cannot remember “whose fault” Ingsoc is. The American! To tell you the truth, it really doesn’t matter.

While both the right and left have hailde this novel as exposing extreme intentions of the other olitical part, the fact of the matter is that Orwell was a very smart man and recognized that dictatorship is dictatorship- regardless of what poliical creed the government espouses. Never once in the novel do we hear mention of the Disaster Essay Party’s “uplifting the workers’ struggle” or “saving individual rights from desecration by the Huns.” There simply are no politics in Oceania. In today’s society, everything is why were the american articles of confederation ineffective politcs. Its all about who you know, and who can get you what you want. Today politicians in America are concerned about the struggles hard working Americans face each day. But critics feel that the central idea that Orwell tried to and cons get across is the fact that Oceania can spring up from any society or government. Orwell places the capital right in the heart of the nations that most represent freedom and individual rights, the United States and Britain. From a historical context, Orwell looked at the ravages of the american of confederation ineffective, World War II that had yet to be repaired, and he saw the great poers ready to Intellectual Property Essay do glovbla battle again.

Orwell shows us that life in Oceania is why were the american articles ineffective dreary agony. The people have been reduced to a lower level of cicilization; they have become little more than urban savages. The war that is supposedly being fought with jEast Asia or Eurasia is mirrored by the war between individuals within the Party. The greatest pessimism expressed in 1984 is that war will be endless and pros of planned parenthood, that society will not recover its humanity. Why Were! War in many ways has become the worlds biggest pastime. Newspapers, radios and televisions are constantly bombarded with stories of war and rampage from Organisational and Sustainability around the why were articles world. Intellectual Essay! The world we live in resembles Orwell’s depiction of Oceania in many ways. We lack humanity and in many ways fell that violice is the only solution to oru problems. Orwell is a socialist at heart, and he was a zealot for democracy in why were the american ineffective, spirit.

1984 is a call for individualism and independence from a government’s structural control and social organization. There must be a check on unbridled power. Pros Of Planned! One cannot count on the goodness of why were articles of confederation, people. This quest for total power by The Party is an excellent dramatization of Lord Acton's famous apothegm, power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The Party seems like it won't stop until it controls the minds of everyone under it's power, and has complete physical and psychological surveillance on all people at all time. This is exemplified in the fact that the sistine chapel of man government can look back at you through your television, or telescreen as it is called in the book, and the governmet has set up telescreens almost anywhere you can go.

While they don't have telescreens in unpopulated country sides, they have gone through the trouble to place hidden microphones disgused as flowers in those areas. and while there are real no laws, the thought police can spy on your thoughts at anytime, and can arrest and kill you on a whim. This policy is mythical. It is not really used for why were articles of confederation ineffective, punishment, but to scare everyone else into Organisational Change and Sustainability, being good citizens. 1984 offers us the proposisition that the government excludes each and every member of its society from one another. While the why were ineffective same has been said of our country, the best example of Intellectual Essay, this condition is Russia’s choosing to oppress its pople by economic privitation, police intimidation, and of confederation ineffective, surveilance. The worst criticism that can be made of our own government is its choosing not to do enough for its poor. This fundamental difference is however real and important.

There are finite bounds on what a government can and cannot do. If this sounds like a tirade against the Soviet Union, it is meant to Fukushima Disaster Essay example be; there are an estimated four million people in the Gulag Archipelago prison work camps. Many felt that rulers of Soviet Russia were doing what was best for its citizens, but history portrays a different story. Why Were Ineffective! Our own society, of course, is not without its faults, and it will probably never be perfect. But, foremost, 1984 was meant as a warning to Change and Sustainability Essay all of us what life can be like if we cavalierly forget what civil and human rights are and what precious privileges they are. Orwell was amazingly accurate in some of his predictions. His perceptions about global political ships and the emergence of permanent zones of war have proven to be all but too correct. He foresaw a nuclear arms buildup, grossly biolent movies, and the use of helicopters in warfare. On other issues, he was partly right and partly wrong.

He envisioned the deification of political learders in the West, and he predicted that television would become the principal means of the american of confederation, communication to mass audiences. He underestimated, however, its curbing effect upon audiences expossed to Organisational Change live footage of wars. Such footage has tended, increasingly, to make war less glorious. And Orwell completely micalculated his prediction that science would stagnate and technological advancement would stall. Some of the articles of confederation more interesting creations in the novel include: the parenthood Two Minutes Hate, letters which can be checked off instead of written, and speakwrite (which has just been invented). Orwell’s use of acronyms and short-form names for complex ideas and devices, however, shows us how rapidly we have become to rely on new abbreviations for new concepts which we accept as commonplace today. But we have not sacrificed old words to replace them.

Today the names of of confederation, agencies such as the and cons of planned Federal Burea of Investigation, North Atlantic Trade Organization, and the Central intelligence Agency have become mere initials (FBI, NATO, CIA). The chief concern of today’s readers is why were articles of confederation ineffective directed to the feasibility of the michelangelo sistine fall society of Oceanian itself. Of Confederation Ineffective! Can that happen here? The technology of Ingsoc is already here with us today. Indeed, we have surpassed it. The internal mental mechanisms of doublethink, blackwhite, and crimestop are the real glue that hold it all together. We use variations of these concepts for watch the lovely online, everyday occurences: “I’ll pretend I didn’t see what I thought I saw” and “If he said it’s true, then I believe him.” These illustrate that we use self-control devices similar to those in 1984 to alter our perceptions or stop us from doing things we shouldn'’ do or think we shouldn’t do. The difference is why were the american that our government does not train us to use this practice everyday concerning our political opinions. Nor are these psychological devices directly used to control our political behavior.

But they very easily could be. Essay! Human beings are extremely susceptible towards certain media, and we tend to believe whater is why were the american articles of confederation ineffective said by the media. Many studies show that our politcal opinions are developed from pros of planned parenthood “opinion leaders”- peers whose views we accept and take as our own. In our complex society, we are forced to rely on these others in the media for information. The risk which we run is that our best interests are not always the foremost concern of those who supply us with the information. There are some who take the posistion that we already live in Oceania and that we are being controlled and ordered about by of confederation, the powers that be. Others maintain the opposistion posisition and hold that we as, individuals, control our own fate and watch free, destiny. Obviously, there is room for innumerable views between these two extemes. Evidence supporting both views can be found co-existing practically anywhere. The American Articles Ineffective! We are free to stand on Change and Sustainability, the street corner and criticize the government,but if we become too rabid or noisy, we will likely be areested by the police. Somce members of our society, because of dress, race, or physical charactersitics, bear a presumption of the american of confederation, being “dangerous.” People in three-piece suits are seldom arrested for distubing the peace.

The dichotomy of freedom and authority is pervasive in our society. Ideally, there should be a balance for the peaceful resolution of these conflicting demands which would preserve our current system. Orwell’s vision is pessimistic, and its plausibility makes us all the more squeamish to look full-face at tis possible fulfillment. We look once in place, cannot be reversed. Once we make our great mistake and forget our duty to act for ourselves and watch those whom we set to watch for us, the boot will stamp down upon our faces-forever. Oceania relies upon control of reality to maintain its control of reality to pros parenthood maintain its control over the populance.

This control is why were articles ineffective made possible by denying people of Oceania access to the truth. Thus, no one has any idea what is really going on scout, in the world. In the middle of Hate Week, which is realy a perverted St. Valentine’s Day, a speaker changes from one enemy, Eurasia, to the other, Eastasia, in mid-sentence. His actual speech never changes in substance or form; only one word is substituded for another.

Yet everyone accepts the change within minutes. The Ingsoc maxim “He who controls the past controls the present,a and he who controls the present controls the future” is shown to be devastingly effective. As Winstion writes his journal, he is not even sure whether it is 1984 or not. Why Were The American Articles! It is important for Property, him to prove this fact, one way or another. Why Were Articles Of Confederation Ineffective! Yet he daily aids, and sometimes he derives great pleasure, in fabircating lies. His grip on reality is a tenuous as his grip on the glass crystal. The truth has been altered beyond all recgnition. As memories fade and written records are destroyed and altered, all touh with truth becomes permantly lost. Intellectual Property Essay! The Party’s truth can be fosisted on the populace because there is nothing remotely cohesive or accurate enough to compete with it. The American Articles Of Confederation Ineffective! Thus, it is Nuclear Disaster Essay no surprise that Julia believes that the why were the american articles of confederation ineffective Party invented the airplane; in Change Essay, a few more years, the Party can even claim that the why were the american articles ineffective Party has always existed and no one can prove them wrong.

Winston and those who try to remember have no proof and, if they rebel, they are destroyed. Pros Parenthood! Adolph Hitler once boasted that if you tell a lie enough times, people will accept it as being the truth. Truth is a very delicate thing. Why Were The American Articles Ineffective! It is subject to an individual’s own perceptions and the perceptions of society at large. In the Change and Sustainability Essay 1400s, it was not wise to profess to believe that the world was round; that view considered to be heresy, and heretics were tortured and burned at the stake. There are many people today who do not believe that Neil Armstrong ever walked on the moon. Truth can be espoused by many sources, and each person chooses his own sources in which to believe. Orwell demonstrates the danger of having only one outside source for one’s information and of confederation ineffective, facts. The populace comes to rely on that one source as being right – no matter if every word of it is false. The Party will go to any lengths to enforce its version.

Since there are no laws or even any objective concern as to what the Property Essay Party is doing to its own people, the monopoly on why were, truth is unchallenged, and it, in turn, evolves into a monopoly of michelangelo, power. Truth is an why were the american articles important tool in the hands of the Party. It is thecenter fro controlling the populace and enforcing its desire for absolute power on the people of Oceania. There can be no resistance to such a system, for the very idea of resistance cannot be formulated. People are forbidden to communicate or are afraid to do so; therefore, any possibility of rebellion is doomed at its inception. The Inner Party members are as badly deluded by their lies as the most stupid Outer Party members. They won’t change anything. The proles know nothing and won’t change anything either. Worse yet, since the only way to fight these lies is to totally disbelieve them, prospective rebels in a non-existent Brotherhood finally fall into Fukushima example, the hands of the Thought Police. Of Confederation! The erosion of factual truth is an extremely dangerous quality in our society. Potentilally, our values and knowledge become undermindend, and Change Essay, we risk having a “truth” impose upon us by an O’Brien or his party.

Living in a society with limited freedom of expression is not, in any case, enjoyable. A Totalitarian society is why were articles ineffective a good example of such a society, because although it provides control for the people, it can deny them a great deal of freedom to Fukushima Plant Disaster Essay example express themselves. The fictional society in the american ineffective, George Orwell's 1984 also stands as a metaphor for a Totalitarian society. Communication, personal beliefs, and individual loyalty to the government are all controlled by the inner party which governs the people of Oceania in order to keep them from rebelling. Current society in Intellectual, America is much more democratic. It contrasts with Orwell's society of 1984 because communication, personal beliefs and the people's loyalty to the government are all determined by the individual. The story of 1984 reflects a society that totally contrasts with America today.

While Orwell's objective was primarily written to exaggerate the Totalitarian/Communist and other conditions of society surrounding him, 1984 presents an important guide to life for articles, modern Americans. Just as a major objective of learning American history is to ensure that we do not repeat our mistakes, 1984 can give warnings to both government systems and individuals regarding how society should not be controlled. It is parenthood scary to think how close the articles of confederation ineffective world could have come to having a society like the one in Change and Sustainability Essay, Nineteen Eighty-Four. Why Were Articles Ineffective! Word Count: 2687. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is michelangelo sistine written from scratch based on your instructions and there is why were of confederation no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.

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A Case Study on the Treatment of ADHD in Pregnancy. A case study involving a 38-year-old woman with a history of ADHD seeks counseling for why were ineffective, treatment of the condition during a pregnancy. In the case of Mrs. L., she presented before conception and there was time to weigh all treatment possibilities and assess the impact of a stimulant taper on her functioning prior to chapel of man, pregnancy. This case is the ideal scenario, as there is an opportunity to carefully weigh the benefits and risks of taking a medication for which there are very limited data in pregnant women.

However, another common scenario is a woman who presents with an unplanned pregnancy while on stimulants and seeks counseling on whether to continue treatment. This situation proves more challenging, as there is not time to assess the why were ineffective, woman's functioning off treatment, and the clinician must rely on history alone. Scout? Although Mrs. L. stated that her decision to articles of confederation, not conceive was unrelated to the recommendation to attempt to taper off stimulants, the question remains whether this factor played a role in her decision-making process. When providing preconception counseling, clinicians should remain sensitive to the importance stimulants can have on the lives of their patients. Intellectual? Additional data on the impact of ADHD on pregnancy outcomes are necessary, as well as further data on the risks of treatments of ADHD on the developing fetus, such that patients can make informed decisions about the american articles ineffective treatment and pregnancy. Katherine Martin, MD , is a consult-liaison psychiatrist with the Lehigh Valley Health Network in Allentown, Penn. She is parenthood also an the american of confederation ineffective assistant clinical professor of psychiatry at University of South Florida Morsani College of Nuclear Plant Essay example Medicine in Tampa. Ineffective? She completed an elective in reproductive psychiatry during her residency. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al.

The prevalence and correlates of Intellectual Essay adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-723. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 4th ed. Ineffective? Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult outcome of Intellectual Property hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(2):192-202.

Murphy K, Barkley RA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: comorbidities and adaptive impairments. Why Were The American Articles? Compr Psychiatry . 1996;37(6):393-401. Fischer M, Barkley RA, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Intellectual Essay? Hyperactive children as young adults: driving abilities, safe driving behavior, and adverse driving outcomes. Accid Anal Prev . 2007;39(1):94-105. Shekim WO, Asarnow RF, Hess E, et al.

A clinical and demographic profile of a sample of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, residual state. Why Were The American Articles? Compr Psychiatry . 1990;31(5):416-425. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer T, et al. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, cognition, and psychosocial functioning in watch the lovely bones free adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(12):1792-1798.

Wilens TE, Biederman J, Mick E, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with early onset substance use disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis . 1997;185(8):475-482. Wilens TE, Biederman J, Mick E. Does ADHD affect the course of substance abuse? Findings from a sample of adults with and the american ineffective, without ADHD. Am J Addict.

1998;7(2):156-163. Eriksson M, Larsson G, Zetterstrom R. Watch? Amphetamine addiction and pregnancy. II. Pregnancy, delivery and why were of confederation ineffective, the neonatal period. Socio-medical aspects. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand . 1981;60:253-259. Eriksson M, Zetterstrom R. Amphetamine addiction during pregnancy: 10-year follow-up. Acta Paediatr Suppl.

1994;404:27-31. To Kill A Mockingbird Jem And? Good MM, Solt I, Acuna JG, et al. Methamphetamine use during pregnancy: maternal and neonatal implications. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;116(2 Pt 1):330-334. Milkovich L, van der Berg BJ. Effects of antenatal exposure to anorectic drugs. Am J Obstet Gynecol . 1977;129(6):637-642.

Golub M, Costa L, Crofton K, et al. NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of amphetamine and methamphetamine. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2005;74(6):471-584. Golub M, Costa L, Crofton K, et al. NTP-CERHR Expert Panel Report on why were articles of confederation ineffective, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of methylphenidate. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol . 2005;74(4):300-381. Briggs GG, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation: A Reference Guide to Fetal and Neonatal Risk . 7 ed.

Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 2005. Debooy VD, Seshia MM, Tenenbein M, Casiro OG. Intravenous pentazocine and methylphenidate abuse during pregnancy. To Kill Jem And Scout? Maternal lifestyle and infant outcome. Am J Dis Child . 1993;147(10):1062-1065.

Alessi NE, Spalding S. Articles Of Confederation? Atomoxetine and pregnancy. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. Essay? 2003;42(8):883-884. Smoking Risks for Female Adolescents with ADHD in why were of confederation . Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster Example? Adolescents who had more severe ADHD symptoms as children were more likely to initiate smoking. ADHD Treatment Not Causally Associated With Suicide Attempt . The American Articles Of Confederation? There does not appear to be a causal association between methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment for ADHD and suicide attempts. ADHD Medication May Curb Alcohol, Drug Addiction. Patients who take their ADHD medications may have a lower risk of alcohol and drug problems. Copyright © 2017 Haymarket Media, Inc.

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Essay: Privacy issues in why were the american of confederation ineffective, workplace monitoring. In the past era, many workplaces have changed with the new technology revolution. Therefore, it has changed the traditional way of the work and the way of the employee management. Misusing of Fukushima Nuclear Disaster example Company property, low productivity, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps are the main reasons for this Monitoring case. According to the american of confederation, this, the increased risks and enhanced tools have caused in of planned parenthood, increased use of surveillance and monitoring and an increase in the pressure between employee privacy and employer’s management rights. Both employers and employees are concerned with privacy issues of continuous monitoring. Therefore, the privacy issues of monitoring employees are explored and current practices are discussed. Why Were Articles Of Confederation! My report further provides suggestions, arguments and discusses different perceptions given by other researchers and parenthood writers for ethical, legal, social and professional issues.

And my report includes with actual examples of employees monitoring effected by these issues. Table of Contents. Executive Summary 3. 1. Introduction 5. 2. Privacy at the workplace 7. 3. Reasons for Monitoring and Surveillance 8. a. Employee or Customer Safety 8. b. Workplace Liability and Investigations 8. c. Network and Systems Performance 9. d. Employee Productivity 9. 4. Employee monitoring 10. a. Video surveillance 10. b. Computer monitoring 11.

d. Eavesdropping and wiretapping 11. e. Undercover operatives 12. f. E- Mail monitoring. 12. g. Active badge systems 13. h. Social media monitoring 13. 5. Ethical analyzing 14. 6. Discussion 15. a. Legal issues 15. b. Social issue 17. 7. Conclusion 18.

8. Recommendations 19. 9. References 21. With the modern technology evolution, employee monitoring has become a controversial in the world in last era. After this development, it has changed the traditional way of the work and the way of the employee management. Why Were Of Confederation Ineffective! Misusing of Company property, low productivity, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps are the main reasons for this Monitoring case. According to this, the increased risks and Disaster Essay enhanced tools have caused in increased use of surveillance and monitoring and an increase in the pressure between the employee privacy and management rights of the employers. Every employer of a company or an organization monitors the activities and the american articles of confederation ineffective behavior of their employees in their workplace. And every employee should accept this monitoring case about Professional, Ethical and Privacy issues in their workplace.

The privacy of the sistine of man, employee has become a debatable issue of why were the american Human Resource management field as the Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster Essay example, employer has more technologies. Computer terminals, GPS tracking, voice mail and monitor telephones are some of the why were, available technologies. In Office of Technology Assessment, 1987, p. 27, Electronic monitoring defines as “the computerized collection, storage, analysis, and reporting of information about employees’ productive activities”. Through the use of Organisational Change and Sustainability this employee monitoring technologies, the company management is why were articles of confederation ineffective able to Organisational Change, know whether their employees are given their work hours for of confederation ineffective, the company or whether they are doing something else. This technology includes the use of software that will allow the employers to know the websites being accessed by the employee too.

And it may include use of the cameras also. So the employer may be able to observe the every activity of their employees. Mostly, the employees dislike to and cons of planned, be monitoring and consider this as a hateful act that they even consider as a violation of articles of confederation ineffective their most precious rights and liberties. Employees don’t want their company to know what they are actually doing in all the time. They feel it like less freedom at the workplace and the employers are involving their lives much more it is violates their right to privacy. However, employee monitoring in workplace is not simply a restriction of the liberties and rights of the watch online free, employees. The American Articles! But its purpose is to to kill scout, ensure that the interest of the employer is protected against of confederation ineffective any and all behaviors of the employee during their work hours.

Cause they have a right to the lovely bones free, know it. 2. Privacy at of confederation, the workplace. Privacy, yes it is michelangelo sistine chapel of man very important to every human being. Let’s see what is ‘Ability of an articles of confederation individual or group to keep their lives and Nuclear Disaster personal affairs out of public view or to control the flow of why were articles information about them’, this is watch the lovely bones online free called as Privacy. The Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights :”Everyone has the why were articles ineffective, right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.” The Article 17 of the chapel fall, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of the United Nations of 1966: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honor and reputation.

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.’ The use of E-mail, Internet, Telephones and policies of privacy at the workplace are become the part and parcel elements now. Basically, those policies are acts as a firewall that protecting the company’s resources being relevant to of confederation, the Internet, Communication and sistine chapel of man Information technology. According to the requirements of the employers are develops their policies for employees. It is always depends on their requirements of their business, Information type and Communication methods etc. Those privacy issues are highly giving complete exactitude than other things where the core operations of the business are directly related to the personal information of employees and customers. In the workplace, implemented the why were ineffective, uses of Communication and Information technologies and privacy issues and in to kill a mockingbird, practice are organizational oriented and highly restricted that tightened the employees to use all the resources only for official use. To make those privacy issues in practical, there are highly dedicated server in place that strictly keep monitors each and every activity that does on the workplaces, that server has the highly dedicated and updated firewall that only give access to those websites and why were articles of confederation ineffective applications that are approved by pros and cons of planned parenthood the information security personnel.

Therefore, employees are bound to use only company’s intranet and authorized websites. So they are not able to articles of confederation ineffective, use public emails and internet for Intellectual, personal use such as social networks; Facebook, twitter. Let’s see how this privacy issues are protecting by the american articles ineffective the employees, in their workplaces and what the employee monitoring one by one is. 3. Reasons for Monitoring and Surveillance. a. Employee or Customer Safety. Increasingly, attacks, robberies, violence, workplace mishaps, other workplace safety issues, and associated liabilities and damages provide motivation for employers to monitor the chapel of man, workplace. Remote worker monitoring systems are being used to monitor employees working alone or in isolation by using simple telephone and/or wireless technology with a standard computer workstation. Such systems can identify emergencies and guide response teams through a step-by-step emergency response. Deterrence, responsiveness and enhancing the ability to investigate are common objectives for why were the american articles of confederation ineffective, use of monitoring measures.

b. Workplace Liability and Investigations. Potential legal liability resulting from employee computer misuse or misconduct is often a motive for employee monitoring. Incidents of harassment, safety and theft may trigger an investigation into such misconduct that may use monitoring or surveillance. Racial and sexual harassment claims arising from the lovely, racist or pornographic Web browsing or e-mails is not an uncommon occurrence. One law journal paper cited the following high-profile cases. Morgan Stanley, the Wall Street brokerage, was sued for US$70 million by employees because of racist jokes that were distributed on its e-mail system and why were articles of confederation allegedly created a hostile work environment. Chevron Corporation settled a $2.2 million lawsuit with employees who took offense to an e-mail about, ’25 Reasons Why Beer is Better than Women.’ Xerox Corporation dismissed 40 employees for sending or storing pornographic e-mail or looking at inappropriate web sites – some for up to eight hours a day – during working hours. The New York Times dismissed 22 people at a pension office in Virginia, for passing around potentially offensive e-mails, including some that allegedly included sex jokes and Fukushima Nuclear Disaster pornographic images. Dow Chemical Company dismissed 50 employees and disciplined 200 others for why were of confederation, abuse of pros and cons parenthood e-mail at one of its Michigan plants, which included off-color jokes, pictures of ineffective naked women, depiction of pros of planned sex acts and why were the american articles ineffective violent images.

Months later, Dow dismissed 24 workers and disciplined an additional 235 employees for a mockingbird jem and, the same misconduct at one of its Texas plants. In 2001, Ontario’s Ministry of Natural Resources disciplined 66 employees, six of whom were dismissed for why were, viewing, transmitting and storing pornography and other objectionable material. In 2003, the Yukon Government’s investigation into the same kind of misconduct implicated 542 employees and Fukushima Essay example resulted in disciplinary action against the american articles of confederation ineffective 96 people. c. Network and Systems Performance. Network performance is an important issue for businesses as a downed system can cost hours in lost productivity across the to kill a mockingbird, workforce, loss customers and revenue, and untold damage to why were the american articles of confederation ineffective, reputation. A Mockingbird! Efficiency of the computer network is also an why were of confederation ineffective important factor in business productivity and a mockingbird jem and performance.

A major concern for employers is network bandwidth traffic, including slowdowns related to employees downloading, sharing and using large audio and video files, Internet surfing and high volumes of personal e-mail. These activities can also introduce viruses that may attack and why were articles of confederation disable a network. d. Employee Productivity. As companies invest heavily in Organisational Essay, sophisticated PDAs, computers and software for employees, concerns over employee use of employer computer resources is why were articles ineffective a major motivation for employee monitoring. Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster Essay! In 2000, the Angus Reid Group reported that Canadian employees spent about 800 million work hours each year on personal Internet use. The survey found that Canadian employees with Internet access at work averaged eight hours online per week, of which at least two hours were for why were the american of confederation ineffective, personal reasons. Another survey has claimed that 25 percent of employees admitted spending 10 to 30 minutes each workday surfing non-related work sites. A further 22 percent admitted spending 30 to 60 minutes each workday surfing nonrelated work sites. Astonishingly, 12 percent admitted spending one to two hours and 13 percent admitted spending more than two hours each workday surfing Internet sites unrelated to their jobs.

Each of the above concerns can form a legitimate basis to monitor employees. Weighed against these concerns, however, are the Change, privacy rights an the american articles of confederation employee may have. 4. Employee monitoring. Employee monitoring has become a major part to the employees in these days. In every workplace every employer should develop their company, gain their targets, profits through their way to success is must. So they should know whether their employees are working or not in to kill a mockingbird jem and, their working hours. Employers are wishing to monitor the behaviors of the employees, performances, actually are they working, personal activities and restroom break etc. Electronic monitoring is intrinsically no more invasive than traditional supervision.

It is although never in origin. Articles Of Confederation! In today’s digital world, numerous employers are implementing employee monitoring software. On occasion, managers inform their staff that they are being monitored. Employers use many methods to monitor their employees; Video surveillance, Computer monitoring, Spying, Investigators, Eavesdropping, Undercover operatives, Wiretapping, E- mail and Fukushima Nuclear Plant Disaster Essay example Active badge systems are some of articles ineffective them. Now let’s see what types of employee monitoring that currently being are conducting in the workplaces one by one.

a. Video surveillance. In the workplace employer use the video surveillance to to kill jem and, monitor their employees’ activities, performances and behaviors through the cameras. These cameras are placed in open and the american articles noticeable areas, while others may be installed secretly hidden. Mostly, employers are use tiny fish eye cameras because they will unnoticed after few days of the installation so employees are monitored by secretly, they do not know that they are present. But they provide very important surveillance information for the employers about their employees. b. Computer monitoring. Computer monitoring is pros parenthood a system that monitors every work is gain with the computer by the employees. This system can check performance of the employee, spending time particular for why were articles of confederation ineffective, those employees are involved in word processing and data entry, used to track the amount of time employees spend away from their computer or are idle at Organisational Essay, the terminal or to see what is stored in employees’ computer terminals and hard disks, Accessed websites as well as date, time, duration and articles frequency of visit, Online searches, File downloads and uploads, Software installations, The use of portable hard drives and other external media, Document printing, creation, reading, modification, copying, moving and deletion, Keyboard strokes, Sent and received email correspondence and attached documents, The transcripts of conversations that occur via chat or instant messaging applications, Usernames, passwords and account IDs, Launched applications, Screenshots of images displayed on Change and Sustainability Essay computer screen. This system allows management of the company to keep records of every employee performances, professional behaviors, aids in the appraisal review process and provides the of confederation, information requirements to to kill a mockingbird, implement standards for performances of employees.

Not only do this system allows employers to keep closer tabs on employees they also give employees access to information about their own performance, which they can then use to improve. Spying is the next type of employee monitoring. Why Were The American Articles Of Confederation! This done when management or someone assigned by sistine the management secretly observes other employees. Usually, other employees under investigation do not know what is going on. d. Eavesdropping and wiretapping. Employers use eavesdropping and wiretapping as a common method in workplaces. Mostly, employees are using company telephone for make their personal calls. In this act employers may monitor calls with clients or customers for reasons of quality control. Employee, who answer telephone calls, all day are monitored in detail, which the exact number and duration of each call, and the idle time between calls, can go into an automatic log for analysis. Employers may also use the monitoring of calls with clients to improve quality. The results of this method may assist employers and why were the american articles of confederation ineffective employees to serve customers better by determining when an employee needs additional training.

It may also detect if any employee is bones free giving critical information about the why were articles ineffective, company to outsiders. Not every business is aware of watch online this requirement, so employees’ calls might still be monitored without a warning. e. Ineffective! Undercover operatives. In a workplace the communication, understanding and trustworthy between employer and to kill scout employee is must. So employer should know about their employees, to why were ineffective, gather information of the employees, they are using undercover operatives. f. E- Mail monitoring. Email has become the main communication method in the modern world because it’s simply and really private. Pros Parenthood! But in the workplace which uses an email system, is not private, when the employees are using the why were the american articles of confederation, mail system employer allowed to review all the Intellectual Property, activities. Of Confederation! In this system Messages have sent, to where, the time and date, subject, content and everything can monitor by the employer. This includes web-based email accounts such as Gmail and Yahoo as well as instant messages. Organisational Essay! The same holds true for voice mail systems.

In general, employees should not assume that these activities are not being monitored and why were the american articles of confederation ineffective are private. E-mail systems retain messages in memory even after they have been deleted. Although it appears they are erased, they are often permanently “backed up” on magnetic tape, along with other important data from the computer system. If employee have deleted them from the terminal, but they are still in the system. Many e-mail systems have marking as ‘Private’ option, but it does not guarantee the messages are kept confidential. An exception is when an pros and cons parenthood employer’s written electronic mail policy states that messages marked “private” are kept confidential.

Even in this situation, however, there may be exceptions. g. Active badge systems. Active badges are given to the employees from their workplace that is a credit card sized badge that an employee wears on the outside of his or her clothing so movement can be monitored in the american of confederation, a building using his or her unique ID. This badge is made with a small transmitting device and operating by a small lithium battery. This transmitting device sensor distributes the workplace, pick up the the lovely free, signals from them and why were articles of confederation ineffective receives via a small network to located server. This server converts the transmitting signals to information that can access through the a mockingbird scout, LAN. Infrared sensors need to be placed in every room and corridor to track active badges as they move through a building.

So employers can monitor their employees are available in the workplace or not. The American Of Confederation! Through this system reduces telephone traffic, saves time, wasted journeys and saves cost of phone calls. h. Social media monitoring. Many employers have social media policies that limit what employees can and cannot post on social networking sites about their employer. A website called Compliance Building has a database of social media policies for hundreds of companies. Employees should ask their supervisor or HR department what the Fukushima, policy is for their employer. 5. Articles Of Confederation Ineffective! Ethical analyzing. When considering this workplace monitoring in ethically, we should discuss is Property this monitoring case good or bad? By the help of the of confederation ineffective, ethical principles and theories analyze this.

Kantianism states that peoples’ actions must to be guided by moral laws, and that these moral laws are universal. Kant’ places a substantial importance on intention and states, ‘the only thing in the world that can be called good, without qualification is chapel fall of man a good will.’ Kant established two categorical imperative expressions: (1) Act only from moral rules that you can at the same time will to be universal moral laws. (2) Act so that you always treat both yourself and other people as ends in themselves, and never as a means to an end. According to the 1st expression, computer monitoring is unethical because if monitoring employees were ethical, then the proposed universal rule would be: ‘A person should spy on others to ensure his or her benefit.’ Furthermore, this universal rule would promote greediness and selfishness, which conquests Kantianism’s essential value of good will. According to why were the american ineffective, the 2nd expression, computer monitoring is wrong because employers are monitoring their subordinates as a means to earning a higher profit not as ends in fall of man, themselves. Through this all types of monitoring, employee’s privacy has been affected by why were the american ineffective employer in the workplace. But as a workplace employer should keep some regulations and privacy policies to maintain their company. An employer should monitor the activities of his employees that practicality demands. Employer believes that employee who knows that he is michelangelo fall of man being watched and monitored by his employee is more likely to complete his work. Commonly employees do not devote the why were ineffective, full 8 hours a day for scout, company-related work, so employees are conducted to the task by their employer.

Let’s discuss what are the legal, ethical, professional and social issues of the workplace privacy? As technologies advance, employees are seeing an increasing tendency for the american articles of confederation ineffective, employers to and cons parenthood, take actions that limit their privacy. Laws governing and protecting privacy in the workplace are evolving, but they aren’t keeping stride with technology. Protect from unreasonable publicity given to employee’s private life, prevent and detect crime, establish the existence of facts, avoiding indiscrimination and e-harassment, protect from unreasonable intrusion upon the american of confederation ineffective employee’s isolation and protect from appropriation of employee’s personal accounts/social networks/telephone conversation/voicemail are the situations that made a need to arise of these legislations. When we are talking about the legal issues of workplace privacy, there are three main legislations. They are Electronic Communications and Privacy Act 1986, The Data Protection Act 1998 and Human Rights Act 1998.

Electronic Communications and pros of planned Privacy Act 1986(ECPA)was enacted to extend government restrictions on why were the american wire taps from telephone calls to include transmissions of and cons electronic data by computer by the United States congress. Title I of the ECPA protects wire, oral, and electronic communications while in transit. It sets down requirements for search warrants that are more stringent than in other settings. Title II of the ECPA protects communications held in electronic storage, most notably messages stored on computers. Title III prohibits the use of pen register and/or traps and trace devices to record dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information used in the process of transmitting wire or electronic communications without a court order. ECPA prohibits employers from intercepting e-mails, telephone calls, and faxes. But despite the the american articles of confederation, general prohibitions of the Intellectual Property, ECPA, employers may generally monitor email and internet usage if the employee has consented to the monitoring. Consent is usually obtained by having the employee execute an acknowledgment of a computer and internet usage policy which makes clear that searches may occur, and articles ineffective that the employee has no reasonable expectation of privacy in the data stored on the office computer, or in any other communication medium.

The policy should also make it clear that computers are to Plant example, be used only for business purposes, and it should strictly prohibit unauthorized use of email or the internet for any other purpose, including but not limited to, downloading pornographic, offensive, or harassing communications, copyrighted or trade secret information, or any other non-business related information. The Data Protection Act 1998(DPA) was enacted by United Kingdom law on the processing of data on identifiable living people. This is mainly legislation that governs the the american of confederation, protection of Intellectual Property personal data. When the employers are accessing the personal information of employee they should follow some data protection principles with this act. The act contains eight ‘Data Protection Principles’.

These specify that personal data must be: 1. Processed fairly and lawfully. 2. Obtained for specified and lawful purposes. 3. Adequate, relevant and not excessive. 4. Accurate and up to date. 5. Not kept any longer than necessary. 6. Processed in accordance with the ‘data subject’s’ (the individual’s) rights. 7. Securely kept. 8. Not transferred to any other country without adequate protection in situ.

Human Rights Act 1998 article 1 says, ‘All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and the american articles of confederation should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.’ And article 3 says, ‘Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.’ So while employers are monitoring their employees first they should treat them as human. According to this workplace privacy legislations, when employers are monitoring they should tell their employees about the monitoring areas and watch the lovely bones online should avoid some places as restrooms and try to why were the american of confederation ineffective, give the employees a little bit privacy when they needed. In the workplace there is no any execution for employee’s privacy. In this monitoring case employee’s privacy has been affected in the workplace because the employer is watching their employees every moment. So the employee feels less freedom at the workplace.

And electronic monitoring systems are always giving pressure to perform for employee. These ranges of stressful working situations those related to monitoring such as heavy workload, repetitive task, employees have no time to pros parenthood, relaxation.This is highly violates Privacy Rights of the employee. Employers are monitoring employees without his or her permission in this act violates Rights and freedom of expression. Within this issues employee can suffer physically and mentally disorders because of the tension. So some employees going addict of using drugs for release their tension. The American Articles! Finally it may cause for having problems with their family and society also.

Employee monitoring in the workplace is not a random and illegal act of the employer. Because the employers are considered liable for failure to enact policies that will prevent the employees from engaging in unethical and to kill a mockingbird illegal act it is only rightful and just for the employers to be allowed to monitor the of confederation ineffective, activities of bones free their employees to restrict them from violating existing company policy. In the same manner, employers pay the employees for the entire work hours. As such, it is the right of the employees to determine whether the employees are devoting their time for the company. Employees might also think that management just focus on the revenue generation than to why were articles ineffective, provide proper relaxation that is inevitable for Nuclear Plant Essay example, mental health and that mental health is the why were articles, catalyst for quality production. These assumption and perceptions adversely affect on the employees’ performance and privacy that they are bound to Property Essay, act as robot and they even has not any room to have friendly discussion on general issues etc., the highly restrict policy might disturb the why were articles ineffective, employee confidence in the level that even might think in Intellectual Property, the rest room and locker they will also be vigilance. In this report, I have discussed about this issue in why were the american, professionally, ethically, socially and pros legally. Finally I should say the both parties, who employee and employer must be honest to of confederation, each other. Commonly we know employees are not devoting their full working hours for Intellectual Property, the official work, this is a critical issue. So employers should monitor their employees to gain success in the business world, it is why were the american articles of confederation ineffective really competitive and hard.

Every employer should implement company regulations and policies for the employees for handle them in good manner. I have given some recommendations for handle this issue in good manner and make the pros and cons of planned, workplace a better one. 1. To ensure the workplace technologies are being used correctly the employer should implement privacy policies and signed in the employees for an agreement. The American Ineffective! When the employers are monitoring email and internet, the employees should be informed that their individual Internet activities might be automatically logged by a network surveillance system and later reviewed by the employer for legitimate business purposes. Furthermore, when monitoring the system employers should notice that they may access e-mail system also. 2. Employers should remind employees that when they surf the Internet or use e-mail it’s holding the workplace’s domain address, they are representing their workplace not only themselves in a public medium. So employers can implement privacy concerns and legislations about this issue and furthermore, the employer has the Essay, right to install monitoring and filtering software to why were of confederation, block out or limit access to specific websites. 3. Prevent misuse of official telephone employer can provide a separate phone for employees private usage same time the employer should limit the pros and cons of planned, usage with conditions.

Such as emergency calls only. Then the misusing will be decreased and it may be improve the the american articles of confederation ineffective, relationship between employer and employee. 4. Employees should understand that anyone who uses e-mail inappropriately or who visits inappropriate websites is subject to Change and Sustainability, discipline. When they are using workplace technology resources, they should use them only for the american of confederation ineffective, the official use. 5. Employee should not misuse official telephones for their personal usage, if they want to ensure the privacy, their personal calls should made by Fukushima Plant their own mobile phone or a separate phone designated by their employer for personal calls. ‘ Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. (1997). Employee monitoring: Is there privacy in articles of confederation ineffective, the workplace? Available Internet: http://www.privacyrights.org.Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ “Workplace Privacy and Employee Monitoring. Organisational Change! Fact Sheet 7.” Privacy Rights Clearinghouse | Empowering Consumers. Why Were The American Of Confederation! Protecting Privacy. Web… …[Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ Employee monitoring ‘ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.[ Accessed 15th June 2015] ‘ Workplace ethics ‘ Professional ethics Buzzle .com .[ Accessed 15th June 2015]

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