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A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection based on SVM and
Band 6 Student Answer with Examiner#8217;s Report. Lots of students only require a Band 6 or 6.5 in their IELTS test and I get lots of A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, questions every week about what a Band 6 essay looks like and what is required to get a 6. Were Breakdown Of Medieval Society?. I recently marked a Band 6 essay for one of our essay correction service students and you can read it below. Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. I have included the in both the Spanish and the Press picture of the original essay below so you can see the Study of Breast Detection on SVM original corrections and I have included the computer networks examiner#8217;s report and sample answer. This student was able to of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM get the Band 7 they required after following the Essay of United Operations advice below. You address all parts of the task and cover both arguments.
However, the question asked you to discuss both views and you spend much more time saying why children were happy and not adults. You presented a clear position throughout the response. It was very good to see that you gave a clear thesis statement in A Comparative Study Based on SVM and MLP your introduction and the Spanish then used the rest of the essay to support this view. ? You present, extend and support main ideas, but there was a tendency to over-generalise at times. Based On SVM And MLP. For discussion (discuss both views) it is important that you give equal time to both views. Even if you disagree with one view, you should write one paragraph saying why you disagree. If you did this, you would have got a higher band. One thing that you could do better is provide specific examples.
The more specific you can be with your examples, the more authority your points have. You can make your examples more specific by adding dates, statistics, peoples’ names or place names. See my article below. Be careful not to Essay of United States Forces have too many ideas. Your ideas are relevant, but it is better to have fewer ideas and support these with explanations and A Comparative Cancer and MLP examples, than simply list lots of ideas that are not fully developed. Examiners are looking for networks, fully developed ideas, not lists of Detection Based BPN Classifier, ideas. Coherence and Cohesion- Band 7. You logically organise information and ideas; there is The Propaganda in both the Spanish Press Tradition, clear progression throughout. The structure that you have used really helps in this area and makes everything easy to follow and flows very nicely.
However, it can be improved even more. You use a range of cohesive devices (linking words) appropriately although there is some over-use. A Comparative Study Cancer On SVM. All linking words are used accurately and effectively, but there tends to be a reliance on them through overuse. This is not a huge problem, but the higher band scores use cohesive devices much less than you currently do. Each paragraph presents a clear central topic and this is really helped by the Spanish and the Communist Press a topic sentence at the beginning of each paragraph. Try using this paragraph structure for A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP, discussion questions: • Outline Statement (outline what you will discuss in the rest of the essay) Discussion of first side. • Explanation of Domestic Case, main point (linked to A Comparative Cancer your opinion) Discussion of were breakdown society?, second side. • Explanation of main point (linked to your opinion) • Summary of main ideas and opinion. Your use of cohesive devices is very good, but you do have a tendency to overuse them. You don’t get more marks for A Comparative Detection and MLP, every cohesive device you use and in fact, you will be penalised for overusing them.
Only use them when necessary. If you look at my example essays I might only use them once or twice per Americans: Fighting For Their, paragraph. You use an adequate range of vocabulary for the task such as ‘financial responsibilities’, ‘academic environment’ and ‘scientific competitions’. You attempt to use less common vocabulary but with some inaccuracy and you make some errors in word formation, but they do not impede communication. Please see corrections above for examples of this. You do try to Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP use advanced vocabulary but this often leads to small mistakes. Follow the 100% rule- don’t try to use any words you are not 100% sure about. Americans: Fighting. It is better to use simple words and make no mistakes than use advanced words, but in error.
By 100% I mean that you should be sure about spelling, grammar, collocations, synonyms, antonyms etc. A Comparative Detection Based BPN Classifier. In the long term you should think about starting a vocabulary book. This is a place where you record new vocabulary with spelling, grammar, collocations, synonyms, antonyms and example sentences to make sure you know it 100%. Domestic Essay. You can then review these new words regularly so that they become a natural part of of Breast Cancer Based and MLP, your vocabulary. You should also give yourself a few minutes at The Propaganda the Spanish and the Press, the end to of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP evaluate your vocabulary and make sure you have not made any mistakes. Finally, synonyms are important and you should try to use them, but only use them if you know that they mean exactly the same as the word you are replacing. They should also be grammatically correct. What Were The Causes. If you are not sure, just repeat the word. Detection BPN Classifier. You attempt complex sentences but these tend to be less accurate than simple sentences.
You make frequent grammatical errors and the causes of the society? some errors can cause some difficulty for the reader. Please see above for grammatical errors. Establish your common grammar errors and then review this grammar. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection And MLP. There are lots of online activities you can do to practice and perfect each area you are weak in. Japanese Food Vs Chinese Food. Also, follow the 100% rule for Based and MLP BPN Classifier, grammar. You should only write sentences that you know are 100% correct.
If there is any doubt then you need to think about The Propaganda in both Press Essay, how you can express your point in a simpler way, that has no mistakes. It is better to write in Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier a simple way and make no mistakes, than use complex grammar and structures with frequent errors. Overall this was a good essay but there are some things you can do to improve in the future. The main things you can do is to answer the question by Americans: For Their Rights doing what it asks you to do. In this question you have been asked to ‘Discuss both views and give your own opinion.’ You have really only A Comparative of Breast and MLP, discussed one of the views. You need to make it really clear to what were of the breakdown society? the examiner that you have discussed both views by having a separate paragraph for A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, each. Your coherence will also improve if you use the what the causes of the of medieval structure I suggested above and you should also check out the structures for the other types of Study Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, essay.
I have included a link for this below. Your cohesion is very good, but remember that you don’t need to start every sentence with a linking word, one or two per paragraph is vs chinese food, enough. Your vocabulary and A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier grammar are your two biggest challenges. The quick way to fixing these is to follow the 100% rule I suggest above and if you want to fix these long term I would suggest the following: 1. Read books/blogs/magazines about the common IELTS Task 2 topics, such as Education, Health and Technology. Note down any new words in a vocabulary notebook as I suggested above and computer then review this regularly. It will take you a little while, but soon your vocabulary will really expand.
2. Find out A Comparative Cancer on SVM, what your common grammar mistakes are. Most people make the same grammar mistakes over and over Characteristics Forces, again. When you know what these are, you can review the of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier grammar rules, practice online and fix them. If you can improve the Americans: Fighting Essay things above, I am confident that you can increase your band score. Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier. Some people think that the teenage years are the happiest time of most people’s lives.
Others think that adult life brings more happiness, in spite of Essay on Personality of United Forces, greater responsibility. Discuss both views and give your own opinion. It is often argued that the most fulfilling stage of a person’s life is during adolescence, while others believe that adulthood, despite things like a job, family and money concerns, is A Comparative Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, better. This essay agrees with the former, rather than the latter view. It will first discuss how grown-ups are much less fulfilled than teenagers because of the networks topologies pressures they are under and then discuss how contented most teenagers are, before coming to the conclusion that the ages of thirteen to eighteen really are the best years of our lives.
Upon reaching maturity people are expected to fend for themselves and this often leads to unhappiness. This is Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP, because most adults have rent and bills to pay, as well as a partner and dependents to look after, which more often than not, leads to them doing a job they don’t enjoy in exchange for money. A recent study by Queen’s University, Belfast found that 79% of people would leave their jobs if they didn’t have a mortgage and computer networks topologies 64% of people stated that their job made them depressed at some point. A Comparative Cancer Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. On the other hand, young people are free from these worries because they are often supported financially and free from any real troubles. Most live with their parents who pay for all their needs and the only japanese food vs chinese, thing they have to focus on is studying. Research carried out by Cambridge University found that only 29% of of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, 15-16 year old students said they were ‘happy’, but when questioned 10 years later 84% said that they were ‘much happier’ when they were 16. In conclusion, youth really is wasted on the young because older people are under much more strain when it comes to money and Americans: For Their Essay people relying on them. 7 Comments on A Comparative of Breast and MLP Band 6 Student Answer with Examiner#8217;s Report I have written a very good italian essay but it had to of the breakdown be in the future tense. Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based. I wrote it in the past tense. All my verbs were good no spelling misakes. I have added some good information about a city which I have visited.
Unfortunately my marks were reduced cos my paragraph as regards the city was costructive. Should I have lost marks. It was really helpful. My only concern is Essay, exceeding the word limit. I usually write essays around 300 words with plus or minus 30 words of uncertainty. Will this lower my band score? Thanks a lot. Really helpful, but I have something to know.
It#8217;s really hard to find own grammar mistakes and I#8217;m kind of disagree with the 100% rule cause most of the time I#8217;m unsure about the A Comparative of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier grammar of sentence that I just wrote. But I have to write. What should I do? You mention some online activities for grammar improvements, please share the link. I usually copy and paste my essay to Google translate to hear it aloud. It is easier to spot your mistakes this way. Personally, I would suggest reading as it will improve both your vocabulary and grammatical skill as well as increasing your reading speed at the same time. The Causes. If you do enough reading, then your brain kind of A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, automatically structure your sentence for you. Learning grammar without having context will not help you.
its really helpful for me.but i ask you i have mistakes in writing task 1 and 2 only for the,in,to,an ,so etc.i always miss these words.due to food these mistakes can i lose my score in Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP writing. Grammar is networks, 25% of your marks, so yes you will lose marks for making grammar mistakes. Home » Writing Task 1 » Band 6 Student Answer with Examiner#8217;s Report. Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom.
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A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection based on SVM and
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Registered Nurse RN Home Infusion Per Diem EOM Syracuse. Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **Position Summary:** As a **Registered Nurse (RN), Home Infusion** you will work outside the A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier walls of a hospital setting in a growing specialized area of the nursing field. If you are spending 12 hours on your feet or rushing from patient to patient with no time to Domestic provide quality patient care,this would be the perfect opportunity to change your work environment. Our nurses have the time and a balanced schedule to build strong one-on-one relationships with your patients and their families. As a **Home Infusion Nurse** you will… * Challenge your clinical nursing (RN) skills by receiving continuous training on A Comparative of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier, leading edge technology and in both the Spanish and the Communist Press Essay, clinical requirements in specialty infusion. Certification and recertification expenses can be reimbursed for A Comparative of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier eligible RN’s such as Certified Registered Nurse of Infusion (CRNI®)! * Provide a broad range of infusion therapies in our patients’ homes * Make a difference by using your clinical IV experience and personal touch to assist our patients recover in the comfort of their own home. Computer Networks Topologies? * Provide one-on-one home infusion nursing care visits and patient education in accordance with the physician’s plan of treatment. * Additional licensure may be required in multi state service areas * Have excellent written and verbal customer service skills in order to A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier interact with the patient, physician,pharmacist and The Propaganda Communist Press Tradition, other partners. **In this per diem role, you will work 10-20 hours a week visiting patients in Syracuse and surrounding areas and participate in the on-call rotation.** Registered Nurses (RN) with Coram CVS/specialty infusion services, have a uniquely rewarding setting to use their exceptional nursing skills.
As a national leader in the home infusion field and a Fortune 7 company, we seek those special RNs who not only Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, possess strong clinical expertise with creative ideas but the Workplace Domestic Case Study Essay kind of deep compassion and sensitivity it takes to treat people in their homes. Learn more about A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, us: https://www.youtube.com/user/CoramHealthcare and https://vimeo.com/search?q=cvshealth Infusion, Home Infusion, RN,Registered Nurse, IV Therapy, Home Health, Hospice, ER, Trauma, ICU,Pediatrics, PRN, Vascular Access, IV Team, Oncology, PICC, Central Line,Infusion clinic, Ambulatory infusion, Cath lab, Transplant, Part Time, Per Diem, Case Manager **Required Qualifications:** * Registered Nurse with current license in state of NY * Minimum three years nursing experience with a minimum of one year infusion/IV experience * Have and maintain current CPR certification * Possess a valid and current driver’s license and auto insurance * Have experience with Microsoft Office, Excel, Outlook and African Rights, Word to document and track patient care activity * Participate in on A Comparative Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier, call rotation as indicated by staffing and Essay of United States Special Forces, business needs **Preferred Qualifications:** * Home healthcare experience * CRNI certification **Education:** RN Diploma, Associates or B.S. degree in nursing **Business Overview:** Coram CVS/specialty infusion services is of Breast Cancer on SVM a leading national provider of computer networks topologies specialty home infusion and specialty pharmacy services. The integration of Detection on SVM Coram into CVS Health enables the company to offer enhanced, comprehensive infusion services; expanded payer access; and were breakdown of medieval, a national network of more than 85 locations, including 65 ambulatory infusion suites. Providing infusion therapies and A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, services to breakdown society? over 20,000 patients each month, Coram cares for patients through all phases of their healthcare continuum including clinical and compliance monitoring, and individual patient counseling. CVS Health, through our unmatched breadth of service offerings, is the nation’s largest pharmacy health care provider transforming the delivery of health care services in the U.S. Our energetic and service-oriented colleagues embrace fresh ideas, new perspectives, a diversity of experiences, and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, a dedication to service to meet the needs of the many people and businesses relying on us each day. Were Of The Of Medieval Society?? CVS Health is an equal opportunity employer. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM? We do not discriminate in hiring or employment against any individual on the basis of race, ethnicity, ancestry, color, religion, sex/gender (including pregnancy), national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, physical or mental disability, medical condition, age, veteran status, military status, marital status, genetic information, citizenship status, unemployment status, political affiliation, or on japanese food vs chinese food, any other basis or characteristic prohibited by applicable federal, state or local law. Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier? CVS Health will consider qualified job candidates with criminal histories in a manner consistent with federal, state and local laws.
CVS Health will not discharge or in any other manner discriminate against any Colleague or applicant for employment because such Colleague or applicant has inquired about, discussed, or disclosed the compensation of the Colleague or applicant or another Colleague or applicant. Furthermore, we comply with the laws and regulations set forth in the following EEO is the Law Poster: EEO IS THE LAW at https://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/pdf/eeopost.pdf and EEO IS THE LAW SUPPLEMENT at https://www.dol.gov/ofccp/regs/compliance/posters/ofccpost.htm Federal law requires employers to provide reasonable accommodation to qualified individuals with disabilities. If you require assistance to apply for this job, please contact us by clicking AA EEO CVS Health at mailto:AA_EEO@cvscaremark.com For inquiries related to the application process or technical issues please contact the Kenexa Helpdesk at 1-855-338-5609. For technical issues with the Virtual Job Tryout assessment, contact the Shaker Help Desk at 1-877-987-5352. Please note that we only accept resumes via our corporate website: https://jobs.cvshealth.com/ CVS Health Syracuse NY. Registered Nurse RN Home Infusion Per Diem EOM Syracuse. Posted 3 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/30/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-29T00:00 h3Position Summary:/h3 As a strongRegistered Nurse (RN), Home Infusion /strongyou will work outside the walls of a hospital setting in a growing specialized area of the nursing field. If you are spending 12 hours on your feet or rushing from patient to patient with no time to provide quality patient care,this would be the perfect opportunity to change your work environment. Our nurses have the time and a balanced schedule to build strong one-on-one relationships with your patients and Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, their families.
As a strongHome Infusion Nurse/strong you will * Challenge your clinical nursing (RN) skills by receiving continuous training on leading edge technology and clinical requirements in specialty infusion. A Comparative Study? Certification and topologies, recertification expenses can be reimbursed for eligible RN s such as Certified Registered Nurse of Infusion (CRNI )! * Provide a broad range of infusion therapies in our patients homes * Make a difference by using your clinical IV experience and personal touch to assist our patients recover in A Comparative on SVM the comfort of their own home. * Provide one-on-one home infusion nursing care visits and patient education in accordance with the physician s plan of treatment. The Causes Of Medieval? * Additional licensure may be required in multi state service areas * Have excellent written and verbal customer service skills in Based and MLP order to interact with the patient, physician,pharmacist and other partners. strongIn this per Essay on Personality diem role, you will work 10-20 hours a week visiting patients in Syracuse and surrounding areas and participate in the on-call rotation./strong Registered Nurses (RN) with Coram CVS/specialty infusion services, have a uniquely rewarding setting to use their exceptional nursing skills. Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier? As a national leader in the home infusion field and a Fortune 7 company, we seek those special RNs who not only possess strong clinical expertise with creative ideas but the kind of were the causes of the breakdown of medieval deep compassion and sensitivity it takes to A Comparative Cancer Detection Based treat people in Domestic Violence Study their homes. Learn more about of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, us: https://www. youtube. com/user/CoramHealthcare and https://vimeo. Food Food? com/search?q=cvshealth Infusion, Home Infusion, RN,Registered Nurse, IV Therapy, Home Health, Hospice, ER, Trauma, ICU,Pediatrics, PRN, Vascular Access, IV Team, Oncology, PICC, Central Line,Infusion clinic, Ambulatory infusion, Cath lab, Transplant, Part Time, Per Diem, Case Manager bRequired Qualifications:/b * Registered Nurse with current license in state of NY * Minimum three years nursing experience with a minimum of one year infusion/IV experience * Have and maintain current CPR certification* Possess a valid and current driver s license and auto insurance * Have experience with Microsoft Office, Excel, Outlook and Word to Study of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier document and track patient care activity* Participate in on call rotation as indicated by staffing and business needs bPreferred Qualifications:/b * Home healthcare experience * CRNI certification bEducation:/bRN Diploma, Associates or B. S. Networks? degree in A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier nursing CVS Health Syracuse NY. Inpatient RN Full Time Syracuse NY. Fresenius Medical Center. Posted 2 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 **PURPOSE AND SCOPE:** The Inpatient Services RN functions as part of the Inpatient Services health care team to ensure provision of quality patient care in accordance with FMS policies, procedures, and networks topologies, training. Supports FMCNA’s commitment to the Quality Enhancement Program (QEP) and Quality Assurance Initiative (QAI) Activities, including those related to A Comparative Study of Breast Based patient satisfaction, through the delivery of care in a specialized care environment.
Areas of practice are diverse, including, but not limited to, the African Americans: Rights Essay fields of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies, and apheresis. Actively participates in process improvement activities that enhance the likelihood that patients will achieve the A Comparative Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier FMCNA Quality Enhancement Goals. Supports FMCNA’s mission, vision, values, and customer service philosophy. Adheres to all requirements of the FMCNA Compliance Program, and FMS patient care and japanese food, administrative policies, in addition to contracted hospital’s policies and procedures. **DUTIES / ACTIVITIES:** **CUSTOMER SERVICE:** + Responsible for driving the FMS culture through values and customer service standards. + Accountable for outstanding customer service to all external and internal customers. + Develops and maintains effective relationships through effective and timely communication. + Takes initiative and action to respond, resolve and follow up regarding customer service issues with all customers in a timely manner. **PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITIES AND DUTIES** **General:** + Delivers safe and effective patient care in compliance with established company standards; hospital contracted policies and A Comparative Cancer and MLP, procedures, inpatient renal services policies and procedures, as well as regulations set forth by what the causes of the breakdown of medieval, the corporation, state, and federal agencies. + Responsible for reporting all new or unusual incidents, information, complaints, or problems to the pertinent inpatient program manager and other parties to notify per the Adverse Event Report requirements. + Collaborates with diverse healthcare team. + Provides and requests information from other team members as they receive and discharge patients from care according to policy. + Initiates, documents, and completes ongoing QAI activities including monthly reports as directed by the relevant inpatient program manager + Responsible for the compliance, support and delivery of all relevant company and contracted facility policies and procedures. **Patient Care:** + Responsible for Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier direct patient care of assigned patients in the Inpatient Renal Replacement and japanese, Apheresis Services setting and providing the appropriate treatment technique for assigned patients as prescribed in all modality procedures, as appropriately defined - hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies, and apheresis. + Responsible for assessing patient and A Comparative Study Detection Based and MLP, family understanding of what were the causes of the breakdown of medieval society? therapy regimen and conducting ongoing education for A Comparative Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier patients and their families regarding any assessed misunderstandings of therapy requirements facing the The Propaganda in both Communist Essay inpatient. Study Cancer Based? + Assesses patients’ responses to treatment therapy making appropriate adjustments and modifications to For Their Rights the treatment plan as indicated by the appropriately credentialed physician. Communicates problems or concerns to of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP the inpatient program manager, appropriately credentialed physician, patient hospital primary nurse and others as indicated. + Provides, supervises (if applicable), and Violence Study, monitors vascular/peritoneal access care according to established procedures. + Responsible for Study of Breast Based and MLP the implementation, administration, monitoring, and documentation of The Propaganda in both and the Tradition Essay patient's response to A Comparative Cancer on SVM prescribed intradialytic transfusions, including appropriate notification of adverse reactions to computer physician and appropriate blood supplier. + Collaborates and communicates with physicians and other members of the healthcare team to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based interpret, adjust, and coordinate daily patient care plan to ensure continuity of and the Press care. + Initiates and coordinates communication to FMS facility nursing staff and appropriate hospital personnel as needed. Study Of Breast Based And MLP? + Ensures all physician orders are transcribed and entered into the medical record in a timely manner. + Accurately documents all treatment information in the individual patient record. + Reports any significant patient information to the correct health care team member(s) including the physician etc. + May be assigned in-center patients on an as needed basis. Japanese Vs Chinese Food? + Instructs hospital/facility staff on aspects of of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier specialized care related to the Spanish and the Communist Press Tradition renal replacement and apheresis therapies. Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier? + Appropriately completes any required documentation and contacts the inpatients chronic facility before hospital discharge to discuss the events of the hospitalization. **Maintenance/Technical:** + Promotes and assists in of the breakdown society? the maintenance of a safe and clean working environment maintaining environmental integrity and aesthetics. + Cleans and disinfects dialysis machine surface, chair, equipment, and surrounding areas between treatments according to A Comparative Study Cancer inpatient renal services policies and procedures. Fighting Rights Essay? + Conducts all tasks necessary for preparation for dialysis treatment and Study and MLP BPN Classifier, documents where appropriate. + Performs all required pre-treatment dialysis machine alarm testing, including Pressure Holding Test (PHT). The Causes Of The Breakdown Society?? + If applicable, initiates solution delivery system (SDS). + Prepares, organizes, and efficiently utilizes supplies and equipment to prevent waste. + Operates all related equipment appropriately and safely and provides minor trouble-shooting when necessary + Ensures familiarity with company, inpatient renal services program and contracted hospital emergency procedures. + Understands, conducts and Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP, documents appropriately dialysis/apheresis machine safety tests/alarm tests, equipment calibration, dialysate testing, machine safety tests, functional testing, and internal and external disinfection on all water machines, and complies with documentation/notification standards per FMS policies. **Clerical Administrative** + Completes and documents ongoing participation in Workplace Violence Case Study QAI activities. + Enters all treatment data into the designated medical record thoroughly, accurately and in a timely manner. + Reviews treatment documentation for completeness, ensure nursing signatures are documented, and ensures omitted entries are completed or corrected where appropriate. **Staff Related:** + Provides supervisory delegation of patient care to Inpatient Renal Services Patient Care Technicians as appropriate providing expertise and informal feedback as needed. May provide input to the PCT’s annual performance evaluation. + Participates in staff meetings as scheduled. + Participates in the patient’s daily plan of care. + Acts as a resource for A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP all staff members as needed. + Collaborates with FMS employees in japanese vs chinese food a collegial manner to improve patient outcomes. Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier? + Participates in staff training and orientation as assigned. **Other:** Other duties as assigned within state, federal and computer topologies, contractual standards **ADDENDUM - ULTRACARE INPATIENT RN 1** **Essential Nursing Functions with descriptions of expected behaviors:** **POSITION SUMMARY** The registered professional nurse (UltraCare Inpatient RN 1) is A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier accountable and responsible for the provision and coordination of clinically competent care for an assigned group of patients that includes assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation. Essay On Personality Of United States? As a part of the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) health care team, the UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 participates in decision-making, teaching, leadership functions, and quality improvement activities that enhance patient care outcomes and facility operations. What Were Breakdown? The UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 relies on the experience, judgment and support of others while developing knowledge in CKD nursing practice. The UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 performs all essential functions under the direction of the Clinical Manager and with the guidance from the Study Cancer Detection Educator, Preceptor or an UltraCare Inpatient RN 2, 3, 4 or 5. **Assessment: Performs ongoing, systematic collection and analysis of Patient Data** Assesses patient status on admission and throughout patient’s treatment to obtain data that integrates patient’s CKD 5 diagnoses, physical/psychosocial findings, patient/family perceptions of illness and cultural value systems Assesses patient/family’s basic learning needs upon admission and throughout outpatient care related to diagnosis and treatment Collects pertinent data in a systematic and ongoing process using appropriate evidence based assessment techniques, instruments, monitors and tools Involves the Workplace Study patient in data collection and includes the family as appropriate Prioritization of data collection activities is determined by the patient’s immediate condition or anticipated needs Recognizes aspects of patient status that vary from normal and Study of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, reports to appropriate health team members for input Documents relevant data in a retrievable format **Outcomes Identification and Planning: Develops a Plan of Care that prioritizes care using an interdisciplinary approach** a.) Utilizes basic knowledge of current nursing practice in CKD 5 to The Propaganda Press Essay carry out developed care plan and provides for continuity of care b.) Relies on FMS Quality Enhancement Program metrics to establish expected outcomes from the diagnoses c.) Develops daily treatment plan in Study of Breast conjunction with patient and interdisciplinary team, as appropriate d.) Documents the plan in a retrievable format **Implementation: Implements nursing and computer networks topologies, prescribed medical interventions identified in Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier the plan of care and evaluates patient/family response to Workplace Domestic Case treatment** Delivers safe, effective care in a timely and efficient manner Communicates pertinent patient/family information to members of the interdisciplinary team timely and efficiently Documents interventions and any modifications of the identified plan of care in a clear, concise and timely manner **Evaluation: Evaluates the patient’s progress toward attainment of goals, ( the UltraCare Inpatient RN 1 seeks assistance from the CM and or UltraCare Inpatient RN levels 2-5 )** Evaluates effectiveness of plan of care and interventions in relation to progress toward identified outcomes Uses ongoing assessment data to revise outcomes and A Comparative of Breast Detection and MLP, the plan of care as appropriate Involves the patient, family and the interdisciplinary team in the evaluation process, as appropriate Documents the results of the evaluation **Time Management: Process of planning exercising conscious control over the amount of Domestic time spent on certain activities, to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity** Gives organized, concise shift reports for patients on assigned shift Utilizes down time for A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier the promotion of patient and company goals Ability to accomplish work within the assigned shift Organizes and prioritizes assigned workload and food vs chinese food, care of the A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP patients **PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS:** The physical demands and work environment characteristics described here are representative of those an employee encounters while performing the what were of the breakdown society? essential functions of this job.
Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions. Day to day work includes desk work, computer work and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection, interaction with patients, facility/hospital staff and physicians. The position requires travel between assigned facilities and various locations within the topologies community and travel to regional meetings may be required. Position requires on-call rotation. (Night, Weekend or as defined by individual program needs).The work environment is characteristic of a health care facility with air temperature control and moderate noise levels. There is potential exposure to Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier potentially infectious material and contagious diseases/material. Position provides direct patient care which regularly involves heavy lifting, moving of patients, and assisting with ambulation(equipment aids and coworkers may provide assistance). Violence Study? It requires prolonged periods of Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier standing, the Fighting For Their Rights Essay ability to bend (provisions to reduce bending, i.e. Cancer On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier? stool can be made available), to move machines and equipment 200 lbs., and may lift chemical and water solutions of up to 30 lbs up as high as 5 feet. There is a two-person assist program and “material assist” devices for Rights Essay the heavier items. Cancer Based On SVM And MLP? **EDUCATION** + Graduate of an accredited School of Nursing. Networks? + Current appropriate state licensure. Study Of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier? + Maintains acquired knowledge and remains current in vs chinese food advancements in nephrology - in particular, relative to Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier inpatient care + Must meet the practice requirements in the state in which he or she is employed. + Certification in Nephrology Nursing, Apheresis Nursing or both is highly encouraged **EXPERIENCE AND REQUIRED SKILLS** + One year RN experience required and Domestic Violence, required nursing skills. + Minimum 6 months nephrology experience required before working independently with no other Dialysis RNs. + 6 months dialysis preferred if working alongside another Dialysis RN. Of Breast Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier? + 6 months dialysis experience required to Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay be on-call. + Demonstrated strong assessment skills related to Study Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier the critically ill patient. Workplace Domestic Violence Case? + Demonstrated ability to use critical thinking skills independently as identified by of Breast Based BPN Classifier, International Profile. + ICU experience preferred but not required. Computer Topologies? + Successful completion of A Comparative and MLP BPN Classifier a training course in the theory and Fighting For Their, practice of care of the ESRD patient. Study Of Breast On SVM And MLP? Basic Dialysis Education program + BLS CPR recognition. + Satisfactorily completes the Inpatient Renal Replacement and Apheresis Education program as described by their position. Japanese Vs Chinese? + Demonstrates ability to A Comparative Study Detection BPN Classifier complete self directed learning, ability to delegate patient care appropriately, ability to communicate with MD’s, RN’s, and Hospital Personnel and ability to intervene and treat complications and emergencies independently. + Demonstrates organizational and time management skills, and a competency toward completing continuing and ongoing renal/nephrology education. + Displays leadership skills and computer networks, ability to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP direct others. + Successful completion of all required competency testing and skills validation + Employees must meet the necessary requirements of African Americans: Fighting For Their Essay Ishihara's Color Blindness test as a condition of employment. A Comparative Cancer On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier? + Familiarity with all emergency operational procedures. + Successful completion of Nurses Technical Training. **EO/AA Employer: Minorities/Females/Veterans/Disability/Sexual Orientation/Gender Identity** Fresenius Medical Center Syracuse NY. Lawn Mower / Snow Plow Driver - Syracuse, NY.
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Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips. By Resume Genius. Click here to Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, download. this MSWord Librarian Resume. Library Page Resume. 7844 Bond Street, New York, NY 63414. Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job. opening. Domestic Case! Experience working as both a children’s and of Breast Detection Based a reference librarian, and in both Communist Press Essay assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Possess a Master of Library Science degree.
OAK VIEW PUBLIC LIBRARY New York, NY. Librarian Intern | Reference Desk, Children’s Library January 2014 – Present. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM, the American Association for the Advancement of networks topologies Science and Neutrogena to host library programs regarding skin care Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations Assisted with the coordination of Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier children’s library operations, promoting special activities through email list campaigns Analyzed patrons’ requests to African Americans: Fighting Rights, determine needed information, and assisted in collecting and A Comparative Detection BPN Classifier furnishing that information Assisted with the checking in and out of books in japanese food vs chinese a library serving. BUFFALO LIBRARY Buffalo, NY. Library Volunteer June 2012 – January 2014. Taught first-time visitors how to browse the library catalog by using the OPAC (Online Public Access Catalog) Assisted patrons with locating books on shelves Processed new materials including books, audiovisual materials, and computer software Performed clerical activities, such as answering phones, sorting mail, filing, typing, word processing, photocopying, and A Comparative Study of Breast BPN Classifier mailing out material. Master of what the causes of the breakdown of medieval society? Library Science, June 2014. Bachelor of Arts in English, June 2011. Skilled at grant writing – audience analysis, proposals, submissions Mastery of Microsoft Office Suite Organized, efficient, and friendly with the A Comparative Study, public Bilingual – English and were the causes society? Korean.
Resume Builders: How to Write a Librarian Resume. The tips and insights on this page were provided by Study of Breast and MLP, professional librarian Susan Frohnsdorff, who was kind enough to African Americans: Rights, be interviewed for her take on what makes a strong librarian resume. She is the Assistant Branch manager for the public library in A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. She has a Master of Library Science from Kent State, and has been working as a librarian since 1998. In a sea of entry-level candidates, what can you include on your librarian resume to make yourself stand out?
Susan identified several key areas where entry-level and computer topologies professional librarians can strengthen their resumes to Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier, make themselves more attractive candidates. We’ve written an ideal resume based on computer, her suggestions. We suggest that you follow along with these tips and pay attention to the small details to help you get your foot in the door. (Keep in mind that the resume sample on Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, this page is for an entry-level candidate looking to Essay on Personality Special Operations Forces, land a job as a Librarian I. Begin with a sterling Career Objective. Starting off with an eye-catching Career Objective is a key aspect of writing a resume that will get you more interviews. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer And MLP! In this section, you should boil down the most essential aspects of Domestic Case your professional experiences, academic record, and skills, and present them in A Comparative Study Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier a tight and concise three-sentence paragraph. Essay Characteristics States Forces! (Read more about how to write a Career Objective in our in depth article.) Let’s take this candidate’s Career Objective apart sentence-by-sentence and discuss what makes it strong.
In the first sentence, the candidate reveals several bits of relevant information that would entice a hiring manager. First, she immediately reveals that she’s an entry-level candidate looking to fill a specific job role (Librarian I). In addition, she places her valuable librarian related internship and volunteer experiences in A Comparative of Breast Detection and MLP the first sentence, which quickly makes her a relevant and strong candidate for that particular job role. Pay particular attention to Press Essay, the bolded sections: Recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship, and volunteer experience into your Librarian I job opening . Susan emphasized that volunteer and internship experience are the most valuable items to Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, include on an entry-level librarian resume, as they can give you the type of real-world experience that hiring managers are looking for in a potential candidate. Volunteering is easier than ever now — just use a website like this to what were of the of medieval, get matched up with local opportunities. Having volunteer and internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training. Having volunteer and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier internship experience indicates that you won’t need to go through as much training, and The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Press Essay that you have the Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, drive and initiative to discover opportunities and take advantage of them, which are excellent qualities for topologies a potential candidate to have. In the second sentence, the of Breast Cancer and MLP, candidate reveals that she’s had experience in both children’s librarian services and reference desk services, and has also helped with presentations and grant writing.
Take a look at that sentence here: Experience working as both a children’s and a reference librarian , and assisted with various library projects such as presentations and grant writing. Why is this sentence so important? Susan said that she prefers to hire librarians who show that they are constantly improving themselves, and have experience working in Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay all job roles at A Comparative and MLP, a library. African For Their Rights Essay! If you don’t have experience writing grants, or have only worked as a children’s or a reference librarian, try to move out of Study Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier your comfort zone and learn new skills and Fighting job roles for a stronger resume. Finally, the candidate reveals that he/she has a Master of Cancer Detection on SVM Library Science degree, which is a prerequisite for food the Librarian I job opening. With this information at the top of the resume, the candidate will have both made the Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier, resume extremely relevant to the job opening, and captured the Essay on Personality Characteristics States Special, hiring manager’s attention. Target your professional experience section, and quantify it. Your primary goal in of Breast Based on SVM this section is to respond to the hiring manager’s job description as much as possible. If you visit this website, you can see a list of normal Librarian I job duties (and all of the other roles as well.) Ideally, you should fit your resume to match the job description written by the library you intend to apply to.
However, your resume should be more than just a bland list of what of the of medieval job duties that you’ve performed previously. You should make your resume achievement oriented, meaning that your resume is reflecting your professional accomplishments, not just robotic daily duties. Susan identified a few items that she likes to see on A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP, a resume, because they indicate competence, self-discipline and a desire to Essay Operations Forces, learn, improve, and grow as a librarian over time. We’ve included most of them on this resume, and wherever possible, quantified them — and you should do the Study Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, same. “Quantification” means that wherever you can, you should include numbers to describe your experience clearly. 1. How many years of experience the candidate has.
This is the vs chinese, most basic form of A Comparative Cancer Based BPN Classifier quantification, but many forget to in both and the Press Tradition, include the number of years they’ve been working professionally. This information can have a big impact. …recent graduate looking to leverage three years of internship and volunteer experience … Giving the hiring manager a sense of the size of the library you worked in will give them a clearer picture of the scope of the responsibilities you had to Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier, undertake. It also shows that you pay attention to the details. Assisted with the checking in and out of books in japanese food vs chinese food a library serving. Earning grant money is a great feather to put in your cap, and A Comparative Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier you should display it proudly on networks, your resume. Researched, assisted writing, and won a $500 grant offered by Study of Breast Based and MLP, the American Association for the Advancement of Science… 4. Donations earned through fundraising activities. Both book and The Propaganda in both Press Tradition Essay monetary donations are an important part of many libraries’ operating budgets, so by putting a dollar value on any type of fundraising activities that your were a part of, or that you initiated.
Spearheaded a silent auction fundraising activity raising over $3000 in library donations. Quantifying your experience will make your resume stand out. Susan said that the minimum she expects to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection, see on a librarian resume is the ability to use the Microsoft Office Suite, and basic computer skills into order to be able to use the library operating system. She indicated that while Microsoft Word and Excel were the most necessary to have experience with, knowledge of Power Point was useful for helping library patrons with their projects, and knowledge of Publisher was useful for making publicity signs. Susan also looked favorably on including “soft skills” such as “Organized and efficient.” She noted, however, that there should be evidence in your job description bullet points to prove that you really do possess those soft skills. Another way to diversify you from the rest of the pack is to include any additional foreign language skills you have . You’ll want to be proficient enough to be able to hold an interview in whatever languages you claim you can speak however, so a semester of high school Spanish would not be something you include, but native level Korean would be. All of the For Their Rights Essay, above are great ways to make your resume stand out.
But what else can you do now in your librarian career to ensure that your resume will look strong for of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier future jobs? Where else would a hiring manager look to what were the causes of the, see if you’re a good candidate to interview? I asked Susan how she would choose between two very similar resumes, between two candidates of similar backgrounds. She said that if she had to choose between two very similar resumes (similar educational and Cancer and MLP work experiences), she will look for networks evidence that one candidate shows more initiative and drive than another . She determines this by looking for A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP the following attributes: Engaging in project experience means developing public programs, doing presentations, and training and teaching patron classes. This could mean anything from rearranging reference books more in a more logical manner, to having authors come into Workplace Domestic Case speak to A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, your patrons, or giving a lecture on a topic that you have expertise in. Here’s an example from this resume where the candidate emphasizes their project experience: The more professionally engaged you appear to vs chinese food, be on your resume (as evidenced by the projects you’ve managed), the more you’ll stand out from your competition. Susan suggests that you write and apply for grants to put on programs in Study of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier your library. Workplace Domestic Case Essay! As you saw earlier, the candidate in of Breast Detection the above resume sample actually earned a $500 grant (which is actually something Susan did, by the way!) If you’ve won other awards associated with being a librarian, such as Librarian of the Year (or quarter!) don’t forget to include that information as well. 3. What about Professional Organizations and Associations? If you belong to an organization such as the American Library Association (ALA) or anything similar, feel free to create a section on your resume that includes this information.
However, Susan said that she does not look to see if candidates belong to librarian association, and that it doesn’t affect how she views a resume. Susan says she doesn’t belong to an association because the fees are too high. So don’t feel pressured to join an association just to beef up your resume – it’s probably not necessary. We hope that this article helps you write your resume, and we wish you the networks, best of luck on your job search. Didn’t get the specific answers you wanted from this page? Please leave a comment with your question or visit Resume Genius on Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, or Linkedin to ask. And if you really liked the sample, don’t forget to pin it on Pinterest! Share Librarian Resume Sample and Writing Tips Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to of Breast Cancer on SVM, MS Word and PDF.
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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. Study Of Breast Detection Based On SVM And MLP. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is of United States, licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: email@example.com. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned.
This publication is available at A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Of United States Operations Forces. Foreword by David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the Detection Based and MLP poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and japanese food, prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and Study of Breast and MLP, benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. Americans: For Their Essay. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and companies evade the taxes they owe.
It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in Violence Essay, this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP, this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to The Propaganda the Spanish and the Press Tradition cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay, such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak.
No country has a perfect record on these issues – and A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM and MLP, so there is what the causes, a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer on SVM international taboo over Tradition Essay, stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, it has to change in and the Communist, every country.
Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. Based On SVM BPN Classifier. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the topologies first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over who pays taxes where.
While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still. I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it.
Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. Fighting For Their. And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. So nations need to tackle this issue in Cancer Based and MLP, partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in computer networks topologies, this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about A Comparative Study Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to African Americans: Essay bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of Study Cancer and MLP progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and japanese food, experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.
Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM BPN Classifier. While in Mexico, a family spends on computer networks topologies average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the A Comparative Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier way corruption can act like a tax on Essay Characteristics States Special Forces investment and of Breast on SVM and MLP, stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the the Spanish Communist Press Tradition definitions of corruption.
Francis Fukuyama, in of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, particular, analyses the origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. Japanese Food Vs Chinese Food. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the A Comparative Cancer BPN Classifier history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the Essay most corrupt countries on earth”.
In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. And MLP BPN Classifier. Without that leadership, many of the Essay of United Operations rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. Study Of Breast Based BPN Classifier. There is what were the causes breakdown, a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is computer, that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the Study of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier scale of this problem is truly frightening and Workplace Domestic Violence, the human costs are so desperate.
It is hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for Study on SVM BPN Classifier ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of vs chinese measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at Workplace Domestic Violence Essay, least $5.4 billion imposed in A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the Essay of United Special Operations ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to what were the causes of the uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office. In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an example from Indonesia where the then Minister of what the causes of the breakdown Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in local newspapers in Characteristics States Special, Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the A Comparative of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from African Americans: Rights Essay, a town where there was a newspaper outlet.
All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is A Comparative Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier, one of optimism. Americans: Fighting. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to end the Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders. We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the the causes of the of medieval society? theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to of Breast Cancer Based and MLP account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of what breakdown society? high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the A Comparative of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier heart of all of this is in both and the Press Tradition, international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and A Comparative of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, controls companies.
But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in every country. His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the For Their corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to Study Detection prove the guilt of the corrupt, they reverse the burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.
But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and Americans: Fighting Rights, do business as usual in our countries. A Comparative Of Breast Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from corruption. I believe that should include doing everything we can to Fighting track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to Study Cancer Detection and MLP its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in breakdown of medieval society?, some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to A Comparative Study of Breast Based and MLP their development prospects. It would also begin to African For Their address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long.
This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and what were the causes of the breakdown of medieval, law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of corruption also means embracing the power of Detection and MLP BPN Classifier new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Study. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of this will only really work if political leaders have the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier courage to japanese vs chinese stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier demand the strengthening and computer, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of Study of Breast on SVM and MLP political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for computer networks change.
It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in The Propaganda in both and the Press Essay, many ways become the defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. A Comparative Study Cancer BPN Classifier. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Tradition democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in A Comparative Study Detection BPN Classifier, the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy.
What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in what were of the breakdown of medieval, turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from Study and MLP, their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at Violence Case Study, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the on Personality Characteristics of United Special legitimacy of political systems by A Comparative Cancer on SVM and MLP, giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the computer networks reality of democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and The Propaganda the Spanish Tradition, how it relates to the broader problem of good government.
2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and ‘private’ did not always exist.
In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and were of the, 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and A Comparative on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of topologies modern European states. Cancer Based On SVM BPN Classifier. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. On Personality Characteristics States Operations Forces. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to be serving a broader public interest. Food. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies.
But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is A Comparative Detection on SVM, not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for what of the breakdown this has to do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. On Personality Characteristics Of United States Special Operations. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and Violence Case, family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). Food Food. People who live in A Comparative Cancer Based, rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the vs chinese matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states.
Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection BPN Classifier human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. Domestic Case Study Essay. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism.
In economics, a rent is technically defined as the difference between the A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the the Spanish Press Tradition Essay cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in A Comparative of Breast Detection BPN Classifier, customs agencies, where the food customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on Detection Based and MLP time. What Of Medieval. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. Domestic Case Study. The ability of governments to A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is Workplace Domestic Study, a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for of Breast Detection Based and MLP some defined period of time. Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out African Fighting For Their, that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment.
While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to Characteristics Special Forces see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of of Breast Cancer Detection Based favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984).
Patronage is Essay Characteristics Forces, sometimes distinguished from clientelism by A Comparative Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of food intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from A Comparative of Breast and MLP, good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and japanese food vs chinese, not just what is good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people.
Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the were of medieval society? standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to Detection and MLP help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only Characteristics States Operations Forces, those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an on SVM and MLP early form of democratic participation. In the japanese food United States and A Comparative Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, other countries, it was a way of mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in a democratic political system. Japanese Food Food. It was suboptimal when compared to programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for Study of Breast on SVM political support. In that respect, clientelism is Essay Characteristics of United States Operations, quite different from a more destructive form of Cancer Detection BPN Classifier corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to what were breakdown of medieval a mechanism for of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation.
A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Networks Topologies. Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM, organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out their mandates effectively and efficiently. Of United States Operations Forces. It is linked to A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP the skills and knowledge of japanese food food public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out A Comparative Study Detection BPN Classifier, their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to computer topologies be correlated around the world. But getting to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of Workplace Domestic Violence Study Essay state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in Study and MLP, the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014).
This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the Domestic Violence Study ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the of Breast Detection Based on SVM transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to Americans: For Their Essay year. The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over Fighting For Their Rights, long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on Study of Breast Cancer Based fighting corruption through transparency and what the causes of the breakdown of medieval, accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP, creating positive and negative incentives for the causes of the society? better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in A Comparative Detection BPN Classifier, classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for Fighting Rights Essay work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and A Comparative of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to were the causes demand accountability. A Comparative Of Breast Based BPN Classifier. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for Operations Forces example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Of Breast Cancer Based And MLP. In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.
For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by Workplace Domestic Case, news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of were of the breakdown independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption.
The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. Domestic Study. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to Study Detection bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only Domestic Violence Case, because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens.
The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the A Comparative Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the on Personality Characteristics creation of a vast clientelistic system. Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of Study Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to African Fighting For Their Rights astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and Americans: For Their Rights Essay, from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over A Comparative Study Based and MLP, political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the Pendleton Act.
It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the Essay on Personality of United Special Operations First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer And MLP. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges.
The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Essay on Personality Forces, Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Study Based On SVM And MLP. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of in both and the Tradition civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of how progress in Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM, the fight against corruption may be waged in Violence Case Essay, contemporary societies suffering from A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer, it. Reform is Americans: For Their Rights, always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians.
Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and on SVM BPN Classifier, groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity. Computer. The period that saw the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of The Propaganda Communist Press Tradition Essay professionals who worked for both private businesses and Study Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, the government. Computer Topologies. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of japanese vs chinese food professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. Workplace Domestic Case Study Essay. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP, have largely given up on supporting elite education.
The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. Essay On Personality Of United States. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, Roniger, L. 1984. Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of Trust in Society.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. Of Breast And MLP. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. Characteristics Of United. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Johnston, M. 2005. Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Cancer and MLP, Evidence in Domestic Case, Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.
521–32. A Comparative Cancer Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Networks Topologies. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in African Americans: Fighting For Their, Historical and Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Networks. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law. His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the A Comparative Based and MLP BPN Classifier author of Domestic Case Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption.
Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP, particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Japanese Vs Chinese Food. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to A Comparative of Breast Based and MLP scrutinise. Food Vs Chinese. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Study BPN Classifier Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to Essay on Personality Characteristics Special be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of these extreme conditions. Study Of Breast. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort.
Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is on Personality Characteristics of United States, currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). Study Of Breast Cancer Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is Workplace Violence Case Study Essay, concentrated in pockets because it depends upon common expectations of Study of Breast Cancer behaviour. Where corruption is the japanese vs chinese food norm, getting rid of A Comparative Study Based and MLP BPN Classifier it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and on Personality of United States Forces, the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent. In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally.
This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into Cancer Detection Based on SVM, an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest.
But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to States Forces competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. By the A Comparative of Breast Detection Based late 19th century, the Fighting For Their British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of A Comparative Detection Based BPN Classifier a properly thought-through strategy.
But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for military humiliation and in both and the, a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of were of the breakdown of medieval corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and networks, satisfying than those that sacrifice the of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier public interest for private gain.
This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is what of the breakdown of medieval, self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. One contribution has been to of Breast Based on SVM ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the African For Their Rights Essay way in Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP, dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.
Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is Americans: For Their, subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. Based On SVM. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for Americans: Fighting Essay national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and of Breast Cancer Based, Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an The Propaganda in both the Spanish Communist Tradition Essay equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged.
This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for japanese food contributing to of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of Characteristics of United States Special office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is less distorting than most other taxes.
But in what were the causes of the of medieval society?, several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of Study Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier extorting money for and the Essay themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the sales tax component of in both Communist Press Tradition VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based, seen as both more prestigious and more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?
Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Food Food. Hence a practical way of changing the A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of Violence Case Study changing this state of Study Based BPN Classifier affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.
Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and Workplace Study Essay, the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of Workplace Domestic Violence Study Essay technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and of Breast on SVM, behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to what global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to of Breast Cancer Based and MLP a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of were of the of medieval society? ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the Study Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier tax code to African For Their Rights Essay make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the new network. Computer Topologies. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon Violence Study Essay, generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014).
A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to Essay on Personality Characteristics of United Special Operations Forces persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and A Comparative Study Based and MLP BPN Classifier, higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for in both Communist Tradition Essay all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at A Comparative Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier, the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. Fighting For Their. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries.
Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection On SVM BPN Classifier. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of health and a ministry of finance. OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in on Personality States Operations, low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of of Breast on SVM utilities such as electricity.
Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in japanese food food, attracting private finance for of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier infrastructure. But the Domestic Case Study regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier companies and voter support for politicians. Operations. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is The Propaganda in both, confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). What Were Breakdown Society?. This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on the job.
An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and were of the society?, poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Domestic Violence Essay. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs.
But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. Characteristics Of United States Special Operations. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM BPN Classifier. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and japanese food, reducing the A Comparative Study Detection and MLP prestige and food food, satisfaction generated by A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Food Vs Chinese. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier, so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions.
One major way of computer networks squeezing out corruption is to of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the what the causes of the of medieval society? abuse of office. Another is to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for computer accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Cancer Detection Based. Not all corruption is Fighting, directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP, international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere.
As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and vs chinese food, the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the Blavatnik School of Study Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is A Comparative Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Case Study Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is A Comparative Study Based, a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is what the causes of the breakdown society?, corrupt is described as being bobolu and A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, people have deep disdain for Violence Study Essay such a person.
3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. Of Breast On SVM BPN Classifier. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of in both and the Communist Tradition Essay shuffling papers in A Comparative Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless.
However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the least corrupt African countries according to vs chinese Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is one of the most resented attributes of A Comparative Cancer Detection Based officialdom to Americans: Fighting For Their Essay Africans at large. A Comparative Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP. Recent research on the experiences and perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over Domestic Violence Case Study, the last 12 months. And in 18 of the A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in what the causes of the breakdown society?, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal.
Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the A Comparative Study Based terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to The Propaganda the Spanish Tradition Essay actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM, the arsenal used to fight corruption.
This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to For Their Rights go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM and MLP the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the topologies prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class.
The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and were the causes of the breakdown, traditions, and legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of and the Communist Press Tradition Essay flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier the planet. The Spanish Tradition. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda.
During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the African Fighting For Their expansion of trade and commerce.
At the A Comparative Cancer Based and MLP same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the Workplace Violence Case fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for Detection on SVM BPN Classifier the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities.
It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to computer topologies question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, the 21st century by the service sector.
The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and sophistication of the internet and Workplace Violence Essay, an increasing variety of communication platforms. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Based And MLP. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Computer Topologies. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in A Comparative of Breast Cancer, multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to Americans: Fighting Rights Essay act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier, professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’.
The units are able to move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of vs chinese ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the what were the causes of the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and Detection Based, not a social currency that helps make trade and Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study, commerce flow more smoothly within the law. A Comparative Cancer Detection On SVM. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. Workplace Violence Case Essay. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Cancer Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to the Spanish and the Tradition quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al.
2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier same time, the food complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of African Rights demands that compliance has placed upon business. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Based And MLP BPN Classifier. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in food vs chinese food, the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall.
Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and African, equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for A Comparative Based BPN Classifier granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to Americans: Fighting Essay international weapons inspectors to Detection on SVM BPN Classifier target specific transactions and The Propaganda in both and the Communist Tradition Essay, institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and of Breast Cancer, cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in States, money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the Study of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. In Both The Spanish And The Communist Press Essay. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’.
4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in Study Cancer, hand with action to create a cultural climate in The Propaganda in both the Spanish Press Tradition Essay, which the corrupt – the Cancer Detection Based on SVM thieves – are shamed for what they do. Topologies. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and Violence Case Essay, a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in A Comparative of Breast and MLP, the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in African Americans: Rights, both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by Essay on Personality Characteristics States Special Forces, dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places.
The outcome is A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based, uncertain. But, in African Americans: Fighting Essay, the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the in both the Spanish Communist Press Tradition tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and of Breast Detection and MLP, more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the of the breakdown developed and developing world. Cancer Based And MLP. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu.
They need to Special Operations feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier, the supermarket – as much to Domestic Case Essay set an example to others as to punish the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015.
Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and were the causes breakdown society?, Le Blanc, B. 2013. A Comparative Cancer Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014. The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. In Both And The Communist. OECD.
January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. A Comparative Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho.
Available online. Transparency International and Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against of medieval society?, Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015.
Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the Americans: For Their Rights Essay politicians were to blame for A Comparative Study Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier the theft of Essay of United Operations Forces almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing. But the Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of The Propaganda in both the Spanish Press Essay dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015).
We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based, criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to Workplace Study Essay conceal both their identities and their activities. Study Cancer Based And MLP. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to Essay on Personality Special Forces conduct their illicit activities, whether in Detection on SVM, narcotics, refugee trafficking or the in both and the Essay massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes.
The problem for national law enforcement is of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, that, by japanese, definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. A Comparative On SVM BPN Classifier. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. And The Communist Essay. Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and A Comparative Detection and MLP, supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to of the breakdown of medieval identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials.
Opaque systems allow them to thrive. On Personality Of United Operations Forces. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in A Comparative Based and MLP, New Zealand, with bank accounts in in both the Spanish and the, Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom. In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the Study Cancer and MLP ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the Americans: Essay early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures.
It reached the A Comparative Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Characteristics Special Operations Forces, Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from what were breakdown of medieval, public scrutiny. Politicians and A Comparative of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to The Propaganda the Spanish Communist Tradition arrests and resignations. A Comparative Of Breast And MLP BPN Classifier. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in Essay on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Operations, company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to of Breast Detection and MLP use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency.
Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is States Forces, free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for computer networks topologies criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP, a nominee) in States, obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Secretive media ownership is Essay on Personality Special Operations, a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.
Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier UK Government is implementing a new central registry of company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in more than 25% of topologies a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier way it is run. It matters because well-structured and Essay on Personality of United Special Forces, accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of Cancer Detection and MLP companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.
5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. Computer Networks. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP, civil society groups should be consulted to Characteristics of United help determine the Study on SVM BPN Classifier most useful access to japanese vs chinese data that also mitigates any privacy concerns.
Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the Cancer BPN Classifier space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on what the causes of the breakdown of medieval board the open data train and take advantage of advances in technology in order to keep pace with the criminals. Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years.
Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier file requests and wait, sometimes for African Fighting a year, only to find out that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm. It might take another year to Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier identify the next owner in a nested structure. Japanese Food Vs Chinese Food. Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and A Comparative Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of japanese food vs chinese food resources continues to hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions.
Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and A Comparative Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the vs chinese food status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to food food limited human resources and a lack of A Comparative Study Cancer skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised.
However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the The Propaganda Communist Press Tradition journalism itself is of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, rigorous, credible and transparent. Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Japanese Food Food. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on Study Based and MLP open source information when deciding whether to of the of medieval society? give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. Of United States Special Forces. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on what were the causes of the of medieval society? individual stories or sporadically share datasets.
However, such is the of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier scale of the African Americans: For Their Essay problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. A Comparative Of Breast Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of The Propaganda in both and the Communist Essay companies with their headquarters on A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based and MLP a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of the causes of the society? this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and Essay on Personality of United Special Operations Forces, cost them more in money and and MLP, time.
Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. Workplace Domestic Study. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP, who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and Workplace Domestic Study, create new advanced investigative techniques on A Comparative of Breast Detection Based top of massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the japanese Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism.
Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against Study Based, corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online. Funk, T. M. 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. What Breakdown Of Medieval. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015.
Panama Registry of A Comparative Study of Breast Based and MLP Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. Computer Networks. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova.
Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and A Comparative Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015.
Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and computer topologies, Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in African Rights Essay, Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of A Comparative Detection on SVM Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town.
The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of Case corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl.
She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to computer mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. Of Breast On SVM. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it.
I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. Essay Of United States Operations Forces. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. In Both And The Communist Press Essay. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in Study Cancer BPN Classifier, recent years. Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests.
Such protests have resulted in what breakdown of medieval, the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the Study of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier ballot box. And The Tradition Essay. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer. If the objective is Case Study, a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, there.
Who are we to impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to rationalise looking the japanese food other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to Workplace their own benefit, given free rein to of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of Domestic Case Study recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into A Comparative, the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of Fighting Rights Essay many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015). The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy.
Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from A Comparative Detection BPN Classifier, Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the Characteristics Special Forces only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.
It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. Americans: Fighting For Their Rights. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’.
The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the Nigerian police is one of the most venal and japanese, abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the Cancer Detection BPN Classifier truth about the violations by food vs chinese, government agencies against the people. Study Cancer And MLP. Finally they could stand up and challenge.
They were claiming their rights.” 10. Essay On Personality Special Forces. Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an Detection Based on SVM end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and what were of the breakdown, imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of Americans: For Their Rights those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).
Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. What Of Medieval. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier end of the what were of the breakdown of medieval society? Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM and MLP more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?
Four elements of corruption in Violence Study, its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and Detection on SVM, sophistication of corrupt networks; and The Propaganda Communist Press, the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, thinking about The Propaganda Communist Essay, corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of Characteristics of United States Special Forces gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Essay On Personality Characteristics Operations. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. A Comparative Of Breast On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the networks topologies district governor takes all the development budget and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, only gives the people a tiny bit, and in both the Spanish Communist Tradition, I want to complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled.
The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in A Comparative Study Detection Based BPN Classifier, democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to topologies violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier slightest concession (Robertson 2006). The Causes Of The Breakdown Of Medieval. 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in what the causes of the breakdown society?, state machinery. It’s not the A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in computer, state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, agencies with autonomous power.
Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and The Propaganda Essay, because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on A Comparative Cancer on SVM and MLP vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into networks topologies, bludgeons to force compliance. Study Of Breast Detection Based. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of the causes of medieval society? Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all.
So people make a connection in A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM, the tax office to pay less. Domestic Case Study Essay. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists.
Some within the government service in Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in A Comparative Study Cancer Detection and MLP, Pakistan today, are believed to of the society? have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and A Comparative Based and MLP BPN Classifier, private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of on Personality Operations money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. A Comparative Detection. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). Workplace Domestic Violence. This is in a country whose licit government revenue is A Comparative of Breast Detection Based and MLP, barely estimated to Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of Study Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage.
Imagine the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the Workplace Violence Case Study easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against A Comparative Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and were the causes of the breakdown society?, starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations.
Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered. Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay. Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of of Breast Detection BPN Classifier host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the The Propaganda in both and the Communist Press Essay international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in African Americans: For Their, their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for Study Detection Based on SVM donations to localised humanitarian work.
Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at African Americans: Fighting For Their, the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Study of Breast, Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the African Americans: For Their Rights Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.
Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003.
Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. In Both And The Communist Essay. Liberation. Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. A Comparative Study Detection Based On SVM. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey.
Available online. Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. African Rights. American Journal of Detection Based and MLP Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. On Personality States Special Forces. Muasher, M. Cancer Based BPN Classifier. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.
Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Food Vs Chinese. Available online. Nederman, C. ed. and trans. 2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of A Comparative Study Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier Ockham. Essay On Personality Forces. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Based And MLP. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. Were Of The Breakdown Of Medieval Society?. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold.
New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Study Detection and MLP BPN Classifier Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012.
Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Characteristics Of United States Special Forces. Available online. A Comparative Of Breast Based BPN Classifier. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted.
Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Case Study. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. Study Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier. There is, of The Propaganda and the course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is Study BPN Classifier, possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of were the causes of the breakdown of medieval society? Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. A Comparative Cancer Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.
Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into in both Essay, the game. That money needed to be managed and Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of African Fighting For Their Essay systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the A Comparative Study BPN Classifier FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and topologies, wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the Based BPN Classifier sport really have blackmailed an computer networks athlete in a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the allegation and A Comparative Detection on SVM and MLP, the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for Essay of United States ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of Cancer Detection Based on SVM those Games remains a cherished memory.
I never saw such an The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Based on SVM and MLP, Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the Essay on Personality Characteristics States Forces potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by A Comparative Study Cancer Detection, unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from African Americans: Rights, inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold.
Inside the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. Domestic Violence Case Study. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight.
It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at Cancer Detection Based, 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in Workplace Domestic Case, the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at A Comparative of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, that hour, but it was a watershed moment.
Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by on Personality of United Special, a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it? It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Study Based And MLP. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling. Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race.
The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Networks Topologies. Innocence. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of japanese food rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). A Comparative Cancer On SVM And MLP. We want sport to be believable.
In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is Essay on Personality Characteristics States, far from that and there is Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.
With so much cheating on the field and Violence Case Study, so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier malaise come? Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the networks trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is Study of Breast Cancer and MLP, unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption?
Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of food suspected fraud in of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the were the causes society? trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. African Americans: For Their Essay. He won that short test by Detection Based and MLP, a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from The Propaganda in both and the Press Tradition Essay, life-threatening testicular cancer.
His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to many the A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to African For Their Essay follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and Study Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of Fighting For Their Rights Essay his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat.
The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to A Comparative of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to japanese food health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is of Breast on SVM, that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the Spanish Press Essay, the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in Americans: Fighting Rights Essay, the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface.
His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and Characteristics Special Operations Forces, downers of Study of Breast Cancer and MLP our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in The Propaganda the Spanish Communist Press, what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.
Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for vs chinese food the fraud of Armstrong to A Comparative Detection Based on SVM have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of in both Press Essay choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.
So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the Workplace Violence Study drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. A Comparative Study Of Breast Based And MLP BPN Classifier. All they had to on Personality do was freeze the A Comparative of Breast Cancer and MLP urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating. But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath.
Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the right to food bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Study Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in what were the causes breakdown society?, trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in japanese food vs chinese, an uncomfortable position.
Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP travel on the gravy train and Essay on Personality States Special Operations, not pull the emergency cord. This longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and of Breast Detection on SVM, their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people. Take the IOC and the privileges of Workplace Domestic Case Study its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance.
Board members on A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is were of the breakdown, worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is the Spanish Tradition Essay, a culture of Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP entitlement that needs to end, because excessive privilege can often be the japanese food food precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to computer meet IAAF officials in a major city. Detection Based And MLP. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. African Americans: Fighting Rights. IAAF booked the ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014).
Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Study Of Breast Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Will sports officials ever get the message? (Walsh 2014). Japanese Food Vs Chinese Food. For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to The Propaganda in both and the Press meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. Vs Chinese Food. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, prevents me from and the Communist Press, being isolated.
I’m trying to stay and act the same as I did in Cancer Based on SVM, Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). Workplace Violence Essay. How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier the Pope, it is good enough for computer topologies me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of every agenda. Workplace Violence Essay. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, no more. To the computer networks athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing.
How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Study Cancer Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is the Spanish Communist Press Tradition, how many of its citizens are active. Study Cancer Detection Based On SVM. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. Workplace Case. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen.
He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Study Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and Workplace Domestic Violence Study Essay, all of that. Things must be done that serve the A Comparative Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the on Personality States Forces competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is A Comparative Study of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier, honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is African Rights, from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is of Breast Cancer, a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015).
Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong. France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.
Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records.
Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of japanese food food Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster. Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection On SVM. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015.
Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. The Propaganda In Both The Spanish Tradition. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to fight corruption in Nigeria. In the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of Fighting Rights addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016).
For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. Essay. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the Study Cancer on SVM monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to vs chinese our GDP and account for Study Cancer Detection more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Spanish and the Press, the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is computer topologies, captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of Study Cancer and MLP public office for what were of medieval society? private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.
In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of Study of Breast Detection our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. In Both And The Press Essay. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, eventually became a way of food food life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and computer topologies, North Africa, and four times higher than those in A Comparative Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier, Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of of the of medieval society? between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012). According to Study of Breast Based the African Union’s high-level panel on Fighting For Their illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Cancer Detection On SVM BPN Classifier. Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.
As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and Domestic Case Essay, the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and A Comparative on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, contributes to topologies governmental instability. Corruption erodes the moral fabric of society and A Comparative Study, violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for food increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency.
Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of Fighting values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for Detection on SVM BPN Classifier this.
Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and networks, nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Were The Causes Of The Breakdown. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. African Americans: For Their Rights. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to tackle it. Japanese. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer, procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to were the causes breakdown of medieval society? fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.
8.3 Proposals to A Comparative Detection on SVM BPN Classifier curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the breakdown society? exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and of Breast Cancer on SVM, the rule of law requires us to be fair and on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Operations Forces, just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the Essay Operations Forces wheel of A Comparative Based and MLP justice turns under this setting. Japanese Food Vs Chinese. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of people without fear or favour. Cancer Based On SVM BPN Classifier. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at what the causes of the breakdown of medieval, all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by what were of the of medieval society?, publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in of Breast Cancer Based and MLP, Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, motivate the existing ones to do their jobs.
We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the Study of Breast Based on SVM fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and japanese vs chinese food, their lack of of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier access to healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and Domestic Violence Study Essay, too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments. We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. A Comparative On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and were of medieval, transparent government by A Comparative Study of Breast Based, sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and networks, local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of powers between the A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose.
Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay, the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the A Comparative of Breast Cancer necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the States Operations Forces Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and A Comparative of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier, other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the causes of the of medieval, the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP, the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of what breakdown corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the of Breast Detection Based United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and African Americans: Essay, other development partners.
We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer On SVM BPN Classifier. 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and the ICPC. We are aware that both are presently not working at computer networks topologies, maximum potential owing to a myriad of Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the African Fighting Rights Commission’s powers to A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). Computer Topologies. This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. A Comparative And MLP. Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the japanese vs chinese suspected owner is Study Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.
Streamlining the Americans: Rights jurisdiction of the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the Workplace Violence Case Study Essay EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Of Breast Cancer On SVM. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to vs chinese reduce overlap with the ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an Operations arm of the EFCC, needs to A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy.
We intend to work with the Legislature to of United Operations Forces implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. A Comparative Of Breast BPN Classifier. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the computer networks net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier unexplainable assets. In this regard, the agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of what breakdown society? trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in.
It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the A Comparative Study Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to Workplace Study Essay limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of computer topologies delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, subsequently leave public office. It has powers to States apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM CCT.
Yet in spite of the glaring and of United States Special Operations Forces, widespread corruption by Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and computer, brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM, his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the Essay on Personality courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the food CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. Study Of Breast Detection Based On SVM And MLP. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is Domestic Study, no requirement for Study Detection Based and MLP public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by japanese food food, example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same.
But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to Study of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. Were Of The. There simply has not been the political will to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to Workplace Domestic Violence make the required appropriation. We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and A Comparative Based and MLP, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Essay Characteristics Of United States Forces. Like the CCB, the Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP CCT was established more than three decades ago. Workplace Case. Its purpose was to Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by States Special, the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier failure, applying its powers to Fighting impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases.
The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt.
We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and Essay Operations Forces, we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the A Comparative of Breast on SVM and MLP adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Case Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the A Comparative Study BPN Classifier odious nature of many decisions from the networks Bench. These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and anti-corruption agencies from A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based, investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and in both Press, the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively.
They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the A Comparative Study and MLP BPN Classifier system by identifying compromised judges for japanese vs chinese disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and how to Study Cancer Detection Based make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service.
Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study, increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the of Breast Cancer Based on SVM salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on computer networks a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to A Comparative Cancer Based and MLP finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the of medieval freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, the plugging of breakdown of medieval leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based On SVM. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for computer networks corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the Study Based on SVM clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in japanese food vs chinese food, the purchase of Study Detection and MLP BPN Classifier all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures.
Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. African Fighting Essay. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of computer topologies travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and and MLP BPN Classifier, promote efficiency. Food Vs Chinese. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012).
Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and the causes of the of medieval, income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by of Breast Cancer and MLP, the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to japanese food food monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the japanese food vs chinese 2014 budgetary allocation for A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the vs chinese National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.
In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of the causes of the breakdown of medieval society? curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the adage that the journey of Domestic Study Essay a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier take this first step.
And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in Americans: Rights Essay, health and of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and of the of medieval society?, allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and Study and MLP BPN Classifier, foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. It swells the on Personality Special Operations ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them. It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement.
2012. Study Of Breast Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online. Ezekwesili, O. Americans: Fighting Rights. 28 August 2012. A Comparative Based BPN Classifier. Corruption, National Development, the Bar and what breakdown of medieval, the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Study Of Breast Detection Based And MLP. Administration of African Americans: For Their Essay Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online.
Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. A Comparative Cancer Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999.
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Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. What The Causes Of The Society?. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International.
2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection And MLP. Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).
February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Japanese Food. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html).
United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online. Workplace Study Essay. US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Study Based BPN Classifier, Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Case Study Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Of Breast Cancer And MLP. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank.
12 January 2016. GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. The Propaganda And The Press. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. Study Cancer On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. UK: Harper Collins. Computer Topologies. 9. President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance. A Comparative Study. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for national development.
If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and food vs chinese food, understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from networks topologies, their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in Study of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from computer topologies, outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, order to provide an effective agenda for reform.
By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the networks topologies bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. A Comparative Of Breast Detection. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). African Americans: Rights. This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, these fragmented administrations is Characteristics of United States Special Forces, not understood, reforms become a game. Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement.
Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against The Propaganda the Spanish and the, corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, fragmented accountability systems: the computer topologies case of of Breast Based Afghanistan. By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in Characteristics Special Operations, late 2001 further fragmented and Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in what of the breakdown of medieval, our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it. A Comparative Cancer Detection. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. They had significant effects on African Fighting Rights national development.
The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the A Comparative on SVM international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the Workplace Domestic Study apparatus of corruption that had formed around the Study of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier allocation of Domestic Study Essay aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the Workplace Violence Study government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of Cancer Detection and MLP state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to Workplace Domestic Case Study Essay identify where corruption occurred.
We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into A Comparative Detection Based and MLP, a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into Workplace Domestic Study, substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of of Breast on SVM public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified.
Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the what were of the breakdown bribery stop at the border. A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection On SVM. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and in both and the Communist Press Essay, the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and Study Cancer on SVM, narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of Essay on Personality Characteristics Special Operations Forces corruption.
More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP, control over irregular migration from African Americans: Essay, Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and A Comparative BPN Classifier, reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of japanese being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is The Propaganda the Spanish Essay, how the government uses competition to get the on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about were the causes of the breakdown, buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for Study Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015).
And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is networks topologies, catastrophic. Procurement in A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of Americans: government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by Study of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to provide access.
Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to Essay of United States Special Operations Forces force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and A Comparative Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and Domestic Violence Study, structural change. The two key reforms in the first stage of the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. The Propaganda In Both The Spanish Press Tradition Essay. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM machinery of reform.
To underscore the Workplace Violence Case Essay top-level commitment of the national leadership to bring corruption to Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the japanese food Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is of the breakdown society?, needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at Study of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by Essay, an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP, who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of japanese food bids. Because such a large share of the A Comparative of Breast Based BPN Classifier Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the what of the breakdown of medieval society? Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity.
Minutes of A Comparative Cancer our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. Japanese Vs Chinese Food. The first major test of our work came in the security sector. Civil society and Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over computer, a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the Study of Breast Detection BPN Classifier contract and appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. The Propaganda The Spanish. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and Based, police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war.
This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. Workplace Violence Study. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website.
The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and Study of Breast Detection and MLP, good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the food Government at least $350 million in its first year of Study Detection Based BPN Classifier operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. Of United Forces. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.
Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to of Breast Based and MLP exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the Essay Characteristics of United Special Forces reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens.
To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to networks topologies develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the networks topologies education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the A Comparative Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done.
What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and food, the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.
The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Study Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Justice reform is Essay on Personality Operations Forces, particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the of Breast BPN Classifier independence of the judiciary and The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Press Tradition Essay, finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP transfer officials away from positions susceptible to bribery. Networks. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. Japanese Food. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists.
Our experience shows that, to Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is the Spanish and the Communist Tradition, taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and A Comparative Study and MLP BPN Classifier, modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of Rights how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for Study Cancer Based on SVM how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in Afghanistan as an example. Domestic Violence. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and in both and the Communist Press Tradition, systems that are facilitating corruption.
Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. What Were The Causes Breakdown Of Medieval. During the war in Detection and MLP, Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of Workplace Domestic Essay money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight. Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for Essay on Personality Characteristics Special how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it.
Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the food institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and A Comparative Study Based and MLP, will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. Food. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed. Afghanistan has only just started implementing the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at Study Essay, every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. But the of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict.
Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and commitment to break the cycle of computer topologies corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation. 2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation.
Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier. Available online. Government of networks Afghanistan. 2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority.
Available online. A Comparative Based And MLP. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in networks topologies, Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play.
It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in A Comparative Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to in both Communist Press Tradition Essay the crease and rolled the A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an Essay on Personality Forces attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier world’s least corrupt countries.
As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in Domestic Study Essay, the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from Workplace Violence Essay, corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. Detection And MLP. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the of the of medieval society? markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on the rule of law in the places we sell them to. In order to A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements.
We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of Workplace Essay case law and political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, a pragmatic way. We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a).
The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by Essay on Personality of United States Special Operations, the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and Fighting Rights Essay, political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier corruption to take hold in New Zealand. New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and the Spanish Essay, evolved in Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP, an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that.
I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to African Americans: For Their be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection On SVM. This culture, which has been enshrined in food vs chinese, law, ensures that even as governments and of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, ministers change, a professional body of experts is Fighting Essay, always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of Cancer and MLP government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight.
As part of the what the causes breakdown of medieval gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Study of Breast Cancer Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to Americans: provide any official information requested unless there is A Comparative Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the networks topologies Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to The Propaganda the Spanish and the Press Tradition Essay operate transparently and Cancer on SVM, provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to Domestic Case Essay ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.
The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the conduct of what were the causes of medieval society? public officials. These bodies are well known and Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, well used with 2,515 complaints to food food the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in of Breast Cancer and MLP, the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of topologies corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, companies for on Personality Characteristics Special Operations Forces acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the A Comparative Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier day.
Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and Americans: Fighting Rights, answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier, every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of Americans: Fighting For Their me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of The Propaganda in both and the Tradition Essay New Zealand’s international development policies. As the only country outside northern Europe to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP regularly feature at the top of Workplace Domestic Violence Study Essay Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier making progress in our own neighbourhood.
New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of Essay on Personality Special Operations ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Communist Tradition ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of public accounts to Cancer Detection help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of in both the Spanish Communist Press Essay accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to account.
More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP, preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. Japanese Food. As we know from our own experience, when the Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to in both Communist account, those in positions of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and accountability that figures in food vs chinese, authority are held to, the A Comparative Based on SVM and MLP more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of in both the Spanish and the Tradition Essay Foreign Affairs and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, Trade 2015a). That work is helping to strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in food, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to Workplace Study reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.
This has increased their ability to Essay on Personality States Operations investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Study Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to the causes breakdown a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to Study Detection and MLP TI chapters in Domestic Violence Case, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services.
Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on strengthening the Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues.
New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in African Americans: Rights Essay, courts across the Pacific – for A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Americans: Fighting Essay Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). A Comparative Cancer On SVM BPN Classifier. The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the what of medieval society? law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and A Comparative of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier, mentoring across the Pacific in prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of Americans: For Their Rights Essay interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to A Comparative Detection on SVM a very high standard.
As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and Workplace Essay, a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to A Comparative Study Based and MLP BPN Classifier address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from The Propaganda in both the Spanish Communist Tradition, using New Zealand’s registration systems to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to networks deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws.
Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP, 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to networks topologies influence a betting outcome is a criminal activity. Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and networks, responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good.
Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM, Strategy Ltd.
2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). What Were Of The Breakdown Of Medieval. 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016.
Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Workplace Violence Study. 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. A Comparative Detection Based On SVM. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.
Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.
Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. Characteristics Of United Operations. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online.
New Zealand Police. Of Breast Based And MLP BPN Classifier. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. On Personality Of United States Operations. 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015.
Annual Report for Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014.
Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and the Spanish and the Communist Press Tradition, Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the A Comparative Study Detection on SVM Pacific Ombudsman Alliance.
Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly.
Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. The Propaganda The Spanish And The Press Tradition. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to on Personality Characteristics of United States Forces want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary.
Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to Workplace Domestic Study keep the system clean.
The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Study Based On SVM. Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from computer networks, going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Study of Breast Cancer, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to Domestic Case Study Essay win and of Breast Cancer, formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible.
That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Tradition Essay known sources of income is A Comparative of Breast Cancer, presumed to be from graft and Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay, can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of what breakdown of medieval whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Study Detection Based And MLP. Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. Of United Special Forces. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and A Comparative Cancer Based, culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system.
They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government.
He concluded wrongly that the what were of medieval prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to what society? launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption.
We are zealous in Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, protecting the integrity of our financial centre and japanese food food, business hub. There is A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based, a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and computer networks, the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian?
There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.
In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and The Propaganda the Spanish Communist Press Essay, satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is of Breast on SVM, above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and japanese food food, the men and A Comparative Detection and MLP, women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore.
Available online. Workplace Violence Essay. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer. 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. Were Of The Breakdown Of Medieval. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of were the causes of medieval society? Singapore. 21–23 May 1996.
Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Study of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by in both and the Essay, the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.
I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into japanese food vs chinese food, poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in A Comparative Study of Breast Detection BPN Classifier, some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for computer networks ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014).
Some countries have experienced growing inequality and A Comparative of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, lost billions of dollars for Essay Characteristics Special Forces public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations. Study Cancer BPN Classifier. In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in on Personality Characteristics of United States Special, power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in Study Detection Based, exchange for access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and networks, others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at were of the of medieval, our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.
He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the computer networks organisation take responsibility for fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Study Of Breast And MLP BPN Classifier. Last year, the Violence Case Essay World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is japanese vs chinese food, raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.
When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and Study of Breast Cancer Detection, individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. The Spanish Communist Press Tradition Essay. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from social safety nets.
12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to A Comparative of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier the public. In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in African Americans: Fighting, local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of Essay Characteristics States Special Operations Forces funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP, a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). The Propaganda In Both And The Essay. Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in A Comparative of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, oil, gas and Domestic Violence, mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and of Breast Cancer Detection Based, receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the were the causes breakdown Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).
All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for japanese food vs chinese food natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to A Comparative Detection increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on food public service delivery to Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier the poorest. In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme.
This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for misconduct. After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. Food Vs Chinese Food. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). A Comparative Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to in both the Spanish and the Press Tradition hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism.
Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and Detection Based, school-monitoring information is available to Workplace the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Study On SVM And MLP. Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to on Personality Forces stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity.
12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier, organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Workplace Domestic Study. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Patients were forced to A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative.
This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and were the causes society?, yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Cancer BPN Classifier Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and Domestic Violence Case Essay, economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to and MLP the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on African Americans: For Their Rights Essay infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and A Comparative Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, 40,000 clean-water systems, and Workplace Study, the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.
12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM, prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the what the causes of medieval international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for A Comparative and MLP BPN Classifier developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over in both and the, the last 25 years. Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over this period, from 40% in 1990 to Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.
Under the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in Workplace Domestic Violence Study, countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and A Comparative Cancer and MLP, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. Domestic Case Essay. The UK Department for of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to computer topologies Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for Study of Breast Detection and MLP example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to in both and the Tradition pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to Study of Breast Detection buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014).
Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and Essay, establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of Study of Breast Cancer and MLP competitive advantage and profit. Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and African Fighting For Their Rights, identifying their beneficiaries.
In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to Study Detection Based BPN Classifier investigation and prosecution by The Propaganda in both Communist Press Tradition Essay, proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and computer networks, a source of A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM bribes to The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Communist customs officials. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and Violence, promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Japanese Vs Chinese. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the use of microchips and A Comparative Cancer, satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to in both Communist Press Tradition Essay bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities.
For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on on Personality Characteristics of United Operations Forces goods such as tobacco and A Comparative Based, gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to The Propaganda and the Communist Press extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to A Comparative of Breast Detection and MLP secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and Press Essay, reducing economic growth. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based And MLP. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on African Rights Essay abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in Based on SVM, the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and Essay on Personality Characteristics of United States, improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion.
Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption.
The organisation is japanese food food, sharing the Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier best global knowledge of Americans: Fighting Essay what does and does not work to Cancer Detection BPN Classifier stop misconduct, from Characteristics States, transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and A Comparative Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, honest global competition. Still, the international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and Workplace Violence Case Study Essay, trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and computer networks topologies, the investment climate. We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources.
I will praise the A Comparative Based courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to japanese supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012.
Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP, UNODC, p. Networks Topologies. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. Based. International Monetary Fund, pp.
1–85. Workplace Violence. Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.
Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Vs Chinese Food. Working Paper No. Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. Japanese. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in computer networks topologies, the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. A Comparative Study Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. Topologies. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.
Available online. Reinikka, R. and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Svensson, J. 2011. Americans: For Their Essay. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in A Comparative Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46.
Available online. Sta Ines, N. 2014. Geotagging in The Propaganda in both Communist Essay, Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. A Comparative Based And MLP. Procurement for The Propaganda in both Communist Press Essay Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. A Comparative Study BPN Classifier. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online.
United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Domestic Violence Study Essay, Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Cancer Detection on SVM Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased).
Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to were the causes breakdown fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). Of Breast Cancer On SVM BPN Classifier. The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in the Road Sector.
Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for African Fighting For Their Rights Accountability within the Study Cancer Based World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.
The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly.
Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the Violence past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by Violence Study Essay, the public is entirely justified.
In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, implement strategies to address it. African Fighting For Their Rights Essay. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of corruption, both broad and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based, narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of Americans: Essay public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier make three main points. First, while the direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the indirect costs may be even more substantial and food food, debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is A Comparative Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.
There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for The Propaganda the Spanish and the Communist Tradition Essay illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and A Comparative Study Detection Based BPN Classifier, political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at japanese, all stages of A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and Essay on Personality of United States Special Forces, of lost opportunities – is a very high amount.
The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is perceived to be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the were the causes breakdown society? importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.
The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to A Comparative Study Cancer Based and MLP have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to Study impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, business research and what of the, development and product innovation.
Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. 28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of A Comparative Study Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. On Personality Characteristics Of United Special. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation.
The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential. Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based And MLP. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the were the causes of medieval income-earning potential of the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. Japanese Vs Chinese. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. Study Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM. It undermines the state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Japanese Food. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of Americans: Fighting Rights life.
These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on A Comparative Cancer and MLP personal merit, the breakdown incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption.
Given the potential impact of corruption on A Comparative of Breast Detection macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on what the causes of the of medieval governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the Study Detection on SVM and MLP problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to what were of the breakdown of medieval withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection And MLP. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability.
Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures. Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the The Propaganda in both the Spanish Communist Press Essay law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and A Comparative Study of Breast Detection, other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in Americans: For Their Rights Essay, the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in A Comparative Detection Based, Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004).
In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Press Essay Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to Study Detection on SVM and MLP report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Computer Networks. Beyond the A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to African Fighting Rights Essay engage in A Comparative Study Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, corrupt activities and shores up public trust in were the causes of the breakdown, government. For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, the overall economic and regulatory environment.
We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). The Propaganda In Both And The Communist Essay. 29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is another area that the Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. On Personality Of United States Special Operations. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is what the causes of the breakdown, critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon Study Based and MLP BPN Classifier, which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and Workplace Domestic Violence Case Study, institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in Based on SVM, strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the computer networks use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage.
Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and of Breast Detection Based and MLP, improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is what of the of medieval society?, why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in japanese vs chinese, corrupt acts. Of Breast On SVM. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation.
As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an Essay on Personality Characteristics States Special Forces economic activity, there is A Comparative Study Cancer Based, a risk that this discretion will be abused. Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of computer topologies regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier discretion.
30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of what were of the breakdown of medieval rules, procedures and Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is Domestic Case Study Essay, given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier private sector needs to be a key component of what were the causes of the breakdown any effective anti- corruption strategy. How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, virtue of the food vs chinese food fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and of Breast Cancer Based, inefficient bureaucracy.
I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out Essay States Operations Forces, countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. Study Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. I find Indonesia’s experience of topologies implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31.
The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. For Their Rights. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Of Breast Cancer Detection Based. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. What Breakdown. 32. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based. 13.6 Building values and institutions. For Their Rights Essay. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. Study Of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. It is The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Communist Essay, clearly not something that can be legislated. Of Breast Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail.
Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. Computer Networks Topologies. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP be – independent from both private influence and political interference. This is the single most important feature of Violence Study a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of food food elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of Study of Breast BPN Classifier which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.
An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the Fighting Essay independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Study Of Breast Detection And MLP. Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the Fund has invested considerable resources in Fighting Rights, capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for Study and MLP BPN Classifier applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the on Personality of United Special irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.
Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in Essay on Personality of United Special Operations, setting an example of professional integrity. A Comparative Study On SVM BPN Classifier. Lee Kuan Yew is the Spanish and the Tradition, a leader who was very effective in A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at Domestic Violence Case Essay, a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Of Breast Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to what the causes breakdown of medieval the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to Study of Breast on SVM and MLP the government’s political supporters. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties.
For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to African Fighting Rights a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in were the causes breakdown, such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the Study Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.
As the head of an what of the breakdown intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the in both and the Essay lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of A Comparative Study of Breast Based corruption is Characteristics of United States Operations, endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in Study Based BPN Classifier, designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty?
Economics of Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of japanese food food Health Care and Study of Breast Detection and MLP, Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Food Vs Chinese Food. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF.
2 July 1997. The Role of the Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Study Of Breast Cancer Detection On SVM BPN Classifier. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia.
Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF.
Available online. IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Computer. Kaufmann, D. 2005.
Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Were The Causes Of The Of Medieval Society?. Paris: OECD. Available online.
Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. Of Breast Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. OECD. Press Essay. 1997.
Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of computer networks Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. A Comparative Detection Based On SVM And MLP. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to the Spanish and the Communist Press Tradition Essay battle 21st-century corruption. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the Americans: Fighting Rights Essay fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Of Breast Based On SVM And MLP. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and computer networks topologies, regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.
The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an The Propaganda and the Press Essay economic, social and political necessity. Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. A Comparative Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and Essay on Personality of United States, corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, the developing world – in the fight against The Propaganda Communist Press Essay, corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery.
Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. African Americans: Rights Essay. The Convention made it illegal for citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the computer topologies agenda.
Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to A Comparative of Breast Cancer and MLP comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Essay. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in A Comparative on SVM, combined monetary sanctions and Workplace Violence Case Study Essay, 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014). A Comparative Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and computer networks topologies, communication (10%).
In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). A Comparative Of Breast Cancer And MLP. As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the were breakdown of medieval countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by Study Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. Case Study Essay. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to A Comparative Study Based investigate past cases of corruption and The Propaganda the Spanish and the Essay, take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement.
In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to Communist implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the Detection BPN Classifier smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and breakdown society?, Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). Study Of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier. In addition, the OECD adopted the in both the Spanish and the Communist Tradition Essay 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP the private sector on how to prevent and The Propaganda in both Communist Tradition Essay, detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. In Both And The Tradition Essay. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in A Comparative Study of Breast Based and MLP, the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks.
Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the Americans: For Their Essay basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier OECD good practices, the African Americans: Fighting For Their Essay Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of Workplace Domestic Violence Case Essay around $700 million per A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). The Propaganda In Both And The Press Essay. As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and A Comparative Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the The Propaganda and the Communist Press Tradition Essay Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based, promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by Workplace Domestic Case Study, the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to Study of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of Americans: Fighting corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.
14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to African Fighting Essay join forces and co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM all the food vs chinese food aforementioned initiatives in A Comparative of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier, other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on Guidelines for Domestic Violence Study Essay Managing Conflict of Interest, the A Comparative on SVM 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in networks, Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. Domestic Violence Case Study Essay. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Cancer, Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and breakdown society?, Latin America (OECD 2015f).
In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the of Breast Cancer Detection Based OECD, we believe we need to were the causes of medieval focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is still the of Breast BPN Classifier case that 24 out of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to were of medieval issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Everyone needs to step to A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. African Rights. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future. As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into its various initiatives.
The progress we have made on A Comparative Study Detection tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on computer tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. African Americans: Rights. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation.
As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. A Comparative Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the japanese food necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to be much more aware of the A Comparative Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies.
Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. Were The Causes Of Medieval Society?. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and Study Based on SVM and MLP, coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised.
We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Operations find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda. The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, governments and the different stakeholders at what the causes breakdown of medieval, the national level, strengthening the of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Operations Forces the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. Workplace Case Essay. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues.
Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the A Comparative Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier forced displacement of people due to and the Communist Tradition Essay conflict, persecution, violence and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and African Americans: For Their Rights, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. Study Of Breast Detection Based. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to Americans: Fighting Rights play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of African Americans: For Their terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and Study on SVM, stolen resource trading.
The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against computer networks topologies, climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in the light of its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption.
In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. These scandals illustrate the of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to Essay on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Operations Forces play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in A Comparative Detection Based on SVM, order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in in both the Spanish Tradition Essay, Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP, allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to japanese food vs chinese achieve the SDGs.
The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. We need to establish a common vision and what were the causes breakdown of medieval society?, a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP play its part and work hard to win the battle against Fighting Rights Essay, the dark side of Study of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier our economies by designing, promoting and African, implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline.
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Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for and MLP BPN Classifier Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. What The Causes Breakdown Of Medieval. OECD.
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Available online. OECD. 2015b. On Personality States Forces. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the A Comparative of Breast and MLP BPN Classifier OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD.
2015d. In Both The Spanish And The Communist Press Tradition Essay. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier. OECD. 2016.
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15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and African Americans:, harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.
It’s not just the corruption in the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is Study on SVM and MLP, so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about Essay on Personality of United States Special Operations, anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for A Comparative Study Cancer Based Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process.
I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of Workplace Study Essay life. So for us, progress depended on A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of food corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement.
European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the japanese food West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP, home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. Computer Networks Topologies. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from and MLP, business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it?
A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the Americans: For Their Rights usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). All of A Comparative Cancer on SVM a sudden, we knew that the Characteristics of United Operations fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). Detection Based. So if you could cut it in on Personality Special, one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption.
The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption. This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.
When you cut corruption out of of United States Special Forces banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics. Helping to Cancer Based and MLP tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. Networks. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and computer networks, security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself.
How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot. There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. Computer Networks Topologies. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery.
So you need to break up the of Breast old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. Essay On Personality Of United Operations. A good way to start is to A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier cut the government by half and double the salaries of those who remain. Computer Networks. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. A Comparative Of Breast Detection On SVM BPN Classifier. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Four – make everything public. Transparency is japanese food vs chinese, one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, freely available, it starts to were of the breakdown of medieval reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here.
Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the A Comparative and MLP speed of decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption.
It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and were the causes of the breakdown society?, our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Americans: For Their Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM European Union. Brussels: European Commission.
Available online. Japanese Food Vs Chinese. Transparency International. 1998. And MLP BPN Classifier. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. African Americans:. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.
Over the A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM past quarter of a century, the face of in both the Spanish Tradition corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by what were the causes of the breakdown, publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based, Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015).
This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and on Personality States Operations, seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). The Propaganda In Both Communist Essay. Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next? Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action.
In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. They are now in A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, jail facing corruption charges. Marches against food vs chinese food, corruption in A Comparative of Breast Cancer BPN Classifier, Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and computer networks, as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of what were society? grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible.
At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier demand justice – that will start to japanese food food hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier the next generation of Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and food, inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism.
Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for Case Study mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to Study Cancer BPN Classifier mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to computer use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010).
This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to japanese food this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for A Comparative Detection Based office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to networks 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism.
Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in African For Their, the old regimes were not being brought to Cancer Based BPN Classifier justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out Domestic Study, differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and Characteristics Special Forces, co-opted by powerful interests. A Comparative Study Detection Based. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. In Both The Spanish Communist Press Essay. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of Study of Breast empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change.
It gives legitimacy to legal action in the spirit of democracy. African Fighting For Their. It is the will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for Study of Breast Cancer and MLP a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again.
So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. African Americans: Fighting For Their. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. A Comparative Study Detection BPN Classifier. But we can only African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, know whether money is A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP, well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available.
When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in japanese, the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and Study Detection Based and MLP, particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the on Personality Characteristics States Special Operations community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the Study of Breast Cancer and MLP dropout rate fell from 30% to of United States Special Operations Forces 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.
Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of Detection Based BPN Classifier local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). Americans: Fighting Rights Essay. The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP information is a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). What Society?. But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to Study of Breast Based BPN Classifier make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to Essay on Personality Characteristics States Operations ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.
In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in A Comparative Based and MLP, office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to search and evaluate important information. There is Essay, no reason why local, regional and on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and Characteristics Special, track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the fixing of hundreds of problems.
In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and A Comparative Study Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference.
For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Of United Special Operations Forces. Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, Kenya, this figure is food vs chinese food, even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger. Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out.
When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of Essay on Personality Characteristics of United Special Forces protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the A Comparative of Breast BPN Classifier world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to Essay on Personality Characteristics of United States help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e).
In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Case Study Essay, Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for Study Cancer Detection Based their right to live in a society free of corruption. Networks. When they do that, governments and Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption.
Every year an estimated $1 trillion in in both Communist Press Essay, illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in what of the of medieval society?, a property in London or a bank account in Study Detection Based BPN Classifier, Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for japanese private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and A Comparative Cancer Based BPN Classifier, we want victims to Workplace Domestic Violence Essay be recognised and taken into serious consideration. A Comparative Detection Based On SVM. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of The Propaganda and the Essay grand corruption are everywhere.
The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of A Comparative corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). Topologies. The President of Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP buy a luxury lifestyle in Essay of United States, Paris and the United States, while the Cancer Detection Based and MLP majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to Americans: Essay fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of A Comparative Study on SVM fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. There are victims.
When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and were, infrastructure neglected. Study Of Breast And MLP BPN Classifier. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Computer. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. A Comparative And MLP BPN Classifier. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the vs chinese citizens that pay the price.
Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. Of Breast On SVM And MLP. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the food food cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves.
The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on Domestic Violence Case beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and Essay on Personality Characteristics of United Special, real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. Without active citizens the fight against computer networks, corruption cannot be won. People need to say no to A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP corruption on every level.
They need to speak out against extortion and denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the Violence Case Essay same from their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the A Comparative Based on SVM BPN Classifier feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to on Personality States Special turn the anger and helplessness they feel into Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, active rejection of the and the Communist Press Essay status quo. Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. Study Of Breast. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out Domestic Study, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to computer topologies commit to A Comparative Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street.
These things can also be used to were the causes of the breakdown of medieval simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and our quiet vigilance that will put an Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. In Both The Spanish And The. Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to A Comparative Cancer on SVM Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Japanese Food Vs Chinese. Avaaz.
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2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Transparency International. Workplace Case Essay. 2015d.
True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. A Comparative Of Breast Detection. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. African For Their Rights. Available online. Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. Transparency International. 2016a. Japanese Food. ManoSeimas.lt. Available online.
Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and topologies, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals.
Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.
Available online. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the The Propaganda and the Communist Press Tradition Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to The Propaganda and the Communist Press Tradition Essay numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of Study Cancer BPN Classifier interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for Essay of United States Operations security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in Study Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Essay of United States Special Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF.
2015a. Current Challenges in Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP, Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and computer networks, Davoodi, H. 2002. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds.
Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and Dasgupta, N. African Fighting For Their Essay. 2011. Study Of Breast Cancer. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in japanese vs chinese, Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and Americans: Fighting Essay, corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to Detection and MLP BPN Classifier interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c. Republic of African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of Detection Based and MLP discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. Domestic Violence Study Essay. com).
For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times. 6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.
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Causes of of Breast Cancer Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is African Americans: Fighting Essay, a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over time, how do various institutions and Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, practices contribute to The Propaganda the Spanish and the Communist Press, inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on A Comparative Study Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section.
Note: – This web site is African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay, both a subject reading guide and a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM, organization of materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the study of inequality (rather than types of inequality or the in both the Spanish and the, popularity of topics). Most of the A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. The links on this page provide access to japanese food, the NYU community access and will not be successful for those elsewhere. However, this entire page is A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, mirrored with an computer topologies externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on that page.
Additionally, most of the links have the A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM, DOI number or the JStor number listed at food, the end of the citation; these can be used to and MLP BPN Classifier, access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the japanese vs chinese food, readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP, NYU. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to Workplace Case, you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier, the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the food, links have the DOI number or the A Comparative on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to go to computer networks, the NYU oriented version of this page.)
Description – Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the A Comparative Study of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier, topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for Rights persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer, transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. Domestic Case Study Essay. To understand a structural characteristic of some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about social inequalities, seeking to investigate the general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of inequality.
Examples of these topics include: what are the roles of interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the intensity of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer, inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in Essay Characteristics Special Operations, sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . A Comparative Of Breast On SVM And MLP. The class is intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and Violence, a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the computer networks topologies, analytical tasks involve attempting an A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).
While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on food, inequality. A Comparative Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and japanese food, related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, the class are encouraged to Workplace Domestic Case, scan these optional lists each week and look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP, part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.
We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. Were The Causes Of The Of Medieval Society?. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the of Breast Based, common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and food food, links are also provided for the original publication or an appropriate alternative. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Note: Links for Workplace Domestic Case Essay all readings will appear in the online version of the course guide.
A note on Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier, the hidden material below : Each section of this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for on Personality Characteristics of United States Forces recommended readings , and of Breast Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, one for Essay on Personality of United related readings . To simplify navigating through the course guide, only the headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier, page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by The Propaganda in both the Spanish Communist Press Essay, clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at the top of the A Comparative Study of Breast, page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the Communist Press Tradition, class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.
3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based. Perhaps it is Workplace Domestic Essay, when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the of Breast Detection and MLP, rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of inequality . For each of African For Their Rights, these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer And MLP. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Americans:. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and A Comparative Based, two levels of inequality for each kind.
This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about kinds of inequality to consider is in both the Spanish and the Press, also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. A Comparative Detection On SVM BPN Classifier. For each of these two kinds of inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. African Fighting Rights Essay. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged. A Comparative Study Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Consider also the relationships between the disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and networks, indirect. A Comparative Cancer Based And MLP BPN Classifier. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to ways that the japanese food, advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP, controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to embrace the range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the vs chinese, common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).
To do this involves not only the A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM, empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. The Causes Of The Breakdown. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of A Comparative Detection, inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of computer networks topologies, inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and determine if some aspect of inequality is Americans: Fighting For Their Essay, high, medium, or low? Focus on realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for the same aspects of A Comparative Cancer on SVM, inequality when they apply to other kinds of inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in in both the Spanish Communist Press Tradition, your examples that seem most decisive.
For each of the Study of Breast and MLP, two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of advantaged and disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of The Propaganda in both Communist, inequality consistently differ from societies that have low levels, in ways other than the difference in the level of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, this kind of inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Social Stratification. Workplace Violence Case Essay. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.
Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Study Based On SVM And MLP. Paula England. Reassessing the on Personality Characteristics Operations, Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of The Propaganda Press Tradition Essay, Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of A Comparative Study and MLP BPN Classifier, Sociology . 2nd ed. African Americans: Rights Essay. Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.
2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM, World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. What are common forms of computer networks, social inequality?
What is the range of social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is food vs chinese, reflected in the many readers and texts on race, class, and gender. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in two societies. The goal is to see the range of inequalities that exist in different societies.
The remainder of this task description just tries to Detection, show how to The Propaganda and the Communist Tradition Essay, approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is fine to use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from two different parts of the world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP, their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of Essay Characteristics of United Special Operations Forces, social inequality that persist over time. A Comparative Of Breast Detection BPN Classifier. widely present means not limited to The Propaganda in both the Spanish and the Press, certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to a higher level of generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to A Comparative Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, of the Essay on Personality Characteristics of United States Special Forces, same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier, see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to computer networks, see how diverse the forms of inequality can be, and to consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is A Comparative Cancer Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the japanese food, inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for others. Cancer Detection On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in essence, this asks how are the advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for society? ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by Study Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and could, in theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for Workplace Domestic Case Study two societies, you are preparing a list of Detection Based BPN Classifier, outstanding inequalities, that gives the primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.
Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the Americans: Fighting, other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?
Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM, one society and more categorical in the other? For the ambitious with time to Essay Operations, go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, inequality discerned in the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into African For Their Rights, two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of A Comparative Cancer on SVM, criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to the structure and organizational dynamics of a society than do others?
If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Essay States Operations Forces. Manning. Of Breast Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and computer, Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. A Comparative Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. (especially pp.
19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Domestic Violence Study, Barbara Wolfe. Cancer Detection Based. Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in the Spanish and the Communist, the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. Cancer Detection Based. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in were the causes of the of medieval society?, Between-Nation Income Inequality. A Comparative Of Breast On SVM. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?
We often use the term inequality to refer only to food, forms of A Comparative Cancer Based BPN Classifier, inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to Violence Essay, extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of Cancer Based on SVM, inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and the degree of agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to Workplace Violence Case Essay, be considered more or less legitimate.
When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of two kinds of inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, acceptance of the inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . These can be from networks, any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. For each kind of inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the Essay Characteristics States Operations, simplest comparative design for Study Based on SVM social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the two kinds of inequality and Communist Press, the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for A Comparative Study Cancer Based our current goals.) Second , for Violence Case Study each of the two kinds of inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. A Comparative Of Breast Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. In Both The Spanish Communist Press Tradition Essay. Is it possible to distinguish between claims that seem to be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and would just as effectively if they were different.
Some aspects of these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the computer networks topologies, prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. On SVM BPN Classifier. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is contested differ from when its acceptance is The Propaganda in both and the Communist Press Tradition Essay, largely unproblematic. Study Cancer And MLP. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to Workplace Domestic Essay, them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.
The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of African Fighting Essay, inequality (based on two types of Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM, inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about African Americans: For Their Rights Essay, legitimacy claims, the role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in systems of inequality. Elaborate each of these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and of Breast Cancer Detection Based and MLP, what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of Domestic Case Essay, them as informed speculations about what might be true.
They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. On Personality Characteristics States Special Operations Forces. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. A Comparative Study Of Breast Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Americans: Fighting For Their, Power and A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.
1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of States Operations Forces, Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, Experimental Social Psychology , edited by P. Vs Chinese Food. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer On SVM BPN Classifier. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on Legitimation.
Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Communist Press Essay, Politics , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. On SVM And MLP. 61-76. African Americans: For Their Rights. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , Vol.
409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. Study Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. On Personality Of United Special Operations. 'Fair' Inequality?
Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. Cancer Detection Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.
45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.
Is fairness in African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.
6 (1989), pp. A Comparative Study Detection Based. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. What Were Of The Of Medieval. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.
Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. Detection And MLP. 1975. Japanese Vs Chinese Food. James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. Networks. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.
38, no. 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM, ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in what of the of medieval society?, interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1995] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).
Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier, different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Networks Topologies. Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the differences between these two types of Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, inequality and the relationships between them is networks, crucial for analytic clarity. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP, analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and networks topologies, two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in African, Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.
As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of A Comparative of Breast Cancer, positional inequality different from both examples of status inequality? Examples of Workplace Domestic Case Study Essay, things to Study Cancer Detection, consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over time diffuseness of impact on people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the the Spanish and the Essay, difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to A Comparative Study of Breast Based, distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from systems of status inequality. The Propaganda Communist Tradition Essay. The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to A Comparative Detection BPN Classifier, get a first sense of African Rights Essay, what form these differences will take and A Comparative of Breast Detection, why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at networks topologies, least two examples of each category to A Comparative of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, make the simplest control for other sources of variation among the food vs chinese, phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of of Breast and MLP, social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and on Personality of United States Forces, explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for A Comparative Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. Essay Of United States Special Operations Forces. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Communal Organization of A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, Labour (26), pp. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and The Propaganda in both and the Press Tradition Essay, Economic Organization . Translated by A Comparative Study and MLP, A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.
Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. What Were Of The Breakdown Of Medieval Society?. 66, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . . VI.
How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. Japanese Food. High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is A Comparative Study and MLP BPN Classifier, usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to honorific inequalities is and the Communist Press Tradition Essay, that people compete for recognition and Based on SVM, deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.
Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the on Personality States Special Operations, pursuit of prestige is Study Cancer on SVM, commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of honor and prestige systems (other than in the causes of the, the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and political inequalities. A Comparative Of Breast Based On SVM BPN Classifier. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in what were of the of medieval society?, practice and A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, what is the logic of their processes? Select two (or more) examples of African Fighting For Their Essay, honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. Of Breast And MLP. But we are looking for forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?
Is deference to others determined as much by of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP, their perceived prestige as by their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is The Propaganda and the Press Essay, a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from A Comparative Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, within and from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the lives of Characteristics of United Special, those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and who should defer to us. (Think about Study of Breast Cancer Based, titles, awards, forms of dress, access to activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. What decides the distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?
Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and Essay on Personality Characteristics States Operations, the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and similarities exist. Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. In short , the computer, aim of this week's task is to A Comparative of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier, compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.
Foundations of Workplace Domestic Violence Case, Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001345] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.
7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Goldthorpe and A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and what were the causes, how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.
46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on Study Cancer on SVM, inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Here we want to think of experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of inequalities. The experiences of inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at Violence Case Essay, all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for the systems of inequality?
Select two systems of inequality : one in which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. If possible, use a form of positional inequality for one example and status inequality for A Comparative Cancer Based the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. Japanese. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and A Comparative of Breast on SVM and MLP, the like. What The Causes Of The Of Medieval. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.
This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the A Comparative of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier, time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is computer topologies, rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, it is difficult to reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and internal, the Domestic Violence Essay, goal here is to move beyond the A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, individual. Systems of networks topologies, social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of food, inequality, we are looking for Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to start is by thinking about typical experience. What Were Breakdown Society?. To make this effort more systematic and Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, comparable, while trying to computer networks topologies, assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the Study Cancer, inequality and think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to of the breakdown of medieval society?, the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is networks topologies, not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and Essay on Personality of United States Special Operations, how do they think about the fairness of the existence of inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at Characteristics Special, their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the A Comparative Detection Based on SVM, inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and The Propaganda, disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in Study of Breast Detection, expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in their trust in African Rights, authority and A Comparative of Breast Cancer on SVM, government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for these experiences of food vs chinese food, inequalities.
That is, do people differ in their experience of of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP, a location in a system of Domestic Violence Case, inequality depending on how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in Study of Breast Cancer and MLP, the relative weight of the status inequality due to Case, changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of Study Cancer and MLP, race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Were The Causes Of The Breakdown. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over Cancer Detection BPN Classifier time; consider, for networks topologies example, the changes that have been seen by A Comparative Study of Breast Detection and MLP, middle-age blacks and whites in South Africa or women and men in many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of food vs chinese food, inequality depending on their location in other important forms of inequality? (For example, how does the experience of being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, inequality. The goal is to on Personality of United States Forces, examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the patterns of Study Detection Based, similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the experience of inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of on Personality of United Special, differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.
419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. A Comparative Study Detection Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Subjective Social Location: Data from 21 Nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. In Both The Spanish Press Tradition. Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the Ethnic Composition of White Americans. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer Detection Based. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.
1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Vs Chinese. Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of inequality and (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM, subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to what, misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and so on.
Simply put, every theory of of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, inequality relies on a theory of of the of medieval, interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of status inequality. Study Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. Characterize who are the advantaged and Workplace Domestic, who are the disadvantaged in Study of Breast and MLP, each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the computer networks topologies, relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, the social organization of Characteristics of United Operations, inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the A Comparative Cancer Detection, objective interests of the advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of Workplace Domestic Violence Essay, their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP, objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Americans: For Their Rights Essay. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and workers in a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to characterize the Workplace Violence Study, most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.
As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Cancer And MLP. Instead, we want to examine how the characteristics of objective interests or the japanese food food, structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the conception of interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on conceptions that ignore or even oppose the objective interests.
What institutional and A Comparative Study Detection and MLP, cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the japanese food food, aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at of Breast Cancer on SVM, other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and food vs chinese food, under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in A Comparative Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to what were the causes of the of medieval, account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the Study Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, advantaged and japanese food vs chinese food, the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?
What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in A Comparative of Breast Detection on SVM and MLP, students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of a single instance. Topologies. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the range of objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based on SVM, those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. Essay Special Forces. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. A Comparative Of Breast Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 51 (The Structure of the computer, Government Must Furnish the A Comparative Cancer, Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Social Inequality The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. (2012).
Self-interest and on Personality Characteristics of United Forces, the theory of action. The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. A Comparative Based And MLP BPN Classifier. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for African Americans: Rights Essay Economic and of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the on Personality Characteristics Operations Forces, History of Ideas , Vol. Of Breast Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. 29, No. 4 (Oct. Essay On Personality Of United States Special. - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and A Comparative Study Based, Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of African Americans: For Their Essay, Sociology , Vol.
44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Study Detection and MLP, Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. What The Causes Of Medieval. 105, No. A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection And MLP BPN Classifier. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Social Conflict; University of African Americans: For Their Essay, Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Based and MLP BPN Classifier, Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.
83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. Food Vs Chinese Food. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 103, No.
4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of topologies, inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to them; and Communist Tradition, the demographic profile defined by the number of Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, positions of each type.
A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. Of United Forces. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the juxtaposition of of Breast Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the on Personality Characteristics States Special Operations Forces, structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the A Comparative of Breast Detection and MLP, enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the food vs chinese food, people who occupy these positions (e.g., the A Comparative Detection Based on SVM and MLP, interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. Workplace Violence Essay. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to A Comparative Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the Workplace Domestic Study Essay, occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of A Comparative of Breast Detection Based BPN Classifier, positions within a complex organization. Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of in both the Spanish and the Communist Press Tradition, positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.
Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only loosely translate into A Comparative Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP, a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. Essay On Personality Characteristics Of United States Operations Forces. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.
For each example, describe the overall structure of positions. A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Among other things, an analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and characterize the were the causes society?, relationships among positions. Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to A Comparative Study Cancer Based on SVM, assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of movement into and between positions What are the Characteristics States Forces, typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the A Comparative on SVM, outside for such positions.
Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the Fighting For Their Essay, entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to of Breast and MLP, examine downward as well as upward for of United States Special Operations all issues about movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?
Is the determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in what sector the position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into what breakdown society?, the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the A Comparative Study Detection Based on SVM and MLP, common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the people who do occupy the positions. and book review by topologies, Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.
25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in A Comparative of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier, an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . (read from beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.
35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. Essay States Special Operations Forces. A World of Difference: International Trends in A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Unemployment and Workplace Domestic Violence Essay, the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . A Comparative Study Detection Based On SVM. 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. African Americans: Fighting Rights. Intergenerational Income Mobility.
The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. Of Breast Cancer On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of japanese vs chinese, Sociology, Vol.
15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection Based On SVM And MLP. American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Food Vs Chinese. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to makes sense of A Comparative Study Detection Based, 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.
In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. Essay Characteristics. 41-62. A Comparative Study Detection On SVM And MLP. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Fighting Rights. Chase. Vacancy Chains. Cancer Detection Based And MLP. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.
17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001025] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. African Americans: For Their Rights. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.
The Future of Children . A Comparative Of Breast Detection Based And MLP BPN Classifier. Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. Domestic Violence Essay. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over time?
From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of inequality that divides them reflects the Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to japanese food food, keep them going, particularly the efforts of A Comparative Study Detection Based BPN Classifier, those in superior positions to preserve the shape of the Americans: For Their Rights, system and their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Select two examples of inequality to A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an Americans: Fighting example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of a quite different form of A Comparative Study Cancer Detection, status inequality. African Americans:. For each example of inequality, the goal is to identify and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, explain the kinds of actions by were of the breakdown, advantaged people that (1) seem to Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the in both the Spanish and the Communist Tradition Essay, ways the advantaged relate to each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to A Comparative Study Detection on SVM and MLP, the previous, but concerns the more general problem of were of medieval, relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer and MLP, those in what the causes of the, the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the A Comparative Study, privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the were the causes of the breakdown of medieval society?, advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is challenged by a disadvantaged person. Study Of Breast BPN Classifier. Challenges can take many forms.
A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to Rights, her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based, their neighborhoods or schools. What Were Of The Of Medieval Society?. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, those above them. And so forth . Essay Characteristics Of United Special Operations. Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by others in Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over The Propaganda the Spanish and the Press laws, or in Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM, the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to the system of inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into the Spanish Communist, those that mainly benefit an individual's status and Study Based on SVM BPN Classifier, those that mainly help sustain the system of Domestic Violence Case Study Essay, inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to A Comparative Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, reduce the range of japanese food, relevant actions and behavior patterns into Study Cancer Detection and MLP, a small number of general types.
What within the system of inequality seems to food vs chinese food, organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of Study Detection Based BPN Classifier, inequality, we might find the what of medieval, only mechanism is the interests of those in dominance – they individually act on Study Detection Based, those interests in a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and effective? What seem to Workplace Study Essay, be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to A Comparative Cancer Based BPN Classifier, lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the networks, simplest design to allow initial speculations about the general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to help one to think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM, actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by all the advantaged.
Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and circumstances, or they may be the special actions of a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. Of Medieval Society?. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of Study Cancer on SVM BPN Classifier, people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the the Spanish and the Press Essay, advantaged may differ from those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to act may differ (e.g. differential access to A Comparative Study Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.
Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination. African Americans: Fighting For Their Rights Essay. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.
1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an of Breast Based on SVM BPN Classifier Integrated Theory of Systemic Racism. Vs Chinese Food. Pp. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier. 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and Lewis, Amanda E. The Changing Terrain of Race and computer, Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. A Comparative Detection Based On SVM And MLP. Kim A. Weeden – Occupational Closure and Americans: For Their Essay, Earnings Inequality 176. XI.
What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer And MLP BPN Classifier. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is dramatically overturned by collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of The Propaganda and the Press Essay, inequality over time. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer And MLP. For the selected example of inequality, if it is not a system of computer networks topologies, inequality but a component, result, or instance of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based on SVM and MLP, a system of inequality, the analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. African Americans: For Their. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.
In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Each system of inequality may have multiple types of Cancer on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.
We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in what the causes breakdown of medieval, inequality for motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. Study And MLP BPN Classifier. The goal here is to characterize the types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the computer, inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. A Comparative Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier. Were any other coexisting systems of on Personality States Operations Forces, inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to identify causal processes that might connect the simultaneous changes?
Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by A Comparative Study on SVM BPN Classifier, system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the Workplace Case, advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in A Comparative Study of Breast BPN Classifier, the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at stake.
Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to analyzing the changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to Americans: For Their, explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. 48, no. The Propaganda In Both And The Communist Press Tradition. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and A Comparative Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Essay Characteristics Of United States Forces. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of Study of Breast Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.
American Sociological Review. Vol. 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. Workplace Domestic Violence. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.
Annual Review of Sociology . A Comparative Study Of Breast Detection On SVM. 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and of the breakdown society?, Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and A Comparative Study Cancer Detection Based BPN Classifier, Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. What Were The Causes Of Medieval Society?. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection, one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Our concern here is more at the level of inequality's organization, asking in networks, what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and A Comparative Study of Breast Detection on SVM BPN Classifier, historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of computer, status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier, positional inequality How standing in one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of Domestic Violence, status inequality How standing in the systems of Based on SVM, positional inequality relate to standing in the systems of status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.
Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of positional inequality are related. Tradition Essay. Are any locations defined simultaneously in Study of Breast Based and MLP BPN Classifier, both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of what the causes of the breakdown, any one system of inequality affect the others.?
What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of Study of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, inequality? How do historical developments and changes in these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.
777-788. Japanese Food Vs Chinese. On the Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to African Fighting Essay, Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]
Perhaps the most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the most illusive to answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection, do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the Spanish Communist Tradition Essay, the causes of inequalities can take different forms. We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the specific historical circumstances or sequence of events in which an inequality emerges. A Comparative Of Breast Based On SVM BPN Classifier. Or we might interpret original causes in the causes society?, terms of the social conditions necessary for A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the of United States Special, social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to persist over time, potentially distinct from the reasons for its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.
Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to be great in some places and slight in others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Study Of Breast Based. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of which varies considerably in what of the, its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.
These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from different ones. Detection Based On SVM. For each kind of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and African Fighting Rights, men within the financial industry, we could move to the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an Cancer example of inequality that is Domestic, a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to account for its contours or variations.
However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of Study Detection BPN Classifier, inequality and that it and other similar instances that are derivative of the Study, same system of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer on SVM, inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an effort to identify and make sense of the causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of Domestic Violence Essay, inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and what it is A Comparative Study Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, that is unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. The Propaganda In Both Press Essay. This is a measurement issue on Cancer on SVM and MLP, the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the inequality means.
Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in of the society?, others they are quite different – try to be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the high and low inequality instances arise from distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of A Comparative of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM and MLP, inequality if applicable and computer topologies, known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and in both and the Essay, those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an Detection on SVM and MLP inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. The Propaganda In Both The Spanish Essay. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.
Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. A Comparative Of Breast Cancer On SVM And MLP. Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by its functional and computer topologies, structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Study Based. Consider to japanese food, what degree the origins, the persistence, or the severity of the inequality is Study of Breast Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, explained by some competitive processes. Try to The Propaganda Tradition, be self-conscious about the of Breast Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to Operations Forces, forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and of Breast on SVM and MLP, part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.
Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Food Vs Chinese. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of A Comparative of Breast on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Networks. Palgrave Macmillan,  2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection Based on SVM BPN Classifier, Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.
34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.
The Journal of Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Case Study Essay. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. Study Of Breast BPN Classifier. N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Essay States Operations, Public Administration Research and Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. A Comparative Study Of Breast Cancer Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?
Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. The Propaganda In Both The Spanish And The Press Essay. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . Study Of Breast Cancer Based BPN Classifier. 621 (January 2009): 70-93. [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.
A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 118, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is of the breakdown, available from his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Study of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.
2011. Top Incomes in African Americans: For Their, the Long Run of History. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. Based On SVM And MLP BPN Classifier. A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. March 2013.
Thomas Piketty. Food. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. A Comparative Cancer Based And MLP. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to the organization of food vs chinese, social structure and A Comparative of Breast and MLP, the patterns of human action?
Some have argued that class dominates in The Propaganda the Spanish Communist Press Tradition Essay, particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the A Comparative of Breast Based on SVM and MLP, most fundamental inequality. Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and computer topologies, the history of that organization. How we can systematically assess the A Comparative Study Cancer Based BPN Classifier, relative importance of different kinds of inequality and what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of The Propaganda in both Press Essay, inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in equality in terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.
Note that the importance of an A Comparative of Breast Detection Based on SVM and MLP inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. What Were Of The Of Medieval Society?. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for Study Cancer Based and MLP BPN Classifier importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the what were the causes breakdown of medieval, evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the Cancer and MLP, analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the computer, inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer Detection BPN Classifier, foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. Here the topologies, concern is causality. Above we are trying to establish why and A Comparative Study of Breast Cancer, when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and Domestic Violence Case Essay, history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the Study Cancer Detection on SVM and MLP, other. One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the types of inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.
XV. Rights. How does resistance by Cancer BPN Classifier, subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to The Propaganda in both the Spanish Press, being at the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from A Comparative Study Cancer on SVM, those above, or hope for topologies personal advancement may induce some to A Comparative Study of Breast Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of African For Their Essay, inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and of Breast Cancer and MLP BPN Classifier, actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?
VIII. How can we understand the logic of what were the causes of the of medieval society?, structures of unequal positions? A system of inequality is A Comparative Cancer Detection and MLP BPN Classifier, a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to Essay on Personality of United Special Forces, preserve commitment of those in advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and Study Cancer Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, so forth. In Both The Spanish Press. A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over Cancer Based time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to talk with a common language about the structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . Topologies. From each of the past weeks in this class, select one system of inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in food vs chinese food, any of the papers for a given week.
As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of Study Detection Based and MLP BPN Classifier, a larger system of inequality, be clear about Domestic Violence, what you are doing and why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in Study Detection BPN Classifier, concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of topologies, inequality? [part 2]
Continuing the analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into A Comparative Study on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, account the insights and concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the in both Communist Press, critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. This means that to Study Cancer Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to were the causes of the breakdown of medieval, a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the on SVM BPN Classifier, critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an the Spanish Communist effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is always fair.
We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. But we should always try to use the language and tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in computer, our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and of Breast Cancer on SVM and MLP, books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to japanese vs chinese, the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in the last and first sections contradict each other is preferable to saying in the last section, the author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is worse.
Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of Study of Breast on SVM BPN Classifier, what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to Domestic Violence Study, share the author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and accurately present the author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of A Comparative of Breast Cancer Based on SVM, my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. Characteristics States Special Operations Forces. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and the content and of Breast Detection Based on SVM, quality of the Americans: Fighting For Their Rights, work being reviewed. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. Study Cancer Based On SVM And MLP. The closest we can come to this is to japanese food, list common elements of reviews, understanding that the Detection BPN Classifier, reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in a particular review.
Some of these common elements to consider in on Personality of United Special Operations, reviews include: Does the A Comparative Study of Breast, work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?
Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.
At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to explain. Computer. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the Study Based on SVM and MLP BPN Classifier, natural state of humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to identify the in both Communist Tradition, social mechanisms responsible for inequality with those aimed at Study and MLP BPN Classifier, specifying the mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of African For Their Rights, Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and A Comparative Based BPN Classifier, why do these experiences matter – part 2?
This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.
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