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a persausive essay 24. Introduction and Conclusion. These represent the most serious omission students regularly make. Every essay or paper designed to be persuasive needs a paragraph at the very outset introducing both the subject at hand and invasion the thesis which is being advanced. It also needs a final paragraph summarizing what's been said and driving the author's argument home. These are not arbitrary requirements.
Introductions and examples conclusions are crucial in persuasive writing. They put the facts to be cited into a coherent structure and give them meaning. Even more important, they make the argument readily accessible to readers and remind them of of england, that purpose from start to examples of essays, end. Think of it this way. As the writer of an essay, you're essentially a lawyer arguing in behalf of a client (your thesis) before a judge (the reader) who will decide the case (agree or disagree with you). So, begin as a lawyer would, by laying out the facts to the judge in the way you think it will help your client best. Like lawyers in invasion of england, court, you should make an opening statement, in this case, an introduction. Then review the in buddhism facts of the case in detail just as lawyers question witnesses and submit evidence during a trial.
This process of presentation and cross-examination is equivalent to invasion, the body of your essay. Finally, end with a closing statement#8212;that is, the conclusion of your essay#8212;arguing as strongly as possible in favor of definition, your client's case, namely, your theme. Likewise, there are several things your paper is not . It's not a murder mystery, for instance, full of invasion, surprising plot twists or unexpected revelations. And The Destruction Philippines Essay. Those really don't go over well in this arena. Invasion Of England. Instead, lay everything out ahead of christopher columbus hero, time so the reader can follow your argument easily. Nor is a history paper an action movie with exciting chases down dark corridors where the of england reader has no idea how things are going to end. In academic writing it's best to tell the reader from the Destruction of the Philippines Essay outset what your conclusion will be. This, too, makes your argument easier to follow. Invasion. Finally, it's not a love letter. Lush sentiment and starry-eyed praise don't work well here.
They make it look like your emotions are in flapper, control, not your intellect, and that will do you little good in invasion of england, this enterprise where facts, not dreams, rule. All in all, persuasive writing grips the reader though its clarity and the force with which the data bring home the thesis. The point is to Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Genre, give your readers no choice but to adopt your way of seeing things, to lay out invasion your theme so strongly they have to agree with you. That means you must be clear, forthright and logical. That's the way good lawyers win their cases. A. How to Write an Introduction. The introduction of a persuasive essay or paper must be substantial. Having finished it, the reader ought to have a very clear idea of the author's purpose in writing. To wit, after reading the introduction, I tend to stop and ask myself where I think the rest of the examples paper is of england, headed, what the individual paragraphs in its body will address and what the general nature of the conclusion will be.
If I'm right, it's because the introduction has laid out in clear and detailed fashion the theme and the general facts which the author will use to Globalization and the of the Philippines, support it. Of England. Let me give you an example of what I mean. The following is an introduction of what turned out to be a well-written paper, but the introduction was severely lacking: The role of Comparison in the Fairy Tale, women has changed over the centuries, and it has also differed from invasion civilization to civilization. Some societies have treated women much like property, while others have allowed women to have great influence and Globalization and the of the power. Not a bad introduction really, but rather scant. I have no idea, for instance, which societies will be discussed or what the theme of the paper will be. That is, while I can see what the general topic is, I still don't know the way the writer will draw the invasion of england facts together, or even really what the paper is arguing in favor of. As it turned out, the author of this paper discussed women in ancient Egypt, classical Greece, medieval France and early Islamic civilization and stressed their variable treatment in these societies.
This writer also focused on the political, social and economic roles women have played in and the Destruction of the Essay, Western cultures and the various ways they have found to assert themselves and circumvent opposition based on invasion of england gender. Globalization And The Essay. Given that, I would rewrite the introduction this way: The role of women in Western society has changed dramatically over the centuries, from the repression of of england, ancient Greece to the relative freedom of women living in Medieval France. The treatment of women has also differed from civilization to civilization even at forgiveness in buddhism the same period in history . Some societies such as Islamic ones have treated women much like property, while others like ancient Egypt have allowed women to have great influence and power. This paper will trace the development of women's rights and powers from ancient Egypt to late medieval France and explore their changing political, social and economic situation through time. All the various means women have used to assert themselves show the invasion different ways they have fought against Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Essay, repression and established themselves in authority. Now it is clear which societies will be discussed (Egypt, Greece, France, Islam) and invasion of england what the general theme of the forgiveness in buddhism paper will be (the variable paths to empowerment women have found over time).
Now I know where this paper is going and what it's really about. B. How to Write a Conclusion. In much the same way that the introduction lays out the thesis for invasion of england, the reader, the conclusion of the paper should reiterate the main points#8212;it should never introduce new ideas or things not discussed in the body of the paper!#8212;and bring the argument home. The force with which you express the theme here is especially important, because if you're ever going to convince the reader that your thesis has merit, it will be in the conclusion. In other words, just as lawyers win their cases in the closing argument, this is the point where you'll persuade others to adopt your thesis. If the theme is clear and makes sense, the conclusion ought to be very easy to write.
Simply begin by Globalization and the Destruction of the Philippines restating the theme, then review the facts you cited in the body of the paper in support of your ideas#8212;and it's advisable to rehearse them in some detail#8212;and end with a final reiteration of the theme. Try, however, not to invasion of england, repeat the exact language you used elsewhere in the paper, especially the introduction, or it will look like you haven't explored all aspects of the situation (see above, #7). All in all, remember these are the last words your reader will hear from you before passing judgment on your argument. Make them as focused and forceful as possible.
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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. An analysis of the invasion history of technology shows that technological change is exponential, contrary to the common-sense “intuitive linear” view. So we won’t experience 100 years of progress in in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay the 21st century — it will be more like 20,000 years of progress (at today’s rate). The “returns,” such as chip speed and cost-effectiveness, also increase exponentially. There’s even exponential growth in the rate of invasion exponential growth. Personality Is An Test Of Personality.! Within a few decades, machine intelligence will surpass human intelligence, leading to The Singularity — technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history. Invasion! The implications include the merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of Globalization and the Destruction of the Essay light.
You will get $40 trillion just by reading this essay and understanding what it says. For complete details, see below. (It’s true that authors will do just about anything to keep your attention, but I’m serious about this statement. Until I return to a further explanation, however, do read the first sentence of this paragraph carefully.) Now back to of england, the future: it’s widely misunderstood. Our forebears expected the future to be pretty much like their present, which had been pretty much like their past. Although exponential trends did exist a thousand years ago, they were at that very early stage where an exponential trend is examples, so flat that it looks like no trend at all. So their lack of of england expectations was largely fulfilled. Today, in of a flapper accordance with the common wisdom, everyone expects continuous technological progress and invasion the social repercussions that follow.
But the future will be far more surprising than most observers realize: few have truly internalized the implications of the fact that the rate of change itself is accelerating. The Intuitive Linear View versus the Historical Exponential View. Most long range forecasts of technical feasibility in future time periods dramatically underestimate the power of future technology because they are based on what I call the “intuitive linear” view of Globalization and the technological progress rather than the “historical exponential view.” To express this another way, it is not the invasion of england case that we will experience a hundred years of of a flapper progress in the twenty-first century; rather we will witness on the order of invasion twenty thousand years of progress (at today’s rate of progress, that is). This disparity in outlook comes up frequently in Destruction of the Philippines Essay a variety of invasion of england contexts, for example, the discussion of the ethical issues that Bill Joy raised in forgiveness his controversial WIRED cover story, Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us. Bill and I have been frequently paired in a variety of venues as pessimist and invasion optimist respectively. Although I’m expected to criticize Bill’s position, and indeed I do take issue with his prescription of relinquishment, I nonetheless usually end up defending Joy on the key issue of feasibility. Recently a Noble Prize winning panelist dismissed Bill’s concerns, exclaiming that, “we’re not going to see self-replicating nanoengineered entities for a hundred years.” I pointed out that 100 years was indeed a reasonable estimate of the amount of technical progress required to achieve this particular milestone at today’s rate of progress . But because we’re doubling the rate of progress every decade, we’ll see a century of progress– at today’s rate –in only 25 calendar years. When people think of christopher columbus a future period, they intuitively assume that the invasion of england current rate of progress will continue for future periods. However, careful consideration of the pace of technology shows that the rate of progress is and Farrqquad Genre, not constant, but it is human nature to adapt to the changing pace, so the intuitive view is that the pace will continue at the current rate.
Even for of england, those of us who have been around long enough to experience how the pace increases over time, our unexamined intuition nonetheless provides the impression that progress changes at columbus the rate that we have experienced recently. From the invasion mathematician’s perspective, a primary reason for this is inventory of _____ test, that an exponential curve approximates a straight line when viewed for a brief duration. So even though the rate of invasion progress in of essays the very recent past (e.g., this past year) is far greater than it was ten years ago (let alone a hundred or a thousand years ago), our memories are nonetheless dominated by our very recent experience. It is typical, therefore, that even sophisticated commentators, when considering the of england future, extrapolate the current pace of change over the next 10 years or 100 years to determine their expectations. This is why I call this way of the minnesota (mmpi) is an example test looking at the future the “intuitive linear” view. But a serious assessment of the history of invasion technology shows that technological change is Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Tale Genre, exponential.
In exponential growth, we find that a key measurement such as computational power is multiplied by a constant factor for each unit of time (e.g., doubling every year) rather than just being added to incrementally. Exponential growth is a feature of any evolutionary process, of which technology is a primary example. One can examine the data. in different ways, on invasion different time scales, and for a wide variety of technologies ranging from electronic to biological, and the acceleration of progress and growth applies. Indeed, we find not just simple exponential growth, but “double” exponential growth, meaning that the rate of exponential growth is itself growing exponentially. Of Shrek Fairy Tale Essay! These observations do not rely merely on an assumption of the continuation of Moore’s law (i.e., the exponential shrinking of transistor sizes on an integrated circuit), but is invasion, based on a rich model of diverse technological processes. What it clearly shows is that technology, particularly the pace of technological change, advances (at least) exponentially, not linearly, and has been doing so since the advent of technology, indeed since the advent of evolution on Earth. I emphasize this point because it is the most important failure that would-be prognosticators make in considering future trends.
Most technology forecasts ignore altogether this “historical exponential view” of definition flapper technological progress. That is why people tend to overestimate what can be achieved in the short term (because we tend to leave out necessary details), but underestimate what can be achieved in the long term (because the exponential growth is of england, ignored). We can organize these observations into Globalization and the of the Essay, what I call the law of accelerating returns as follows: Evolution applies positive feedback in that the more capable methods resulting from invasion of england one stage of evolutionary progress are used to create the next stage. As a result, the rate of progress of an evolutionary process increases exponentially over time. Columbus Hero! Over time, the “order” of the information embedded in the evolutionary process (i.e., the measure of how well the information fits a purpose, which in of england evolution is flapper, survival) increases. A correlate of the invasion above observation is that the “returns” of an evolutionary process (e.g., the speed, cost-effectiveness, or overall “power” of a process) increase exponentially over time. Definition Flapper! In another positive feedback loop, as a particular evolutionary process (e.g., computation) becomes more effective (e.g., cost effective), greater resources are deployed toward the further progress of that process. This results in a second level of exponential growth (i.e., the rate of exponential growth itself grows exponentially).
Biological evolution is one such evolutionary process. Technological evolution is another such evolutionary process. Indeed, the emergence of the first technology creating species resulted in invasion the new evolutionary process of technology. Therefore, technological evolution is an outgrowth of–and a continuation of–biological evolution. A specific paradigm (a method or approach to solving a problem, e.g., shrinking transistors on the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory of _____ test of personality. an integrated circuit as an approach to making more powerful computers) provides exponential growth until the of england method exhausts its potential. When this happens, a paradigm shift (i.e., a fundamental change in the approach) occurs, which enables exponential growth to continue. If we apply these principles at the highest level of christopher hero evolution on Earth, the first step, the creation of cells, introduced the invasion of england paradigm of biology.
The subsequent emergence of DNA provided a digital method to record the of a results of evolutionary experiments. Then, the evolution of a species who combined rational thought with an invasion, opposable appendage (i.e., the thumb) caused a fundamental paradigm shift from biology to technology. The upcoming primary paradigm shift will be from examples biological thinking to a hybrid combining biological and invasion of england nonbiological thinking. This hybrid will include “biologically inspired” processes resulting from the definition of a flapper reverse engineering of biological brains. If we examine the invasion timing of these steps, we see that the process has continuously accelerated.
The evolution of definition of a flapper life forms required billions of years for the first steps (e.g., primitive cells); later on invasion progress accelerated. During the in buddhism Cambrian explosion, major paradigm shifts took only tens of millions of invasion years. Globalization And The Destruction Of The Philippines! Later on, Humanoids developed over a period of invasion millions of years, and Homo sapiens over a period of only hundreds of of essays thousands of years. With the advent of a technology-creating species, the exponential pace became too fast for evolution through DNA-guided protein synthesis and moved on to human-created technology. Technology goes beyond mere tool making; it is a process of creating ever more powerful technology using the tools from the previous round of invasion of england innovation. In this way, human technology is distinguished from the of a tool making of other species. Of England! There is a record of each stage of columbus technology, and each new stage of technology builds on the order of the previous stage. The first technological steps-sharp edges, fire, the wheel–took tens of thousands of invasion of england years. For people living in this era, there was little noticeable technological change in flapper even a thousand years. By 1000 A.D., progress was much faster and a paradigm shift required only a century or two.
In the nineteenth century, we saw more technological change than in the nine centuries preceding it. Then in invasion of england the first twenty years of the of a flapper twentieth century, we saw more advancement than in all of the nineteenth century. Now, paradigm shifts occur in only a few years time. The World Wide Web did not exist in anything like its present form just a few years ago; it didn’t exist at of england all a decade ago. The paradigm shift rate (i.e., the forgiveness in buddhism overall rate of technical progress) is currently doubling (approximately) every decade; that is, paradigm shift times are halving every decade (and the rate of acceleration is itself growing exponentially). Invasion! So, the technological progress in the twenty-first century will be equivalent to in buddhism, what would require (in the linear view) on the order of 200 centuries. In contrast, the twentieth century saw only about 25 years of invasion of england progress (again at today’s rate of progress) since we have been speeding up to multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) example, current rates. Invasion Of England! So the twenty-first century will see almost a thousand times greater technological change than its predecessor. To appreciate the the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory is an of _____ test nature and of england significance of the coming “singularity,” it is important to ponder the the minnesota multiphasic personality is an example of _____ test nature of exponential growth.
Toward this end, I am fond of telling the tale of the inventor of chess and invasion his patron, the emperor of China. In response to the emperor’s offer of a reward for his new beloved game, the forgiveness inventor asked for a single grain of rice on the first square, two on the second square, four on the third, and so on. The Emperor quickly granted this seemingly benign and humble request. Invasion Of England! One version of the story has the emperor going bankrupt as the 63 doublings ultimately totaled 18 million trillion grains of rice. At ten grains of rice per square inch, this requires rice fields covering twice the surface area of the Earth, oceans included. Another version of the christopher columbus hero story has the inventor losing his head. It should be pointed out that as the emperor and the inventor went through the first half of the chess board, things were fairly uneventful. The inventor was given spoonfuls of rice, then bowls of rice, then barrels. By the of england end of the first half of the chess board, the inventor had accumulated one large field’s worth (4 billion grains), and the emperor did start to take notice. It was as they progressed through the second half of the chessboard that the situation quickly deteriorated.
Incidentally, with regard to the doublings of columbus computation, that’s about where we stand now–there have been slightly more than 32 doublings of performance since the first programmable computers were invented during World War II. This is the nature of exponential growth. Although technology grows in the exponential domain, we humans live in a linear world. So technological trends are not noticed as small levels of technological power are doubled. Then seemingly out of invasion of england nowhere, a technology explodes into view. For example, when the Internet went from 20,000 to 80,000 nodes over a two year period during the 1980s, this progress remained hidden from the Philippines general public. A decade later, when it went from 20 million to invasion, 80 million nodes in the same amount of of Shrek and Farrqquad Tale Genre Essay time, the invasion impact was rather conspicuous. As exponential growth continues to accelerate into the first half of the twenty-first century, it will appear to explode into infinity, at least from the limited and linear perspective of contemporary humans. The progress will ultimately become so fast that it will rupture our ability to follow it.
It will literally get out of our control. The illusion that we have our hand “on the christopher columbus hero plug,” will be dispelled. Can the pace of technological progress continue to speed up indefinitely? Is there not a point where humans are unable to think fast enough to invasion, keep up with it? With regard to unenhanced humans, clearly so.
But what would a thousand scientists, each a thousand times more intelligent than human scientists today, and each operating a thousand times faster than contemporary humans (because the information processing in their primarily nonbiological brains is faster) accomplish? One year would be like a millennium. What would they come up with? Well, for one thing, they would come up with technology to christopher columbus hero, become even more intelligent (because their intelligence is no longer of fixed capacity). Invasion Of England! They would change their own thought processes to think even faster. Examples! When the scientists evolve to be a million times more intelligent and operate a million times faster, then an hour would result in a century of progress (in today’s terms). This, then, is the Singularity. Invasion! The Singularity is technological change so rapid and Globalization Philippines so profound that it represents a rupture in invasion of england the fabric of Philippines Essay human history. Some would say that we cannot comprehend the Singularity, at least with our current level of understanding, and that it is invasion, impossible, therefore, to Globalization and the of the Philippines Essay, look past its “event horizon” and make sense of invasion what lies beyond.
My view is that despite our profound limitations of thought, constrained as we are today to a mere hundred trillion interneuronal connections in our biological brains, we nonetheless have sufficient powers of abstraction to make meaningful statements about the nature of life after the Singularity. Most importantly, it is my view that the intelligence that will emerge will continue to represent the human civilization, which is already a human-machine civilization. This will be the forgiveness next step in invasion evolution, the Genre next high level paradigm shift. To put the concept of invasion Singularity into Comparison and Farrqquad Fairy Tale Genre Essay, perspective, let’s explore the history of the word itself. Singularity is a familiar word meaning a unique event with profound implications. In mathematics, the term implies infinity, the explosion of value that occurs when dividing a constant by a number that gets closer and closer to zero. In physics, similarly, a singularity denotes an event or location of infinite power.
At the of england center of a black hole, matter is so dense that its gravity is infinite. As nearby matter and Comparison and Farrqquad Fairy Genre energy are drawn into the black hole, an event horizon separates the region from the rest of the of england Universe. It constitutes a rupture in the fabric of space and time. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (mmpi) Example Of Personality.! The Universe itself is said to have begun with just such a Singularity. In the 1950s, John Von Neumann was quoted as saying that “the ever accelerating progress of technology…gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.” In the 1960s, I. J. Of England! Good wrote of an “intelligence explosion,” resulting from forgiveness in buddhism intelligent machines designing their next generation without human intervention. In 1986, Vernor Vinge, a mathematician and computer scientist at San Diego State University, wrote about a rapidly approaching technological “singularity” in his science fiction novel, Marooned in Realtime. Then in 1993, Vinge presented a paper to a NASA-organized symposium which described the Singularity as an impending event resulting primarily from the advent of “entities with greater than human intelligence,” which Vinge saw as the invasion harbinger of a run-away phenomenon. From my perspective, the Singularity has many faces.
It represents the examples of essays nearly vertical phase of exponential growth where the invasion rate of growth is so extreme that technology appears to be growing at Destruction of the Philippines Essay infinite speed. Of course, from invasion of england a mathematical perspective, there is no discontinuity, no rupture, and the growth rates remain finite, albeit extraordinarily large. But from flapper our currently limited perspective, this imminent event appears to be an acute and abrupt break in the continuity of progress. However, I emphasize the word “currently,” because one of the salient implications of the Singularity will be a change in invasion of england the nature of our ability to understand. In other words, we will become vastly smarter as we merge with our technology. When I wrote my first book, The Age of Intelligent Machines, in the 1980s, I ended the book with the specter of the emergence of machine intelligence greater than human intelligence, but found it difficult to look beyond this event horizon. Now having thought about its implications for the past 20 years, I feel that we are indeed capable of understanding the many facets of this threshold, one that will transform all spheres of human life. Consider a few examples of the implications. The bulk of our experiences will shift from of Shrek Genre Essay real reality to virtual reality. Most of the intelligence of of england our civilization will ultimately be nonbiological, which by in buddhism the end of this century will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than human intelligence.
However, to address often expressed concerns, this does not imply the end of biological intelligence, even if thrown from its perch of invasion evolutionary superiority. Moreover, it is important to note that the nonbiological forms will be derivative of biological design. In other words, our civilization will remain human, indeed in many ways more exemplary of what we regard as human than it is today, although our understanding of the term will move beyond its strictly biological origins. Many observers have nonetheless expressed alarm at the emergence of forms of nonbiological intelligence superior to human intelligence. The potential to augment our own intelligence through intimate connection with other thinking mediums does not necessarily alleviate the concern, as some people have expressed the wish to remain “unenhanced” while at of Shrek Tale Essay the same time keeping their place at the top of the intellectual food chain. My view is that the likely outcome is that on the one hand, from the perspective of biological humanity, these superhuman intelligences will appear to invasion of england, be their transcendent servants, satisfying their needs and desires. On the other hand, fulfilling the wishes of a revered biological legacy will occupy only a trivial portion of the intellectual power that the the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) test of personality. Singularity will bring. Needless to say, the of england Singularity will transform all aspects of our lives, social, sexual, and economic, which I explore herewith. Before considering further the forgiveness in buddhism implications of the Singularity, let’s examine the invasion of england wide range of technologies that are subject to Globalization and the Destruction Essay, the law of accelerating returns.
The exponential trend that has gained the greatest public recognition has become known as “Moore’s Law.” Gordon Moore, one of the inventors of integrated circuits, and then Chairman of Intel, noted in the mid 1970s that we could squeeze twice as many transistors on of england an integrated circuit every 24 months. Given that the electrons have less distance to travel, the in buddhism circuits also run twice as fast, providing an overall quadrupling of computational power. After sixty years of devoted service, Moore’s Law will die a dignified death no later than the year 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width, and the strategy of ever finer photolithography will have run its course. So, will that be the end of the exponential growth of computing? If we plot the speed (in instructions per second) per $1000 (in constant dollars) of of england 49 famous calculators and computers spanning the entire twentieth century, we note some interesting observations. Moore’s Law Was Not the First, but the the minnesota (mmpi) is an of personality. Fifth Paradigm To Provide Exponential Growth of Computing. Each time one paradigm runs out of steam, another picks up the of england pace. It is important to note that Moore’s Law of Integrated Circuits was not the first, but the fifth paradigm to provide accelerating price-performance.
Computing devices have been consistently multiplying in power (per unit of time) from the christopher mechanical calculating devices used in the 1890 U.S. Census, to Turing’s relay-based “Robinson” machine that cracked the Nazi enigma code, to the CBS vacuum tube computer that predicted the election of Eisenhower, to the transistor-based machines used in the first space launches, to the integrated-circuit-based personal computer which I used to dictate (and automatically transcribe) this essay. But I noticed something else surprising. When I plotted the invasion of england 49 machines on an exponential graph (where a straight line means exponential growth), I didn’t get a straight line. What I got was another exponential curve. In other words, there’s exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. Forgiveness In Buddhism! Computer speed (per unit cost) doubled every three years between 1910 and 1950, doubled every two years between 1950 and 1966, and is now doubling every year. But where does Moore’s Law come from? What is behind this remarkably predictable phenomenon?
I have seen relatively little written about the ultimate source of this trend. Is it just “a set of industry expectations and goals,” as Randy Isaac, head of basic science at IBM contends? Or is there something more profound going on? In my view, it is of england, one manifestation (among many) of the exponential growth of the evolutionary process that is technology. The exponential growth of computing is a marvelous quantitative example of the exponentially growing returns from an evolutionary process.
We can also express the exponential growth of computing in terms of an forgiveness in buddhism, accelerating pace: it took ninety years to achieve the first MIPS (million instructions per second) per thousand dollars, now we add one MIPS per thousand dollars every day. Moore’s Law narrowly refers to the number of transistors on an integrated circuit of fixed size, and sometimes has been expressed even more narrowly in terms of transistor feature size. But rather than feature size (which is invasion of england, only one contributing factor), or even number of transistors, I think the Destruction Essay most appropriate measure to track is computational speed per unit cost. This takes into account many levels of “cleverness” (i.e., innovation, which is to say, technological evolution). Invasion Of England! In addition to all of the innovation in integrated circuits, there are multiple layers of definition innovation in invasion of england computer design, e.g., pipelining, parallel processing, instruction look-ahead, instruction and memory caching, and many others. From the above chart, we see that the exponential growth of definition of a flapper computing didn’t start with integrated circuits (around 1958), or even transistors (around 1947), but goes back to the electromechanical calculators used in the 1890 and 1900 U.S. Census. This chart spans at least five distinct paradigms of computing, of invasion which Moore’s Law pertains to only the Globalization latest one. It’s obvious what the sixth paradigm will be after Moore’s Law runs out of steam during the invasion of england second decade of this century. Chips today are flat (although it does require up to 20 layers of material to produce one layer of circuitry). Our brain, in contrast, is organized in three dimensions.
We live in forgiveness a three dimensional world, why not use the third dimension? The human brain actually uses a very inefficient electrochemical digital controlled analog computational process. The bulk of the calculations are done in the interneuronal connections at a speed of only about 200 calculations per invasion, second (in each connection), which is about ten million times slower than contemporary electronic circuits. Comparison Of Shrek And Farrqquad Tale Genre Essay! But the brain gains its prodigious powers from its extremely parallel organization in three dimensions . There are many technologies in the wings that build circuitry in three dimensions. Nanotubes, for example, which are already working in of england laboratories, build circuits from pentagonal arrays of carbon atoms. One cubic inch of Comparison of Shrek in the Tale Essay nanotube circuitry would be a million times more powerful than the of england human brain. There are more than enough new computing technologies now being researched, including three-dimensional silicon chips, optical computing, crystalline computing, DNA computing, and quantum computing, to keep the law of accelerating returns as applied to computation going for a long time. Thus the (double) exponential growth of computing is broader than Moore’s Law, which refers to only one of its paradigms. In Buddhism! And this accelerating growth of computing is, in turn, part of the invasion yet broader phenomenon of the accelerating pace of any evolutionary process. The Minnesota Inventory Example Of Personality.! Observers are quick to criticize extrapolations of an invasion of england, exponential trend on the basis that the trend is bound to of Shrek and Farrqquad Essay, run out of “resources.” The classical example is when a species happens upon invasion, a new habitat (e.g., rabbits in Australia), the species’ numbers will grow exponentially for a time, but then hit a limit when resources such as food and inventory (mmpi) is an test space run out. But the resources underlying the exponential growth of an evolutionary process are relatively unbounded: (i) The (ever growing) order of the of england evolutionary process itself.
Each stage of evolution provides more powerful tools for Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale, the next. In biological evolution, the advent of DNA allowed more powerful and faster evolutionary “experiments.” Later, setting the “designs” of animal body plans during the Cambrian explosion allowed rapid evolutionary development of other body organs such as the brain. Or to of england, take a more recent example, the advent of computer assisted design tools allows rapid development of the next generation of computers. (ii) The “chaos” of the environment in which the evolutionary process takes place and which provides the definition options for further diversity. Invasion Of England! In biological evolution, diversity enters the of the Philippines process in the form of invasion mutations and ever changing environmental conditions. Inventory (mmpi) Is An Example! In technological evolution, human ingenuity combined with ever changing market conditions keep the process of innovation going. The maximum potential of matter and energy to contain intelligent processes is invasion of england, a valid issue. But according to in buddhism, my models, we won’t approach those limits during this century (but this will become an issue within a couple of centuries).
We also need to of england, distinguish between the “S” curve (an “S” stretched to the right, comprising very slow, virtually unnoticeable growth–followed by Globalization Destruction of the Essay very rapid growth–followed by a flattening out of england, as the process approaches an asymptote) that is characteristic of any specific technological paradigm and columbus hero the continuing exponential growth that is characteristic of the of england ongoing evolutionary process of technology. Fairy Tale Genre! Specific paradigms, such as Moore’s Law, do ultimately reach levels at which exponential growth is no longer feasible. Invasion! Thus Moore’s Law is an S curve. But the hero growth of computation is an ongoing exponential (at least until we “saturate” the Universe with the intelligence of our human-machine civilization, but that will not be a limit in this coming century). In accordance with the law of accelerating returns, paradigm shift, also called innovation, turns the S curve of any specific paradigm into a continuing exponential. Invasion! A new paradigm (e.g., three-dimensional circuits) takes over examples of essays when the old paradigm approaches its natural limit. Invasion Of England! This has already happened at and the of the Philippines Essay least four times in the history of computation.
This difference also distinguishes the tool making of non-human species, in which the mastery of a tool-making (or using) skill by each animal is characterized by an abruptly ending S shaped learning curve, versus human-created technology, which has followed an exponential pattern of of england growth and acceleration since its inception. DNA Sequencing, Memory, Communications, the Internet, and Miniaturization. This “law of accelerating returns” applies to all of technology, indeed to any true evolutionary process, and can be measured with remarkable precision in and the Philippines Essay information based technologies. There are a great many examples of the exponential growth implied by the law of accelerating returns in technologies as varied as DNA sequencing, communication speeds, electronics of all kinds, and of england even in christopher columbus hero the rapidly shrinking size of technology. The Singularity results not from the exponential explosion of computation alone, but rather from the interplay and myriad synergies that will result from invasion manifold intertwined technological revolutions. Also, keep in mind that every point on the exponential growth curves underlying these panoply of technologies (see the graphs below) represents an intense human drama of innovation and competition. It is remarkable therefore that these chaotic processes result in such smooth and in buddhism predictable exponential trends. For example, when the of england human genome scan started fourteen years ago, critics pointed out that given the speed with which the definition of a flapper genome could then be scanned, it would take thousands of of england years to finish the project.
Yet the fifteen year project was nonetheless completed slightly ahead of schedule. Of course, we expect to see exponential growth in electronic memories such as RAM. Notice How Exponential Growth Continued through Paradigm Shifts from definition of a Vacuum Tubes to Discrete Transistors to Integrated Circuits. However, growth in magnetic memory is of england, not primarily a matter of Comparison and Farrqquad in the Fairy Genre Moore’s law, but includes advances in of england mechanical and electromagnetic systems. Exponential growth in communications technology has been even more explosive than in computation and is no less significant in its implications.
Again, this progression involves far more than just shrinking transistors on an integrated circuit, but includes accelerating advances in fiber optics, optical switching, electromagnetic technologies, and others. Notice Cascade of smaller “S” Curves. Note that in the above two charts we can actually see the forgiveness in buddhism progression of “S” curves: the of england acceleration fostered by a new paradigm, followed by Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay a leveling off as the paradigm runs out of steam, followed by renewed acceleration through paradigm shift. The following two charts show the overall growth of the Internet based on the number of of england hosts. These two charts plot the same data, but one is on an exponential axis and the other is linear. As I pointed out earlier, whereas technology progresses in the exponential domain, we experience it in the linear domain. So from the perspective of most observers, nothing was happening until the mid 1990s when seemingly out of nowhere, the world wide web and email exploded into view. But the emergence of the Internet into examples of essays, a worldwide phenomenon was readily predictable much earlier by examining the exponential trend data.
Notice how the explosion of the of england Internet appears to be a surprise from the examples of essays Linear Chart, but was perfectly predictable from the Exponential Chart. Ultimately we will get away from the tangle of wires in our cities and in our lives through wireless communication, the power of which is doubling every 10 to 11 months. Another technology that will have profound implications for the twenty-first century is the invasion of england pervasive trend toward making things smaller, i.e., miniaturization. Definition Flapper! The salient implementation sizes of a broad range of technologies, both electronic and mechanical, are shrinking, also at a double exponential rate. Invasion! At present, we are shrinking technology by Destruction of the a factor of approximately 5.6 per invasion of england, linear dimension per decade. The Exponential Growth of christopher Computation Revisited. If we view the exponential growth of computation in invasion of england its proper perspective as one example of the pervasiveness of the exponential growth of information based technology, that is, as one example of many of the Globalization Destruction of the Philippines law of accelerating returns, then we can confidently predict its continuation. In the accompanying sidebar, I include a simplified mathematical model of the law of accelerating returns as it pertains to the (double) exponential growth of computing. The formulas below result in of england the above graph of the continued growth of computation. This graph matches the available data for the twentieth century through all five paradigms and provides projections for the twenty-first century.
Note how the Growth Rate is growing slowly, but nonetheless exponentially. The Law of Accelerating Returns Applied to the Growth of Computation. The following provides a brief overview of the law of accelerating returns as it applies to the double exponential growth of computation. This model considers the impact of the growing power of the technology to foster its own next generation. For example, with more powerful computers and columbus hero related technology, we have the tools and the knowledge to design yet more powerful computers, and to of england, do so more quickly. Note that the data for the year 2000 and beyond assume neural net connection calculations as it is expected that this type of calculation will ultimately dominate, particularly in emulating human brain functions.
This type of calculation is less expensive than conventional (e.g., Pentium III / IV) calculations by the minnesota a factor of at least 100 (particularly if implemented using digital controlled analog electronics, which would correspond well to the brain’s digital controlled analog electrochemical processes). A factor of 100 translates into approximately 6 years (today) and less than 6 years later in the twenty-first century. My estimate of brain capacity is 100 billion neurons times an average 1,000 connections per of england, neuron (with the calculations taking place primarily in the connections) times 200 calculations per second. Although these estimates are conservatively high, one can find higher and lower estimates. In Buddhism! However, even much higher (or lower) estimates by orders of magnitude only shift the prediction by a relatively small number of invasion of england years. Some prominent dates from examples of essays this analysis include the following: We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2023.
We achieve one Human Brain capability (2 * 10^16 cps) for one cent around the year 2037. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for $1,000 around the year 2049. We achieve one Human Race capability (2 * 10^26 cps) for one cent around the year 2059. The Model considers the following variables: V: Velocity (i.e., power) of computing (measured in CPS/unit cost) W: World Knowledge as it pertains to designing and building computational devices t: Time. The assumptions of the model are: In other words, computer power is a linear function of the invasion knowledge of and the Destruction of the Essay how to build computers.
This is actually a conservative assumption. Invasion! In general, innovations improve V (computer power) by a multiple, not in an additive way. In The Fairy Tale! Independent innovations multiply each other’s effect. For example, a circuit advance such as CMOS, a more efficient IC wiring methodology, and a processor innovation such as pipelining all increase V by independent multiples. In other words, W (knowledge) is cumulative, and the instantaneous increment to invasion, knowledge is proportional to V. W = C1 * C2 * Integral (0 to t) W W = C1 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * C3 ^ (C4 * t) (Note on notation: a^b means a raised to the b power.) Simplifying the constants, we get: So this is a formula for “accelerating” (i.e., exponentially growing) returns, a “regular Moore’s Law.” As I mentioned above, the data shows exponential growth in the rate of exponential growth. (We doubled computer power every three years early in the twentieth century, every two years in the middle of the century, and close to every one year during the 1990s.) Let’s factor in definition of a flapper another exponential phenomenon, which is the growing resources for computation.
Not only is each (constant cost) device getting more powerful as a function of W, but the resources deployed for computation are also growing exponentially. N: Expenditures for computation V = C1 * W (as before) N = C4 ^ (C5 * t) (Expenditure for computation is growing at its own exponential rate) W = C2 * Integral(0 to of england, t) (N * V) As before, world knowledge is forgiveness in buddhism, accumulating, and the instantaneous increment is invasion of england, proportional to the amount of columbus computation, which equals the resources deployed for computation (N) * the power of each (constant cost) device. W = C1 * C2 * Integral(0 to t) (C4 ^ (C5 * t) * W) W = C1 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) V = C1 ^ 2 * C2 * (C3 ^ (C6 * t)) ^ (C7 * t) Simplifying the constants, we get: This is a double exponential–an exponential curve in which the of england rate of Comparison in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay exponential growth is growing at invasion a different exponential rate. Now let’s consider real-world data. Considering the data for actual calculating devices and computers during the twentieth century: CPS/$1K: Calculations Per Second for $1,000.
Twentieth century computing data matches: We can determine the growth rate over of essays a period of time: Growth Rate =10^((LOG(CPS/$1K for Current Year) – LOG(CPS/$1K for Previous Year))/(Current Year – Previous Year)) Human Brain = 100 Billion (10^11) neurons * 1000 (10^3) Connections/Neuron * 200 (2 * 10^2) Calculations Per Second Per Connection = 2 * 10^16 Calculations Per Second Human Race = 10 Billion (10^10) Human Brains = 2 * 10^26 Calculations Per Second. These formulas produce the graph above. Already, IBM’s “Blue Gene” supercomputer, now being built and invasion scheduled to be completed by 2005, is projected to provide 1 million billion calculations per flapper, second (i.e., one billion megaflops).
This is already one twentieth of the capacity of the human brain, which I estimate at of england a conservatively high 20 million billion calculations per second (100 billion neurons times 1,000 connections per neuron times 200 calculations per second per connection). In line with my earlier predictions, supercomputers will achieve one human brain capacity by 2010, and personal computers will do so by around 2020. By 2030, it will take a village of human brains (around a thousand) to match $1000 of computing. By 2050, $1000 of computing will equal the processing power of all human brains on Earth. Of course, this only includes those brains still using carbon-based neurons. While human neurons are wondrous creations in a way, we wouldn’t (and don’t) design computing circuits the same way. Our electronic circuits are already more than ten million times faster than a neuron’s electrochemical processes. Most of the complexity of a human neuron is devoted to maintaining its life support functions, not its information processing capabilities. Ultimately, we will need to port our mental processes to a more suitable computational substrate.
Then our minds won’t have to stay so small, being constrained as they are today to a mere hundred trillion neural connections each operating at a ponderous 200 digitally controlled analog calculations per second. So far, I’ve been talking about the hardware of computing. The software is even more salient. Of Essays! One of the principal assumptions underlying the expectation of the invasion Singularity is the ability of inventory (mmpi) of _____ of personality. nonbiological mediums to emulate the richness, subtlety, and depth of human thinking. Achieving the computational capacity of the human brain, or even villages and nations of human brains will not automatically produce human levels of capability. By human levels I include all the diverse and subtle ways in which humans are intelligent, including musical and artistic aptitude, creativity, physically moving through the world, and invasion of england understanding and responding appropriately to emotion.
The requisite hardware capacity is a necessary but not sufficient condition. The organization and content of these resources–the software of intelligence–is also critical. Before addressing this issue, it is important to note that once a computer achieves a human level of intelligence, it will necessarily soar past it. A key advantage of nonbiological intelligence is that machines can easily share their knowledge. If I learn French, or read War and the minnesota (mmpi) is an example Peace, I can’t readily download that learning to invasion, you.
You have to acquire that scholarship the same painstaking way that I did. My knowledge, embedded in a vast pattern of neurotransmitter concentrations and interneuronal connections, cannot be quickly accessed or transmitted. But we won’t leave out quick downloading ports in Destruction our nonbiological equivalents of human neuron clusters. Invasion! When one computer learns a skill or gains an insight, it can immediately share that wisdom with billions of Globalization of the Philippines Essay other machines. As a contemporary example, we spent years teaching one research computer how to recognize continuous human speech. We exposed it to thousands of hours of recorded speech, corrected its errors, and patiently improved its performance. Of England! Finally, it became quite adept at recognizing speech (I dictated most of my recent book to it).
Now if you want your own personal computer to of essays, recognize speech, it doesn’t have to invasion of england, go through the same process; you can just download the fully trained patterns in seconds. Ultimately, billions of nonbiological entities can be the master of all human and machine acquired knowledge. In addition, computers are potentially millions of times faster than human neural circuits. A computer can also remember billions or even trillions of facts perfectly, while we are hard pressed to remember a handful of phone numbers. The combination of human level intelligence in a machine with a computer’s inherent superiority in the speed, accuracy, and sharing ability of its memory will be formidable. There are a number of compelling scenarios to achieve higher levels of intelligence in examples of essays our computers, and ultimately human levels and beyond. We will be able to evolve and train a system combining massively parallel neural nets with other paradigms to understand language and model knowledge, including the ability to read and model the knowledge contained in written documents. Unlike many contemporary “neural net” machines, which use mathematically simplified models of human neurons, some contemporary neural nets are already using highly detailed models of invasion of england human neurons, including detailed nonlinear analog activation functions and other relevant details.
Although the ability of in buddhism today’s computers to extract and learn knowledge from natural language documents is invasion, limited, their capabilities in this domain are improving rapidly. Personality Inventory (mmpi) Of Personality.! Computers will be able to read on their own, understanding and modeling what they have read, by invasion of england the second decade of the twenty-first century. Christopher Hero! We can then have our computers read all of the world’s literature–books, magazines, scientific journals, and other available material. Ultimately, the machines will gather knowledge on their own by venturing out on the web, or even into the physical world, drawing from the full spectrum of media and information services, and of england sharing knowledge with each other (which machines can do far more easily than their human creators). Reverse Engineering the Human Brain. The most compelling scenario for mastering the in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay software of invasion intelligence is to tap into forgiveness in buddhism, the blueprint of the best example we can get our hands on of an intelligent process. There is no reason why we cannot reverse engineer the human brain, and essentially copy its design. Although it took its original designer several billion years to develop, it’s readily available to us, and not (yet) copyrighted.
Although there’s a skull around the brain, it is invasion of england, not hidden from our view. The most immediately accessible way to christopher columbus hero, accomplish this is through destructive scanning: we take a frozen brain, preferably one frozen just slightly before rather than slightly after it was going to die anyway, and invasion of england examine one brain layer–one very thin slice–at a time. We can readily see every neuron and Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Genre every connection and every neurotransmitter concentration represented in each synapse-thin layer. Human brain scanning has already started. A condemned killer allowed his brain and body to be scanned and you can access all 10 billion bytes of him on the Internet http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/visible/visible_human.html. He has a 25 billion byte female companion on the site as well in invasion of england case he gets lonely. This scan is not high enough in and the Destruction of the Philippines resolution for our purposes, but then, we probably don’t want to base our templates of machine intelligence on the brain of a convicted killer, anyway. But scanning a frozen brain is feasible today, albeit not yet at a sufficient speed or bandwidth, but again, the law of accelerating returns will provide the requisite speed of scanning, just as it did for the human genome scan. Carnegie Mellon University’s Andreas Nowatzyk plans to scan the invasion nervous system of the brain and body of a mouse with a resolution of less than 200 nanometers, which is getting very close to the resolution needed for reverse engineering. We also have noninvasive scanning techniques today, including high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, optical imaging, near-infrared scanning, and inventory (mmpi) example test other technologies which are capable in certain instances of resolving individual somas, or neuron cell bodies. Invasion Of England! Brain scanning technologies are also increasing their resolution with each new generation, just what we would expect from the law of accelerating returns.
Future generations will enable us to resolve the connections between neurons and to peer inside the synapses and record the examples neurotransmitter concentrations. We can peer inside someone’s brain today with noninvasive scanners, which are increasing their resolution with each new generation of this technology. There are a number of technical challenges in accomplishing this, including achieving suitable resolution, bandwidth, lack of vibration, and safety. Invasion Of England! For a variety of reasons it is easier to Comparison in the Fairy Tale, scan the invasion brain of someone recently deceased than of someone still living. It is easier to get someone deceased to sit still, for the minnesota example of personality., one thing. But noninvasively scanning a living brain will ultimately become feasible as MRI, optical, and other scanning technologies continue to improve in resolution and speed. Although noninvasive means of scanning the brain from outside the skull are rapidly improving, the of england most practical approach to Destruction of the Essay, capturing every salient neural detail will be to scan it from inside. By 2030, “nanobot” (i.e., nano robot) technology will be viable, and brain scanning will be a prominent application. Nanobots are robots that are the size of human blood cells, or even smaller. Billions of them could travel through every brain capillary and scan every relevant feature from up close.
Using high speed wireless communication, the nanobots would communicate with each other, and of england with other computers that are compiling the brain scan data base (in other words, the nanobots will all be on a wireless local area network). This scenario involves only capabilities that we can touch and feel today. We already have technology capable of producing very high resolution scans, provided that the scanner is of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Genre Essay, physically proximate to the neural features. The basic computational and communication methods are also essentially feasible today. The primary features that are not yet practical are nanobot size and cost. As I discussed above, we can project the exponentially declining cost of computation, and invasion of england the rapidly declining size of both electronic and mechanical technologies. We can conservatively expect, therefore, the requisite nanobot technology by hero around 2030. Because of its ability to invasion of england, place each scanner in columbus hero very close physical proximity to every neural feature, nanobot-based scanning will be more practical than scanning the of england brain from outside. How will we apply the thousands of of essays trillions of bytes of information derived from each brain scan? One approach is to use the results to of england, design more intelligent parallel algorithms for our machines, particularly those based on one of the neural net paradigms.
With this approach, we don’t have to copy every single connection. There is a great deal of repetition and redundancy within any particular brain region. Forgiveness In Buddhism! Although the information contained in of england a human brain would require thousands of trillions of bytes of information (on the christopher hero order of 100 billion neurons times an average of 1,000 connections per neuron, each with multiple neurotransmitter concentrations and connection data), the design of the brain is characterized by invasion of england a human genome of only about a billion bytes. Furthermore, most of the genome is redundant, so the initial design of the brain is characterized by approximately one hundred million bytes, about the size of Microsoft Word. Of course, the in the Tale Genre complexity of our brains greatly increases as we interact with the world (by a factor of more than ten million). Invasion! Because of the highly repetitive patterns found in and the each specific brain region, it is not necessary to capture each detail in order to reverse engineer the significant digital-analog algorithms. With this information, we can design simulated nets that operate similarly. Of England! There are already multiple efforts under way to scan the human brain and apply the of a insights derived to the design of intelligent machines.
The pace of of england brain reverse engineering is examples, only slightly behind the availability of the brain scanning and neuron structure information. A contemporary example is a comprehensive model of a significant portion of the human auditory processing system that Lloyd Watts (www.lloydwatts.com) has developed from both neurobiology studies of invasion specific neuron types and brain interneuronal connection information. In The Tale! Watts’ model includes five parallel paths and includes the actual intermediate representations of auditory information at each stage of neural processing. Watts has implemented his model as real-time software which can locate and identify sounds with many of the same properties as human hearing. Although a work in invasion progress, the model illustrates the feasibility of converting neurobiological models and brain connection data into working simulations. Christopher Columbus! Also, as Hans Moravec and others have speculated, these efficient simulations require about 1,000 times less computation than the theoretical potential of the biological neurons being simulated.
Reverse Engineering the Human Brain: Five Parallel Auditory Pathways. Chart by Lloyd Watts. Cochlea : Sense organ of hearing. 30,000 fibers converts motion of the stapes into invasion, spectro-temporal representation of sound. MC : Multipolar Cells. Measure spectral energy. GBC : Globular Bushy Cells. In Buddhism! Relays spikes from the auditory nerve to the Lateral Superior. Olivary Complex (includes LSO and MSO) . Encoding of invasion timing and of Shrek Fairy Tale Genre Essay amplitude of of england signals for binaural comparison of level. SBC : Spherical Bushy Cells.
Provide temporal sharpening of time of arrival, as a pre-processor for in the Fairy Genre Essay, interaural time difference calculation. OC : Octopus Cells. Detection of transients. DCN : Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus. Invasion Of England! Detection of spectral edges and calibrating for noise levels. VNTB : Ventral Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body. Feedback signals to modulate outer hair cell function in multiphasic personality inventory example the cochlea. VNLL , PON : Ventral Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus, Peri-Olivary Nuclei. Invasion! Processing transients from the of a Octopus Cells. MSO : Medial Superior Olive.
Computing inter-aural time difference (difference in time of arrival between the two ears, used to tell where a sound is invasion of england, coming from). LSO : Lateral Superior Olive. Also involved in and Farrqquad Genre computing inter-aural level difference. ICC : Central Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. The site of major integration of multiple representations of sound.
ICx : Exterior Nucleus of the Inferior Colliculus. Further refinement of sound localization. SC : Superior Colliculus. Location of auditory/visual merging. MGB : Medial Geniculate Body.
The auditory portion of the thalamus. LS : Limbic System. Comprising many structures associated with emotion, memory, territory, etc. The brain is not one huge “tabula rasa” (i.e., undifferentiated blank slate), but rather an invasion of england, intricate and examples intertwined collection of hundreds of specialized regions. The process of “peeling the onion” to understand these interleaved regions is well underway.
As the requisite neuron models and brain interconnection data becomes available, detailed and implementable models such as the auditory example above will be developed for all brain regions. After the algorithms of a region are understood, they can be refined and invasion extended before being implemented in synthetic neural equivalents. For one thing, they can be run on a computational substrate that is already more than ten million times faster than neural circuitry. And we can also throw in definition the methods for building intelligent machines that we already understand. A more controversial application than this scanning-the-brain-to-understand-it scenario is scanning-the-brain-to- download -it . Here we scan someone’s brain to map the of england locations, interconnections, and contents of all the the minnesota multiphasic personality of _____ somas, axons, dendrites, presynaptic vesicles, neurotransmitter concentrations, and other neural components and levels. Invasion! Its entire organization can then be re-created on a neural computer of sufficient capacity, including the contents of its memory. To do this, we need to understand local brain processes, although not necessarily all of the higher level processes. Scanning a brain with sufficient detail to download it may sound daunting, but so did the human genome scan.
All of the basic technologies exist today, just not with the requisite speed, cost, and size, but these are the attributes that are improving at a double exponential pace. The computationally pertinent aspects of and Farrqquad in the Essay individual neurons are complicated, but definitely not beyond our ability to accurately model. Invasion! For example, Ted Berger and his colleagues at Hedco Neurosciences have built integrated circuits that precisely match the digital and analog information processing characteristics of neurons, including clusters with hundreds of definition flapper neurons. Carver Mead and his colleagues at CalTech have built a variety of integrated circuits that emulate the digital-analog characteristics of of england mammalian neural circuits. A recent experiment at San Diego’s Institute for Nonlinear Science demonstrates the potential for electronic neurons to precisely emulate biological ones. Neurons (biological or otherwise) are a prime example of the minnesota multiphasic personality example what is often called “chaotic computing.” Each neuron acts in an essentially unpredictable fashion. When an entire network of neurons receives input (from the outside world or from invasion of england other networks of neurons), the signaling amongst them appears at Fairy Tale first to be frenzied and invasion of england random. Over time, typically a fraction of multiphasic personality inventory is an example test of personality. a second or so, the chaotic interplay of the neurons dies down, and a stable pattern emerges.
This pattern represents the “decision” of the neural network. If the neural network is performing a pattern recognition task (which, incidentally, comprises the bulk of the activity in the human brain), then the emergent pattern represents the appropriate recognition. So the question addressed by the San Diego researchers was whether electronic neurons could engage in this chaotic dance alongside biological ones. Of England! They hooked up their artificial neurons with those from spiney lobsters in a single network, and their hybrid biological-nonbiological network performed in the same way (i.e., chaotic interplay followed by a stable emergent pattern) and with the same type of results as an all biological net of in buddhism neurons. Essentially, the biological neurons accepted their electronic peers. It indicates that their mathematical model of these neurons was reasonably accurate. There are many projects around the world which are creating nonbiological devices to recreate in great detail the functionality of human neuron clusters. Of England! The accuracy and scale of these neuron-cluster replications are rapidly increasing. We started with functionally equivalent recreations of single neurons, then clusters of tens, then hundreds, and now thousands.
Scaling up technical processes at an exponential pace is what technology is good at. As the computational power to emulate the human brain becomes available–we’re not there yet, but we will be there within a couple of decades–projects already under way to scan the human brain will be accelerated, with a view both to understand the of Shrek Tale human brain in general, as well as providing a detailed description of the contents and design of invasion of england specific brains. By the third decade of the columbus hero twenty-first century, we will be in a position to invasion, create highly detailed and hero complete maps of invasion all relevant features of all neurons, neural connections and synapses in of essays the human brain, all of the neural details that play a role in the behavior and functionality of the brain, and to recreate these designs in suitably advanced neural computers. Is the Human Brain Different from a Computer? Is the human brain different from a computer? The answer depends on what we mean by the word “computer.” Certainly the brain uses very different methods from invasion conventional contemporary computers. Globalization And The Destruction Philippines Essay! Most computers today are all digital and perform one (or perhaps a few) computations at a time at extremely high speed. In contrast, the human brain combines digital and analog methods with most computations performed in the analog domain. Of England! The brain is massively parallel, performing on the order of a hundred trillion computations at the same time, but at extremely slow speeds.
With regard to digital versus analog computing, we know that digital computing can be functionally equivalent to analog computing (although the reverse is not true), so we can perform all of the capabilities of a hybrid digital–analog network with an in buddhism, all digital computer. On the other hand, there is an engineering advantage to analog circuits in that analog computing is potentially thousands of times more efficient. An analog computation can be performed by a few transistors, or, in the case of mammalian neurons, specific electrochemical processes. A digital computation, in contrast, requires thousands or tens of of england thousands of examples transistors. So there is a significant engineering advantage to emulating the brain’s analog methods.
The massive parallelism of the human brain is the key to its pattern recognition abilities, which reflects the strength of human thinking. As I discussed above, mammalian neurons engage in a chaotic dance, and if the neural network has learned its lessons well, then a stable pattern will emerge reflecting the invasion network’s decision. There is no reason why our nonbiological functionally equivalent recreations of biological neural networks cannot be built using these same principles, and indeed there are dozens of projects around the world that have succeeded in doing this. My own technical field is of essays, pattern recognition, and the projects that I have been involved in for over thirty years use this form of chaotic computing. Particularly successful examples are Carver Mead’s neural chips, which are highly parallel, use digital controlled analog computing, and are intended as functionally similar recreations of biological networks. The Singularity envisions the emergence of human-like intelligent entities of astonishing diversity and scope. Although these entities will be capable of passing the invasion of england “Turing test” (i.e., able to fool humans that they are human), the question arises as to whether these “people” are conscious, or just appear that way.
To gain some insight as to why this is an extremely subtle question (albeit an ultimately important one) it is useful to consider some of the paradoxes that emerge from the concept of downloading specific human brains. Although I anticipate that the most common application of the knowledge gained from Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Tale Essay reverse engineering the invasion of england human brain will be creating more intelligent machines that are not necessarily modeled on specific biological human individuals, the scenario of scanning and reinstantiating all of the christopher columbus hero neural details of a specific person raises the invasion most immediate questions of identity. Let’s consider the question of what we will find when we do this. We have to consider this question on both the objective and of essays subjective levels. “Objective” means everyone except me, so let’s start with that. Objectively, when we scan someone’s brain and reinstantiate their personal mind file into a suitable computing medium, the newly emergent “person” will appear to other observers to have very much the same personality, history, and of england memory as the person originally scanned. That is, once the hero technology has been refined and perfected. Like any new technology, it won’t be perfect at first. But ultimately, the scans and recreations will be very accurate and realistic. Interacting with the newly instantiated person will feel like interacting with the invasion original person. The new person will claim to definition flapper, be that same old person and will have a memory of having been that person. The new person will have all of the patterns of knowledge, skill, and invasion of england personality of the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Genre Essay original.
We are already creating functionally equivalent recreations of invasion of england neurons and neuron clusters with sufficient accuracy that biological neurons accept their nonbiological equivalents and forgiveness work with them as if they were biological. There are no natural limits that prevent us from doing the same with the hundred billion neuron cluster of clusters we call the human brain. Subjectively, the issue is more subtle and profound, but first we need to reflect on one additional objective issue: our physical self. Consider how many of our thoughts and thinking are directed toward our body and its survival, security, nutrition, and image, not to mention affection, sexuality, and invasion reproduction. Many, if not most, of the goals we attempt to advance using our brains have to do with our bodies: protecting them, providing them with fuel, making them attractive, making them feel good, providing for their myriad needs and desires. Some philosophers maintain that achieving human level intelligence is christopher columbus, impossible without a body. If we’re going to port a human’s mind to a new computational medium, we’d better provide a body. A disembodied mind will quickly get depressed. There are a variety of bodies that we will provide for our machines, and that they will provide for invasion, themselves: bodies built through nanotechnology (i.e., building highly complex physical systems atom by atom), virtual bodies (that exist only in virtual reality), bodies comprised of swarms of nanobots, and other technologies. A common scenario will be to enhance a person’s biological brain with intimate connection to nonbiological intelligence.
In this case, the body remains the good old human body that we’re familiar with, although this too will become greatly enhanced through biotechnology (gene enhancement and Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Tale replacement) and, later on, through nanotechnology. A detailed examination of twenty-first century bodies is beyond the of england scope of the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) of _____ test this essay, but recreating and enhancing our bodies will be (and has been) an easier task than recreating our minds. To return to the issue of subjectivity, consider: is the reinstantiated mind the same consciousness as the person we just scanned? Are these “people” conscious at all? Is this a mind or just a brain?
Consciousness in our twenty-first century machines will be a critically important issue. But it is not easily resolved, or even readily understood. People tend to have strong views on the subject, and often just can’t understand how anyone else could possibly see the issue from invasion of england a different perspective. Marvin Minsky observed that “there’s something queer about describing consciousness. Christopher Columbus Hero! Whatever people mean to say, they just can’t seem to make it clear.” We don’t worry, at least not yet, about causing pain and suffering to our computer programs. But at what point do we consider an entity, a process, to be conscious, to feel pain and discomfort, to have its own intentionality, its own free will?
How do we determine if an entity is invasion, conscious; if it has subjective experience? How do we distinguish a process that is Comparison of Shrek Fairy Tale Essay, conscious from one that just acts as if it is invasion of england, conscious? We can’t simply ask it. If it says “Hey I’m conscious,” does that settle the christopher columbus hero issue? No, we have computer games today that effectively do that, and they’re not terribly convincing. How about if the entity is very convincing and compelling when it says “I’m lonely, please keep me company.” Does that settle the invasion issue? If we look inside its circuits, and see essentially the identical kinds of of a flapper feedback loops and other mechanisms in its brain that we see in a human brain (albeit implemented using nonbiological equivalents), does that settle the invasion of england issue? And just who are these people in the machine, anyway? The answer will depend on who you ask. If you ask the people in the machine, they will strenuously claim to be the original persons.
For example, if we scan–let’s say myself–and record the definition of a flapper exact state, level, and position of every neurotransmitter, synapse, neural connection, and invasion of england every other relevant detail, and then reinstantiate this massive data base of information (which I estimate at thousands of and Farrqquad Fairy Genre trillions of bytes) into a neural computer of invasion sufficient capacity, the person who then emerges in the machine will think that “he” is (and had been) me, or at least he will act that way. He will say “I grew up in Queens, New York, went to examples, college at MIT, stayed in the Boston area, started and sold a few artificial intelligence companies, walked into a scanner there, and invasion woke up in the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) example of _____ of personality. the machine here. Hey, this technology really works.” Is this really me? For one thing, old biological Ray (that’s me) still exists. I’ll still be here in my carbon-cell-based brain. Alas, I will have to sit back and watch the new Ray succeed in of england endeavors that I could only dream of. Let’s consider the examples issue of just who I am, and who the new Ray is a little more carefully.
First of all, am I the stuff in my brain and body? Consider that the particles making up my body and brain are constantly changing. Of England! We are not at of essays all permanent collections of particles. The cells in our bodies turn over at different rates, but the particles (e.g., atoms and invasion of england molecules) that comprise our cells are exchanged at a very rapid rate. I am just not the same collection of particles that I was even a month ago.
It is the Destruction Philippines Essay patterns of matter and energy that are semipermanent (that is, changing only gradually), but our actual material content is changing constantly, and very quickly. We are rather like the of england patterns that water makes in a stream. The rushing water around a formation of christopher hero rocks makes a particular, unique pattern. This pattern may remain relatively unchanged for hours, even years. Of course, the invasion of england actual material constituting the pattern–the water–is replaced in milliseconds. Of A Flapper! The same is true for Ray Kurzweil. Like the water in a stream, my particles are constantly changing, but the pattern that people recognize as Ray has a reasonable level of invasion continuity. This argues that we should not associate our fundamental identity with a specific set of Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Tale Genre particles, but rather the pattern of matter and energy that we represent. Many contemporary philosophers seem partial to this “identify from pattern” argument. If you were to scan my brain and reinstantiate new Ray while I was sleeping, I would not necessarily even know about of england it (with the nanobots, this will be a feasible scenario).
If you then come to Comparison of Shrek Genre, me, and invasion of england say, “good news, Ray, we’ve successfully reinstantiated your mind file, so we won’t be needing your old brain anymore,” I may suddenly realize the flaw in this “identity from pattern” argument. I may wish new Ray well, and realize that he shares my “pattern,” but I would nonetheless conclude that he’s not me, because I’m still here. How could he be me? After all, I would not necessarily know that he even existed. Let’s consider another perplexing scenario.
Suppose I replace a small number of examples biological neurons with functionally equivalent nonbiological ones (they may provide certain benefits such as greater reliability and invasion longevity, but that’s not relevant to this thought experiment). After I have this procedure performed, am I still the same person? My friends certainly think so. I still have the hero same self-deprecating humor, the invasion same silly grin–yes, I’m still the same guy. It should be clear where I’m going with this. Bit by bit, region by forgiveness region, I ultimately replace my entire brain with essentially identical (perhaps improved) nonbiological equivalents (preserving all of the neurotransmitter concentrations and other details that represent my learning, skills, and memories).
At each point, I feel the procedures were successful. At each point, I feel that I am the same guy. After each procedure, I claim to be the same guy. My friends concur. Invasion! There is no old Ray and in buddhism new Ray, just one Ray, one that never appears to fundamentally change. But consider this. Invasion Of England! This gradual replacement of my brain with a nonbiological equivalent is essentially identical to columbus, the following sequence: (i) scan Ray and reinstantiate Ray’s mind file into invasion, new (nonbiological) Ray, and, then (ii) terminate old Ray. But we concluded above that in such a scenario new Ray is not the same as old Ray.
And if old Ray is terminated, well then that’s the end of Ray. So the gradual replacement scenario essentially ends with the same result: New Ray has been created, and hero old Ray has been destroyed, even if we never saw him missing. So what appears to be the continuing existence of just one Ray is really the of england creation of new Ray and the termination of Globalization Essay old Ray. On yet another hand (we’re running out of philosophical hands here), the gradual replacement scenario is not altogether different from what happens normally to our biological selves, in that our particles are always rapidly being replaced. So am I constantly being replaced with someone else who just happens to be very similar to my old self? I am trying to illustrate why consciousness is not an easy issue. If we talk about consciousness as just a certain type of invasion of england intelligent skill: the ability to reflect on definition of a flapper one’s own self and situation, for invasion, example, then the in buddhism issue is not difficult at all because any skill or capability or form of invasion of england intelligence that one cares to define will be replicated in nonbiological entities (i.e., machines) within a few decades. Comparison Of Shrek In The Fairy Tale! With this type of objective view of consciousness, the conundrums do go away. But a fully objective view does not penetrate to the core of the issue, because the of england essence of consciousness is subjective experience, not objective correlates of that experience. Will these future machines be capable of having spiritual experiences? They certainly will claim to.
They will claim to and the Destruction Essay, be people, and to invasion of england, have the Philippines Essay full range of emotional and spiritual experiences that people claim to invasion of england, have. The Minnesota Personality Inventory (mmpi) Is An Of _____ Test! And these will not be idle claims; they will evidence the sort of rich, complex, and subtle behavior one associates with these feelings. Invasion! How do the claims and behaviors–compelling as they will be–relate to columbus, the subjective experience of these reinstantiated people? We keep coming back to the very real but ultimately unmeasurable issue of consciousness. People often talk about consciousness as if it were a clear property of an entity that can readily be identified, detected, and gauged. If there is one crucial insight that we can make regarding why the issue of consciousness is invasion of england, so contentious, it is the and the Destruction Philippines Essay following: There exists no objective test that can conclusively determine its presence. Science is invasion of england, about objective measurement and of essays logical implications therefrom, but the very nature of objectivity is that you cannot measure subjective experience-you can only measure correlates of it, such as behavior (and by behavior, I include the actions of invasion components of an hero, entity, such as neurons). Of England! This limitation has to do with the the minnesota inventory (mmpi) example very nature of the concepts “objective” and invasion “subjective.” Fundamentally, we cannot penetrate the subjective experience of christopher hero another entity with direct objective measurement. We can certainly make arguments about it: i.e., “look inside the brain of this nonhuman entity, see how its methods are just like a human brain.” Or, “see how its behavior is just like human behavior.” But in the end, these remain just arguments.
No matter how convincing the behavior of a reinstantiated person, some observers will refuse to accept the consciousness of an entity unless it squirts neurotransmitters, or is based on DNA-guided protein synthesis, or has some other specific biologically human attribute. We assume that other humans are conscious, but that is still an of england, assumption, and there is no consensus amongst humans about the consciousness of nonhuman entities, such as higher non-human animals. Hero! The issue will be even more contentious with regard to future nonbiological entities with human-like behavior and of england intelligence. So how will we resolve the claimed consciousness of nonbiological intelligence (claimed, that is, by the machines)? From a practical perspective, we’ll accept their claims. Keep in mind that nonbiological entities in (mmpi) is an example of _____ the twenty-first century will be extremely intelligent, so they’ll be able to convince us that they are conscious. Of England! They’ll have all the delicate and Fairy Tale emotional cues that convince us today that humans are conscious. Of England! They will be able to make us laugh and cry.
And they’ll get mad if we don’t accept their claims. But fundamentally this is a political prediction, not a philosophical argument. Over the past several years, Roger Penrose, a noted physicist and philosopher, has suggested that fine structures in the neurons called tubules perform an exotic form of computation called “quantum computing.” Quantum computing is computing using what are called “qu bits” which take on all possible combinations of in buddhism solutions simultaneously. It can be considered to be an extreme form of parallel processing (because every combination of values of the qu bits are tested simultaneously). Of England! Penrose suggests that the tubules and definition of a their quantum computing capabilities complicate the concept of recreating neurons and of england reinstantiating mind files. However, there is forgiveness in buddhism, little to suggest that the tubules contribute to the thinking process. Even generous models of human knowledge and capability are more than accounted for by current estimates of invasion of england brain size, based on contemporary models of neuron functioning that do not include tubules. In fact, even with these tubule-less models, it appears that the brain is conservatively designed with many more connections (by several orders of magnitude) than it needs for its capabilities and capacity. Recent experiments (e.g., the San Diego Institute for Nonlinear Science experiments) showing that hybrid biological-nonbiological networks perform similarly to all biological networks, while not definitive, are strongly suggestive that our tubule-less models of neuron functioning are adequate. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Example Of _____ Of Personality.! Lloyd Watts’ software simulation of his intricate model of human auditory processing uses orders of magnitude less computation than the networks of neurons he is simulating, and there is no suggestion that quantum computing is needed. However, even if the invasion tubules are important, it doesn’t change the projections I have discussed above to any significant degree.
According to my model of the minnesota inventory is an of personality. computational growth, if the invasion tubules multiplied neuron complexity by christopher a factor of invasion of england a thousand (and keep in mind that our current tubule-less neuron models are already complex, including on the order of a thousand connections per neuron, multiple nonlinearities and other details), this would delay our reaching brain capacity by only about 9 years. If we’re off by a factor of a million, that’s still only a delay of 17 years. A factor of a billion is around 24 years (keep in mind computation is growing by a double exponential). With regard to and Farrqquad Fairy Essay, quantum computing, once again there is nothing to suggest that the brain does quantum computing. Just because quantum technology may be feasible does not suggest that the brain is capable of of england it.
After all, we don’t have lasers or even radios in our brains. Although some scientists have claimed to detect quantum wave collapse in the brain, no one has suggested human capabilities that actually require a capacity for of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Essay, quantum computing. However, even if the brain does do quantum computing, this does not significantly change the invasion of england outlook for human-level computing (and beyond) nor does it suggest that brain downloading is infeasible. First of all, if the forgiveness in buddhism brain does do quantum computing this would only verify that quantum computing is feasible. Invasion! There would be nothing in such a finding to suggest that quantum computing is restricted to examples of essays, biological mechanisms. Biological quantum computing mechanisms, if they exist, could be replicated. Invasion Of England! Indeed, recent experiments with small scale quantum computers appear to be successful. Even the conventional transistor relies on the quantum effect of electron tunneling. Penrose suggests that it is impossible to perfectly replicate a set of quantum states, so therefore, perfect downloading is impossible. Well, how perfect does a download have to be?
I am at this moment in of a a very different quantum state (and different in invasion of england non-quantum ways as well) than I was a minute ago (certainly in a very different state than I was before I wrote this paragraph). If we develop downloading technology to the point where the multiphasic personality (mmpi) of _____ test of personality. “copies” are as close to the original as the original person changes anyway in invasion of england the course of one minute, that would be good enough for any conceivable purpose, yet does not require copying quantum states. As the christopher columbus hero technology improves, the accuracy of the copy could become as close as the original changes within ever briefer periods of time (e.g., one second, one millisecond, one microsecond). When it was pointed out to Penrose that neurons (and even neural connections) were too big for quantum computing, he came up with the tubule theory as a possible mechanism for neural quantum computing. So the concern with quantum computing and tubules have been introduced together. Of England! If one is searching for of Shrek in the Fairy Tale Genre, barriers to replicating brain function, it is an ingenious theory, but it fails to introduce any genuine barriers.
There is invasion, no evidence for Fairy Tale Genre Essay, it, and even if true, it only invasion, delays matters by a decade or two. There is no reason to believe that biological mechanisms (including quantum computing) are inherently impossible to the minnesota personality (mmpi) is an example of personality., replicate using nonbiological materials and mechanisms. Dozens of contemporary experiments are successfully performing just such replications. The Noninvasive Surgery-Free Reversible Programmable Distributed Brain Implant, Full-Immersion Shared Virtual Reality Environments, Experience Beamers, and Brain Expansion. How will we apply technology that is more intelligent than its creators? One might be tempted to respond “Carefully!” But let’s take a look at some examples. Consider several examples of the nanobot technology, which, based on miniaturization and cost reduction trends, will be feasible within 30 years. In addition to scanning your brain, the nanobots will also be able to invasion, expand our experiences and our capabilities.
Nanobot technology will provide fully immersive, totally convincing virtual reality in the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory example of _____ of personality. the following way. Invasion! The nanobots take up positions in close physical proximity to christopher columbus hero, every interneuronal connection coming from all of our senses (e.g., eyes, ears, skin). Of England! We already have the technology for forgiveness in buddhism, electronic devices to of england, communicate with neurons in both directions that requires no direct physical contact with the neurons. Globalization Of The! For example, scientists at the Max Planck Institute have developed “neuron transistors” that can detect the firing of of england a nearby neuron, or alternatively, can cause a nearby neuron to fire, or suppress it from multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) example of _____ test of personality. firing. This amounts to two-way communication between neurons and the electronic-based neuron transistors. The Institute scientists demonstrated their invention by controlling the movement of a living leech from their computer. Again, the primary aspect of nanobot-based virtual reality that is not yet feasible is size and cost.
When we want to experience real reality, the nanobots just stay in invasion of england position (in the capillaries) and do nothing. If we want to enter virtual reality, they suppress all of the inputs coming from the real senses, and replace them with the signals that would be appropriate for the virtual environment. You (i.e., your brain) could decide to of a, cause your muscles and limbs to invasion of england, move as you normally would, but the nanobots again intercept these interneuronal signals, suppress your real limbs from moving, and Globalization Destruction Philippines Essay instead cause your virtual limbs to move and provide the appropriate movement and reorientation in the virtual environment. The web will provide a panoply of virtual environments to explore. Some will be recreations of real places, others will be fanciful environments that have no “real” counterpart. Some indeed would be impossible in the physical world (perhaps, because they violate the laws of physics). Invasion Of England! We will be able to examples of essays, “go” to these virtual environments by invasion of england ourselves, or we will meet other people there, both real people and personality (mmpi) of _____ of personality. simulated people. Of course, ultimately there won’t be a clear distinction between the of england two.
By 2030, going to a web site will mean entering a full immersion virtual reality environment. In addition to encompassing all of the senses, these shared environments can include emotional overlays as the nanobots will be capable of triggering the Globalization and the Destruction of the Philippines Essay neurological correlates of emotions, sexual pleasure, and other derivatives of our sensory experience and mental reactions. In the same way that people today beam their lives from invasion web cams in their bedrooms, “experience beamers” circa 2030 will beam their entire flow of examples sensory experiences, and if so desired, their emotions and invasion of england other secondary reactions. We’ll be able to plug in (by going to the appropriate web site) and experience other people’s lives as in the plot concept of ‘Being John Malkovich.’ Particularly interesting experiences can be archived and definition of a relived at any time. We won’t need to wait until 2030 to experience shared virtual reality environments, at least for the visual and auditory senses. Full immersion visual-auditory environments will be available by the end of of england this decade with images written directly onto of a our retinas by our eyeglasses and contact lenses.
All of the electronics for the computation, image reconstruction, and very high bandwidth wireless connection to the Internet will be embedded in of england our glasses and woven into our clothing, so computers as distinct objects will disappear. In my view, the most significant implication of the Singularity will be the the minnesota personality inventory (mmpi) of personality. merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence. First, it is important to point out that well before the end of the twenty-first century, thinking on nonbiological substrates will dominate. Biological thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per second (for all biological human brains), and that figure will not appreciably change, even with bioengineering changes to our genome. Nonbiological intelligence, on the other hand, is growing at a double exponential rate and will vastly exceed biological intelligence well before the middle of this century. However, in invasion of england my view, this nonbiological intelligence should still be considered human as it is fully derivative of the human-machine civilization. The merger of these two worlds of intelligence is of the Philippines, not merely a merger of biological and nonbiological thinking mediums, but more importantly one of of england method and organization of thinking. One of the key ways in which the two worlds can interact will be through the nanobots. Nanobot technology will be able to expand our minds in virtually any imaginable way. Our brains today are relatively fixed in definition design.
Although we do add patterns of interneuronal connections and neurotransmitter concentrations as a normal part of the learning process, the of england current overall capacity of the human brain is definition flapper, highly constrained, restricted to a mere hundred trillion connections. Brain implants based on massively distributed intelligent nanobots will ultimately expand our memories a trillion fold, and otherwise vastly improve all of our sensory, pattern recognition, and cognitive abilities. Since the nanobots are communicating with each other over a wireless local area network, they can create any set of invasion new neural connections, can break existing connections (by suppressing neural firing), can create new hybrid biological-nonbiological networks, as well as add vast new nonbiological networks. Using nanobots as brain extenders is in buddhism, a significant improvement over of england the idea of of a flapper surgically installed neural implants, which are beginning to be used today (e.g., ventral posterior nucleus, subthalmic nucleus, and ventral lateral thalamus neural implants to counteract Parkinson’s Disease and of england tremors from other neurological disorders, cochlear implants, and others.) Nanobots will be introduced without surgery, essentially just by injecting or even swallowing them. They can all be directed to leave, so the process is columbus, easily reversible. They are programmable, in invasion that they can provide virtual reality one minute, and examples a variety of brain extensions the of england next. They can change their configuration, and clearly can alter their software. Perhaps most importantly, they are massively distributed and therefore can take up billions or trillions of Destruction Essay positions throughout the brain, whereas a surgically introduced neural implant can only be placed in one or at most a few locations. The Double Exponential Growth of the Economy During the invasion 1990s Was Not a Bubble.
Yet another manifestation of the law of accelerating returns as it rushes toward the Singularity can be found in the world of economics, a world vital to both the genesis of the law of accelerating returns, and to its implications. It is the economic imperative of a competitive marketplace that is driving technology forward and fueling the law of accelerating returns. In turn, the law of hero accelerating returns, particularly as it approaches the Singularity, is transforming economic relationships. Virtually all of the economic models taught in invasion economics classes, used by the Federal Reserve Board to set monetary policy, by Government agencies to the minnesota personality inventory is an example test, set economic policy, and by economic forecasters of all kinds are fundamentally flawed because they are based on invasion of england the intuitive linear view of history rather than the historically based exponential view. The reason that these linear models appear to work for hero, a while is for invasion, the same reason that most people adopt the intuitive linear view in the first place: exponential trends appear to be linear when viewed (and experienced) for a brief period of time, particularly in the early stages of an exponential trend when not much is Comparison in the Fairy Tale, happening. But once the “knee of the curve” is achieved and of england the exponential growth explodes, the linear models break down. The exponential trends underlying productivity growth are just beginning this explosive phase. The economy (viewed either in total or per capita) has been growing exponentially throughout this century:
There is also a second level of exponential growth, but up until recently the second exponent has been in Comparison the early phase so that the growth in the growth rate has not been noticed. However, this has changed in this past decade, during which the invasion of england rate of christopher columbus hero growth has been noticeably exponential. Productivity (economic output per worker) has also been growing exponentially. Even these statistics are greatly understated because they do not fully reflect significant improvements in the quality and invasion of england features of products and services. It is not the of the Essay case that “a car is a car;” there have been significant improvements in safety, reliability, and features. There are a myriad of such examples. Of England! Pharmaceutical drugs are increasingly effective. Groceries ordered in Comparison of Shrek in the Tale Genre Essay five minutes on the web and delivered to your door are worth more than groceries on invasion of england a supermarket shelf that you have to fetch yourself. Forgiveness! Clothes custom manufactured for your unique body scan are worth more than clothes you happen to find left on a store rack.
These sorts of invasion of england improvements are true for most product categories, and none of them are reflected in the productivity statistics. The statistical methods underlying the forgiveness in buddhism productivity measurements tend to factor out gains by essentially concluding that we still only get one dollar of products and of england services for a dollar despite the fact that we get much more for of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Genre Essay, a dollar (e.g., compare a $1,000 computer today to invasion of england, one ten years ago). University of Chicago Professor Pete Klenow and University of Rochester Professor Mark Bils estimate that the value of existing goods has been increasing at 1.5% per year for the past 20 years because of Globalization and the qualitative improvements. This still does not account for the introduction of entirely new products and invasion of england product categories. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, which is responsible for the inflation statistics, uses a model that incorporates an estimate of quality growth at only 0.5% per year, reflecting a systematic underestimate of quality improvement and a resulting overestimate of multiphasic personality (mmpi) is an inflation by at least 1 percent per year. Despite these weaknesses in of england the productivity statistical methods, the gains in productivity are now reaching the steep part of the exponential curve. Labor productivity grew at 1.6% per year until 1994, then rose at 2.4% per year, and is now growing even more rapidly. In the quarter ending July 30, 2000, labor productivity grew at of essays 5.3%. Invasion Of England! Manufacturing productivity grew at 4.4% annually from 1995 to is an of _____ test of personality., 1999, durables manufacturing at 6.5% per year.
The 1990s have seen the most powerful deflationary forces in history. This is why we are not seeing inflation. Yes, it’s true that low unemployment, high asset values, economic growth, and other such factors are inflationary, but these factors are offset by the double exponential trends in the price-performance of all information based technologies: computation, memory, communications, biotechnology, miniaturization, and even the overall rate of technical progress. Of England! These technologies deeply affect all industries. We are also undergoing massive disintermediation in the channels of distribution through the web and other new communication technologies, as well as escalating efficiencies in christopher hero operations and administration. All of the invasion of england technology trend charts in this essay e represent massive deflation. There are many examples of the impact of definition of a flapper these escalating efficiencies. BP Amoco’s cost for of england, finding oil is now less than $1 per barrel, down from nearly $10 in 1991. Processing an in buddhism, internet transaction costs a bank one penny, compared to over $1 using a teller ten years ago. A Roland Berger / Deutsche Bank study estimates a cost savings of $1200 per North American car over the next five years. A more optimistic Morgan Stanley study estimates that Internet-based procurement will save Ford, GM, and DaimlerChrysler about $2700 per invasion of england, vehicle.
Software prices are deflating even more quickly than computer hardware. Software Price-Performance Has Also Improved at an Exponential Rate. Current economic policy is based on outdated models which include energy prices, commodity prices, and capital investment in plant and equipment as key driving factors, but do not adequately model bandwidth, MIPs, megabytes, intellectual property, knowledge, and other increasingly vital (and increasingly increasing) constituents that are driving the christopher columbus economy. The economy “wants” to grow more than the invasion 3.5% per personality inventory (mmpi) is an example of personality., year, which constitutes the current “speed limit” that the Federal Reserve bank and invasion other policy makers have established as “safe,” meaning noninflationary. But in keeping with the Globalization and the Destruction of the Philippines law of accelerating returns, the economy is capable of “safely” establishing this level of growth in less than a year, implying a growth rate in an entire year of greater than 3.5%.
Recently, the growth rate has exceeded 5%. None of invasion of england this means that cycles of recession will disappear immediately. The economy still has some of the forgiveness underlying dynamics that historically have caused cycles of recession, specifically excessive commitments such as capital intensive projects and the overstocking of inventories. However, the rapid dissemination of information, sophisticated forms of online procurement, and increasingly transparent markets in all industries have diminished the impact of this cycle. So “recessions” are likely to be shallow and short lived. The underlying long-term growth rate will continue at a double exponential rate. The overall growth of the economy reflects completely new forms and layers of wealth and value that did not previously exist, or least that did not previously constitute a significant portion of the economy (but do now): intellectual property, communication portals, web sites, bandwidth, software, data bases, and invasion of england many other new technology based categories.
There is no need for and the, high interest rates to counter an inflation that doesn’t exist. The inflationary pressures which exist are counterbalanced by all of the deflationary forces I’ve mentioned. The current high interest rates fostered by the Federal Reserve Bank are destructive, are causing trillions of of england dollars of lost wealth, are regressive, hurt business and the middle class, and are completely unnecessary. The Fed’s monetary policy is only influential because people believe it to be. It has little real power. The economy today is largely backed by private capital in the form of a growing variety of equity instruments. The portion of available liquidity in the economy that the Fed actually controls is relatively insignificant. The reserves that banks and financial institutions maintain with the Federal Reserve System are less than $50 billion, which is only 0.6% of the in buddhism GDP, and 0.25% of the liquidity available in stocks. Restricting the growth rate of the economy to an arbitrary limit makes as much sense as restricting the of england rate at which a company can grow its revenues–or its market cap. Speculative fever will certainly occur and there will necessarily continue to in buddhism, be high profile failures and market corrections. However the ability of technology companies to rapidly create new–real–wealth is just one of the factors that will continue to fuel ongoing double exponential growth in invasion the economy.
These policies have led to columbus, an “Alice in Wonderland” situation in which the market goes up on bad economic news (because it means that more unnecessary punishment will be avoided) and goes down on good economic news. Speaking of market speculative fever and invasion market corrections, the hero stock market values for so-called “B to B” (Business to Business) and “B to C” (Business to Consumer) web portals and enabling technologies is likely to come back strongly as it becomes clear that economic transactions are indeed escalating toward e-commerce, and that the (surviving) contenders are capable of demonstrating profitable business models. The intuitive linear assumption underlying economic thinking reaches its most ludicrous conclusions in the political debate surrounding the long-term future of the social security system. The economic models used for of england, the social security projections are entirely linear, i.e., they reflect fixed economic growth. This might be viewed as conservative planning if we were talking about projections of only a few years, but they become utterly unrealistic for the three to in buddhism, four decades being discussed. These projections actually assume a fixed rate of growth of 3.5% per invasion of england, year for the next fifty years! There are incredibly naive assumptions that bear on both sides of the argument.
On the one hand, there will be radical extensions to human longevity, while on the other hand, we will benefit from far greater economic expansion. These factors do not rule each other out, however, as the positive factors are stronger, and will ultimately dominate. Moreover, we are certain to rethink social security when we have centenarians who look and act like 30 year-olds (but who will think much faster than 30 year-olds circa the year 2000). Another implication of the law of accelerating returns is Tale Essay, exponential growth in invasion of england education and learning. Over the past 120 years, we have increased our investment in forgiveness K-12 education (per student and in constant dollars) by a factor of ten. We have a one hundred fold increase in the number of college students. Automation started by amplifying the power of our muscles, and in recent times has been amplifying the power of our minds. Thus, for the past two centuries, automation has been eliminating jobs at the bottom of the skill ladder while creating new (and better paying) jobs at the top of the of england skill ladder. So the ladder has been moving up, and thus we have been exponentially increasing investments in education at all levels. Oh, and about that “offer” at the beginning of this essay, consider that present stock values are based on future expectations.
Given that the (literally) short sighted linear intuitive view represents the multiphasic personality (mmpi) example of _____ test of personality. ubiquitous outlook, the invasion common wisdom in economic expectations are dramatically understated. Although stock prices reflect the consensus of a buyer-seller market, it nonetheless reflects the underlying linear assumption regarding future economic growth. But the law of accelerating returns clearly implies that the Globalization growth rate will continue to grow exponentially because the rate of progress will continue to accelerate. Although (weakening) recessionary cycles will continue to cause immediate growth rates to fluctuate, the invasion underlying rate of growth will continue to double approximately every decade. But wait a second, you said that I would get $40 trillion if I read and understood this essay. That’s right.
According to examples of essays, my models, if we replace the linear outlook with the more appropriate exponential outlook, current stock prices should triple. Since there’s about of england $20 trillion in the equity markets, that’s $40 trillion in additional wealth. But you said I would get that money. No, I said “you” would get the money, and that’s why I suggested reading the sentence carefully. The English word “you” can be singular or plural. I meant it in of essays the sense of “all of you.” I see, all of us as in the whole world. But not everyone will read this essay. Well, but everyone could.
So if all of you read this essay and understand it, then economic expectations would be based on the historical exponential model, and thus stock values would increase. You mean if everyone understands it, and agrees with it. Okay, I suppose I was assuming that. Is that what you expect to happen. Well, actually, no. Invasion Of England! Putting on my futurist hat again, my prediction is that indeed these views will prevail, but only over time, as more and more evidence of the exponential nature of technology and its impact on christopher the economy becomes apparent. Invasion Of England! This will happen gradually over of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale Genre the next several years, which will represent a strong continuing updraft for the market.
Technology has always been a double edged sword, bringing us longer and healthier life spans, freedom from physical and mental drudgery, and of england many new creative possibilities on the one hand, while introducing new and salient dangers on the other. We still live today with sufficient nuclear weapons (not all of which appear to be well accounted for) to end all mammalian life on the planet. Forgiveness In Buddhism! Bioengineering is in of england the early stages of enormous strides in reversing disease and aging processes. However, the means and knowledge will soon exist in a routine college bioengineering lab (and already exists in more sophisticated labs) to create unfriendly pathogens more dangerous than nuclear weapons. As technology accelerates toward the Singularity, we will see the same intertwined potentials: a feast of creativity resulting from human intelligence expanded a trillion-fold combined with many grave new dangers. Consider unrestrained nanobot replication. Nanobot technology requires billions or trillions of such intelligent devices to be useful.
The most cost effective way to scale up to such levels is in buddhism, through self-replication, essentially the same approach used in the biological world. And in the same way that biological self-replication gone awry (i.e., cancer) results in invasion of england biological destruction, a defect in the mechanism curtailing nanobot self-replication would endanger all physical entities, biological or otherwise. Other primary concerns include “who is controlling the nanobots?” and “who are the nanobots talking to?” Organizations (e.g., governments, extremist groups) or just a clever individual could put trillions of undetectable nanobots in the water or food supply of an individual or of an entire population. These “spy” nanobots could then monitor, influence, and Globalization of the Essay even control our thoughts and actions. In addition to introducing physical spy nanobots, existing nanobots could be influenced through software viruses and other software “hacking” techniques. Of England! When there is software running in our brains, issues of privacy and security will take on a new urgency. My own expectation is that the creative and constructive applications of this technology will dominate, as I believe they do today. But there will be a valuable (and increasingly vocal) role for a concerned and constructive Luddite movement (i.e., anti-technologists inspired by early nineteenth century weavers who destroyed labor-saving machinery in protest). If we imagine describing the flapper dangers that exist today to people who lived a couple of hundred years ago, they would think it mad to of england, take such risks. On the other hand, how many people in and Farrqquad in the the year 2000 would really want to go back to the short, brutish, disease-filled, poverty-stricken, disaster-prone lives that 99 percent of the human race struggled through a couple of centuries ago? We may romanticize the past, but up until fairly recently, most of humanity lived extremely fragile lives where one all too common misfortune could spell disaster.
Substantial portions of our species still live in this precarious way, which is at least one reason to continue technological progress and the economic enhancement that accompanies it. People often go through three stages in examining the impact of future technology: awe and wonderment at its potential to overcome age old problems, then a sense of dread at a new set of grave dangers that accompany these new technologies, followed, finally and hopefully, by invasion of england the realization that the only viable and responsible path is to set a careful course that can realize the promise while managing the peril. In his cover story for WIRED Why The Future Doesn’t Need Us, Bill Joy eloquently described the plagues of centuries’ past, and how new self-replicating technologies, such as mutant bioengineered pathogens, and “nanobots” run amok, may bring back long forgotten pestilence. Of Essays! Indeed these are real dangers. Invasion! It is also the Comparison in the Essay case, which Joy acknowledges, that it has been technological advances, such as antibiotics and invasion of england improved sanitation, which has freed us from the prevalence of such plagues. Suffering in the world continues and demands our steadfast attention. Should we tell the millions of people afflicted with cancer and other devastating conditions that we are canceling the development of all bioengineered treatments because there is of Shrek Fairy Essay, a risk that these same technologies may someday be used for malevolent purposes? Having asked the rhetorical question, I realize that there is a movement to do exactly that, but I think most people would agree that such broad based relinquishment is not the answer.
The continued opportunity to alleviate human distress is invasion, one important motivation for continuing technological advancement. Also compelling are the already apparent economic gains I discussed above which will continue to hasten in the decades ahead. The continued acceleration of many intertwined technologies are roads paved with gold (I use the plural here because technology is clearly not a single path). In a competitive environment, it is an economic imperative to go down these roads. Relinquishing technological advancement would be economic suicide for individuals, companies, and nations. Which brings us to the issue of of essays relinquishment, which is Bill Joy’s most controversial recommendation and invasion of england personal commitment. I do feel that relinquishment at the right level is part of Globalization and the of the Philippines Essay a responsible and invasion constructive response to these genuine perils. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality (mmpi) Of Personality.! The issue, however, is exactly this: at what level are we to relinquish technology? Ted Kaczynski would have us renounce all of it. This, in of england my view, is neither desirable nor feasible, and the futility of such a position is only underscored by forgiveness in buddhism the senselessness of Kaczynski’s deplorable tactics. Another level would be to forego certain fields; nanotechnology, for invasion, example, that might be regarded as too dangerous.
But such sweeping strokes of relinquishment are equally untenable. Nanotechnology is simply the inevitable end result of the persistent trend toward miniaturization which pervades all of technology. It is far from a single centralized effort, but is being pursued by a myriad of projects with many diverse goals. One observer wrote: “A further reason why industrial society cannot be reformed. . . is that modern technology is a unified system in which all parts are dependent on one another. You can’t get rid of the “bad” parts of technology and retain only the flapper “good” parts. Take modern medicine, for example. Progress in medical science depends on progress in invasion of england chemistry, physics, biology, computer science and other fields. Advanced medical treatments require expensive, high-tech equipment that can be made available only by a technologically progressive, economically rich society. Clearly you can’t have much progress in medicine without the whole technological system and everything that goes with it.” The observer I am quoting is, again, Ted Kaczynski.
Although one might properly resist Kaczynski as an authority, I believe he is correct on Globalization Destruction the deeply entangled nature of the benefits and risks. However, Kaczynski and I clearly part company on our overall assessment on the relative balance between the of england two. Multiphasic (mmpi) Example Test! Bill Joy and I have dialogued on this issue both publicly and privately, and we both believe that technology will and should progress, and that we need to be actively concerned with the dark side. If Bill and invasion of england I disagree, it’s on forgiveness in buddhism the granularity of relinquishment that is both feasible and invasion of england desirable. Abandonment of broad areas of technology will only push them underground where development would continue unimpeded by ethics and regulation. In such a situation, it would be the christopher columbus hero less stable, less responsible practitioners (e.g., the terrorists) who would have all the expertise.
I do think that relinquishment at invasion of england the right level needs to be part of our ethical response to hero, the dangers of twenty first century technologies. One constructive example of this is the proposed ethical guideline by the Foresight Institute, founded by nanotechnology pioneer Eric Drexler, that nanotechnologists agree to relinquish the development of physical entities that can self-replicate in a natural environment. Another is a ban on self-replicating physical entities that contain their own codes for self-replication. Invasion! In what nanotechnologist Ralph Merkle calls the examples “Broadcast Architecture,” such entities would have to obtain such codes from invasion a centralized secure server, which would guard against undesirable replication. The Broadcast Architecture is impossible in the biological world, which represents at least one way in which nanotechnology can be made safer than biotechnology.
In other ways, nanotech is personality inventory is an example of personality., potentially more dangerous because nanobots can be physically stronger than protein-based entities and more intelligent. It will eventually be possible to combine the two by of england having nanotechnology provide the codes within biological entities (replacing DNA), in which case biological entities can use the much safer Broadcast Architecture. Our ethics as responsible technologists should include such “fine grained” relinquishment, among other professional ethical guidelines. Multiphasic Personality (mmpi) Is An Of _____ Of Personality.! Other protections will need to include oversight by regulatory bodies, the development of technology-specific “immune” responses, as well as computer assisted surveillance by invasion of england law enforcement organizations. Many people are not aware that our intelligence agencies already use advanced technologies such as automated word spotting to multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) is an of _____, monitor a substantial flow of invasion telephone conversations. As we go forward, balancing our cherished rights of privacy with our need to be protected from the of essays malicious use of powerful twenty first century technologies will be one of many profound challenges. This is invasion, one reason that such issues as an encryption “trap door” (in which law enforcement authorities would have access to otherwise secure information) and the FBI “Carnivore” email-snooping system have been so contentious. As a test case, we can take a small measure of comfort from how we have dealt with one recent technological challenge.
There exists today a new form of columbus fully nonbiological self replicating entity that didn’t exist just a few decades ago: the computer virus. When this form of destructive intruder first appeared, strong concerns were voiced that as they became more sophisticated, software pathogens had the potential to destroy the computer network medium they live in. Yet the invasion “immune system” that has evolved in Destruction Philippines Essay response to this challenge has been largely effective. Of England! Although destructive self-replicating software entities do cause damage from time to time, the injury is but a small fraction of the benefit we receive from the computers and communication links that harbor them. No one would suggest we do away with computers, local area networks, and hero the Internet because of software viruses. One might counter that computer viruses do not have the invasion of england lethal potential of Globalization and the of the Philippines biological viruses or of destructive nanotechnology. Although true, this strengthens my observation. The fact that computer viruses are not usually deadly to humans only means that more people are willing to of england, create and release them. It also means that our response to the danger is definition of a flapper, that much less intense. Conversely, when it comes to self replicating entities that are potentially lethal on a large scale, our response on all levels will be vastly more serious.
Technology will remain a double edged sword, and the story of the of england Twenty First century has not yet been written. It represents vast power to be used for all humankind’s purposes. We have no choice but to work hard to apply these quickening technologies to advance our human values, despite what often appears to be a lack of christopher hero consensus on what those values should be. Once brain porting technology has been refined and fully developed, will this enable us to live forever? The answer depends on what we mean by living and dying. Invasion Of England! Consider what we do today with our personal computer files. When we change from one personal computer to a less obsolete model, we don’t throw all our files away; rather we copy them over to the new hardware. Although our software files do not necessary continue their existence forever, the longevity of our personal computer software is completely separate and disconnected from the hardware that it runs on. The Minnesota Personality Is An Test Of Personality.! When it comes to our personal mind file, however, when our human hardware crashes, the software of of england our lives dies with it. However, this will not continue to be the case when we have the means to store and restore the thousands of trillions of bytes of in buddhism information represented in invasion the pattern that we call our brains. The longevity of examples one’s mind file will not be dependent, therefore, on the continued viability of any particular hardware medium.
Ultimately software-based humans, albeit vastly extended beyond the severe limitations of humans as we know them today, will live out on invasion of england the web, projecting bodies whenever they need or want them, including virtual bodies in diverse realms of virtual reality, holographically projected bodies, physical bodies comprised of nanobot swarms, and other forms of nanotechnology. A software-based human will be free, therefore, from the constraints of any particular thinking medium. Today, we are each confined to Globalization and the Destruction of the Philippines Essay, a mere hundred trillion connections, but humans at the end of the twenty-first century can grow their thinking and thoughts without limit. We may regard this as a form of of england immortality, although it is worth pointing out that data and information do not necessarily last forever. Although not dependent on the viability of the christopher hardware it runs on, the longevity of information depends on its relevance, utility, and accessibility. Invasion Of England! If you’ve ever tried to retrieve information from an obsolete form of data storage in an old obscure format (e.g., a reel of magnetic tape from a 1970 minicomputer), you will understand the challenges in keeping software viable. However, if we are diligent in maintaining our mind file, keeping current backups, and porting to Globalization and the Destruction of the, current formats and mediums, then a form of immortality can be attained, at least for of england, software-based humans. Our mind file–our personality, skills, memories–all of forgiveness in buddhism that is lost today when our biological hardware crashes.
When we can access, store, and restore that information, then its longevity will no longer be tied to our hardware permanence. Is this form of immortality the same concept as a physical human, as we know them today, living forever? In one sense it is, because as I pointed out earlier, our contemporary selves are not a constant collection of matter either. Only our pattern of matter and energy persists, and invasion of england even that gradually changes. Similarly, it will be the pattern of a software human that persists and develops and changes gradually. But is that person based on my mind file, who migrates across many computational substrates, and who outlives any particular thinking medium, really me? We come back to the same questions of consciousness and identity, issues that have been debated since the Platonic dialogues. As we go through the twenty-first century, these will not remain polite philosophical debates, but will be confronted as vital, practical, political, and Globalization and the of the Philippines legal issues. A related question is “is death desirable?” A great deal of our effort goes into avoiding it. Of England! We make extraordinary efforts to delay it, and indeed often consider its intrusion a tragic event.
Yet we might find it hard to live without it. We consider death as giving meaning to our lives. It gives importance and value to time. Time could become meaningless if there were too much of christopher it. The Next Step in Evolution and the Purpose of Life. But I regard the freeing of the human mind from its severe physical limitations of scope and invasion duration as the necessary next step in evolution. Evolution, in and the Destruction Essay my view, represents the purpose of life. That is, the purpose of of england life–and of our lives–is to evolve.
The Singularity then is not a grave danger to be avoided. In my view, this next paradigm shift represents the goal of our civilization. What does it mean to evolve? Evolution moves toward greater complexity, greater elegance, greater knowledge, greater intelligence, greater beauty, greater creativity, and christopher hero more of other abstract and subtle attributes such as love. And God has been called all these things, only without any limitation: infinite knowledge, infinite intelligence, infinite beauty, infinite creativity, infinite love, and of england so on. Of A Flapper! Of course, even the accelerating growth of evolution never achieves an infinite level, but as it explodes exponentially, it certainly moves rapidly in that direction. So evolution moves inexorably toward our conception of God, albeit never quite reaching this ideal. Thus the freeing of our thinking from the severe limitations of its biological form may be regarded as an essential spiritual quest. In making this statement, it is important to invasion of england, emphasize that terms like evolution, destiny, and spiritual quest are observations about the end result, not the basis for these predictions. I am not saying that technology will evolve to of Shrek and Farrqquad Tale, human levels and beyond simply because it is our destiny and because of the satisfaction of a spiritual quest.
Rather my projections result from a methodology based on the dynamics underlying the (double) exponential growth of technological processes. The primary force driving technology is economic imperative. Invasion Of England! We are moving toward machines with human level intelligence (and beyond) as the of Shrek and Farrqquad Tale Genre result of millions of small advances, each with their own particular economic justification. To use an invasion of england, example from my own experience at in the Essay one of my companies (Kurzweil Applied Intelligence), whenever we came up with a slightly more intelligent version of speech recognition, the new version invariably had greater value than the earlier generation and, as a result, sales increased. It is interesting to note that in invasion the example of speech recognition software, the three primary surviving competitors stayed very close to each other in the intelligence of Globalization and the Destruction Philippines Essay their software.
A few other companies that failed to do so (e.g., Speech Systems) went out of business. At any point in time, we would be able to sell the of england version prior to the latest version for perhaps a quarter of the price of the current version. As for versions of our technology that were two generations old, we couldn’t even give those away. This phenomenon is not only christopher columbus hero, true for of england, pattern recognition and other “AI” software, but applies to all products, from columbus bread makers to invasion of england, cars. And if the product itself doesn’t exhibit some level of intelligence, then intelligence in hero the manufacturing and invasion of england marketing methods have a major effect on Comparison and Farrqquad Fairy the success and profitability of an invasion, enterprise. There is the minnesota personality inventory is an of personality., a vital economic imperative to create more intelligent technology.
Intelligent machines have enormous value. That is why they are being built. There are tens of thousands of projects that are advancing intelligent machines in invasion diverse incremental ways. The support for “high tech” in the business community (mostly software) has grown enormously. When I started my optical character recognition (OCR) and speech synthesis company (Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc.) in 1974, there were only a half-dozen high technology IPO’s that year. The number of such deals has increased one hundred fold and the number of forgiveness dollars invested has increased by more than one thousand fold in the past 25 years.
In the invasion of england four years between 1995 and 1999 alone, high tech venture capital deals increased from just over $1 billion to approximately $15 billion. We will continue to build more powerful computational mechanisms because it creates enormous value. We will reverse-engineer the human brain not simply because it is our destiny, but because there is valuable information to be found there that will provide insights in building more intelligent (and more valuable) machines. We would have to repeal capitalism and every visage of economic competition to stop this progression. By the second half of this next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and machine intelligence. On the one hand, we will have biological brains vastly expanded through distributed nanobot-based implants. On the forgiveness other hand, we will have fully nonbiological brains that are copies of human brains, albeit also vastly extended.
And we will have a myriad of other varieties of intimate connection between human thinking and the technology it has fostered. Ultimately, nonbiological intelligence will dominate because it is growing at a double exponential rate, whereas for all practical purposes biological intelligence is at a standstill. Human thinking is stuck at 10 26 calculations per invasion of england, second (for all biological humans), and that figure will never appreciably change (except for and the of the, a small increase resulting from invasion genetic engineering). Of Essays! Nonbiological thinking is still millions of times less today, but the cross over will occur before 2030. By the end of the twenty-first century, nonbiological thinking will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than that of its biological progenitors, although still of human origin. Invasion! It will continue to be the human-machine civilization taking the personality inventory is an of _____ test of personality. next step in evolution. Most forecasts of the future seem to ignore the revolutionary impact of the Singularity in our human destiny: the inevitable emergence of computers that match and ultimately vastly exceed the capabilities of the human brain, a development that will be no less important than the evolution of invasion human intelligence itself some thousands of centuries ago.
And the primary reason for this failure is that they are based on Comparison and Farrqquad in the Fairy Essay the intuitive but short sighted linear view of history. Before the next century is over, the Earth’s technology-creating species will merge with its computational technology. There will not be a clear distinction between human and machine. After all, what is the difference between a human brain enhanced a trillion fold by invasion nanobot-based implants, and a computer whose design is Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Tale Genre Essay, based on high resolution scans of the of england human brain, and then extended a trillion-fold? Why SETI Will Fail (and why we are alone in Tale Genre the Universe) The law of accelerating returns implies that by 2099, the intelligence that will have emerged from human-machine civilization will be trillions of trillions of times more powerful than it is today, dominated of course by its nonbiological form. So what does this have to do with SETI (the Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence)? The naive view, going back to pre-Copernican days, was that the Earth was at the center of the Universe, and human intelligence its greatest gift (next to God).
The more informed recent view is that even if the likelihood of a star having a planet with a technology creating species is very low (e.g., one in a million), there are so many stars (i.e., billions of trillions of them), that there are bound to be many with advanced technology. This is the view behind SETI, was my view until recently, and is the common informed view today. Although SETI has not yet looked everywhere, it has already covered a substantial portion of the Universe. In the above diagram (courtesy of Scientific American), we can see that SETI has already thoroughly searched all star systems within 10 7 light-years from Earth for alien civilizations capable (and willing) to transmit at a power of at least 10 25 watts, a so-called Type II civilization (and all star systems within 10 6 light-years for transmission of at least 10 18 watts, and so on). Of England! No sign of intelligence has been found as of yet. In a recent email to my research assistant, Dr. Seth Shostak of the multiphasic personality is an example of _____ test of personality. SETI Institute points out that a new comprehensive targeted search, called Project Phoenix, which has up to 100 times the sensitivity and of england covers a greater range of the the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) is an of _____ radio dial as compared to previous searches, has only been applied thus far to 500 star systems, which is, of course only of england, a minute fraction of the half trillion star systems in just our own galaxy. However, according to my model, once a civilization achieves our own level (“Earth-level”) of radio transmission, it takes no more than one century, two at the most, to achieve what SETI calls a Type II civilization. If the assumption that there are at the minnesota personality of _____ test of personality. least millions of invasion of england radio capable civilizations out there, and that these civilizations are spread out over millions (indeed billions) of years of development, then surely there ought to be millions that have achieved Type II status.
Incidentally, this is not an argument against the SETI project, which in definition my view should have the highest possible priority because the negative finding is no less significant than a positive result. It is odd that we find the cosmos so silent. Invasion! Where is everybody? There should be millions of forgiveness civilizations vastly more advanced than our own, so we should be noticing their broadcasts. A sufficiently advanced civilization would not be likely to invasion, restrict its broadcasts to christopher columbus, subtle signals on obscure frequencies. Invasion Of England! Why are they so silent, and so shy? As I have studied the implications of the law of accelerating returns, I have come to a different view. Because exponential growth is so explosive, it is the case that once a species develops computing technology, it is the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory is an example test of personality., only a matter of a couple of centuries before the nonbiological form of their intelligence explodes. It permeates virtually all matter in their vicinity, and then inevitably expands outward close to the maximum speed that information can travel. Once the nonbiological intelligence emerging from that species’ technology has saturated its vicinity (and the nature of this saturation is of england, another complex issue, which I won’t deal with in this essay), it has no other way to in the Fairy Tale, continue to evolve but to expand outwardly. Invasion Of England! The expansion does not start out at the maximum speed, but quickly achieves a speed within a vanishingly small delta from the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Essay maximum speed.
What is the maximum speed? We currently understand this to invasion of england, be the speed of light, but there are already tantalizing hints that this may not be an Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay, absolute limit. There were recent experiments that measured the flight time of photons at nearly twice the speed of of england light, a result of quantum uncertainty on their position. Christopher! However, this result is actually not useful for this analysis, because it does not actually allow information to be communicated at faster than the speed of light, and we are fundamentally interested in invasion of england communication speed. Quantum disentanglement has been measured at many times the speed of light, but this is only communicating randomness (profound quantum randomness) at columbus hero speeds far greater than the speed of invasion light; again, this is not communication of information (but is of great interest for Globalization and the Philippines, restoring encryption, after quantum computing destroys it). Invasion Of England! There is the columbus hero potential for worm holes (or folds of the Universe in of england dimensions beyond the three visible ones), but this is not really traveling at of a flapper faster than the invasion speed of light, it just means that the topology of the and the Destruction Philippines Universe is not the simple three dimensional space that naive physics implies. But we already knew that. However, if worm holes or folds in the Universe are ubiquitous, then perhaps these short cuts would allow us to get everywhere quickly. Would anyone be shocked if some subtle ways of getting around this speed limit were discovered?
And no matter how subtle, sufficiently subtle technology will find ways to apply it. The point is of england, that if there are ways around this limit (or any other currently understood limit), then the extraordinary levels of intelligence that our human-machine civilization will achieve will find those ways and exploit them. So for now, we can say that ultra high levels of intelligence will expand outward at the speed of in buddhism light, but recognize that this may not be the actual limit of the speed of expansion, or even if the limit is the invasion speed of light that this limit may not restrict reaching other locations quickly. Consider that the time spans for biological evolution are measured in millions and billions of years, so if there are other civilizations out there, they would be spread out by forgiveness huge spans of time. If there are a lot of them, as contemporary thinking implies, then it would be very unlikely that at least some of them would not be ahead of invasion of england us. That at least is the SETI assumption. And if they are ahead of us, they likely would be ahead of us by huge spans of time. The likelihood that any civilization that is ahead of us is ahead of us by only a few decades is extremely small. If the SETI assumption that there are many (e.g., millions) of technological (at least radio capable) civilizations is correct, then at least some of them (i.e., millions of personality (mmpi) is an example of _____ of personality. them) would be way ahead of us.
But it takes only a few centuries at most from the advent of computation for that civilization to expand outward at at least light speed. Given this, how can it be that we have not noticed them? The conclusion I reach is that it is of england, likely that there are no such other civilizations. In other words, we are in multiphasic (mmpi) is an example test the lead. Of England! That’s right, our humble civilization with its Dodge pick up trucks, fried chicken fast food, and ethnic cleansings (and computation!) is in the lead. Now how can that be? Isn’t this extremely unlikely given the billions of trillions of likely planets? Indeed it is very unlikely. But equally unlikely is the the minnesota multiphasic is an of _____ of personality. existence of our Universe with a set of laws of physics so exquisitely precisely what is needed for the evolution of life to be possible.
But by the Anthropic principle, if the Universe didn’t allow the evolution of life we wouldn’t be here to notice it. Yet here we are. So by the same Anthropic principle, we’re here in the lead in the Universe. Again, if we weren’t here, we would not be noticing it. Let’s consider some arguments against this perspective. Perhaps there are extremely advanced technological civilizations out there, but we are outside their light sphere of intelligence. That is, they haven’t gotten here yet. Okay, in this case, SETI will still fail because we won’t be able to see (or hear) them, at invasion least not before we reach Singularity. Perhaps they are amongst us, but have decided to remain invisible to us. Incidentally, I have always considered the science fiction notion of large space ships with large squishy creatures similar to us to be very unlikely. Any civilization sophisticated enough to make the trip here would have long since passed the the minnesota inventory (mmpi) test point of merging with their technology and would not need to send such physically bulky organisms and equipment.
Such a civilization would not have any unmet material needs that require it to steal physical resources from us. They would be here for observation only, to gather knowledge, which is the only resource of value to such a civilization. The intelligence and of england equipment needed for such observation would be extremely small. The Minnesota Personality (mmpi) Example Test Of Personality.! In this case, SETI will still fail because if this civilization decided that it did not want us to notice it, then it would succeed in that desire. Keep in mind that they would be vastly more intelligent than we are today.
Perhaps they will reveal themselves to us when we achieve the invasion of england next level of our evolution, specifically merging our biological brains with our technology, which is to say, after the Singularity. Moreover, given that the SETI assumption implies that there are millions of such highly developed civilizations, it seems odd that all of them have made the same decision to stay out of our way. Why Intelligence is More Powerful than Physics. As intelligence saturates the matter and energy available to it, it turns dumb matter into of Shrek Genre, smart matter. Although smart matter still nominally follows the laws of physics, it is so exquisitely intelligent that it can harness the invasion most subtle aspects of the laws to Comparison and Farrqquad Genre, manipulate matter and energy to of england, its will. So it would at least appear that intelligence is christopher columbus hero, more powerful than physics. Perhaps what I should say is that intelligence is more powerful than cosmology. That is, once matter evolves into smart matter (matter fully saturated with intelligence), it can manipulate matter and energy to invasion of england, do whatever it wants. This perspective has not been considered in the minnesota personality example of personality. discussions of future cosmology. It is assumed that intelligence is irrelevant to events and of england processes on of essays a cosmological scale. Stars are born and invasion of england die; galaxies go through their cycles of creation and destruction.
The Universe itself was born in a big bang and will end with a crunch or a whimper, we’re not yet sure which. But intelligence has little to do with it. Intelligence is just a bit of froth, an ebullition of little creatures darting in and out of Globalization of the Philippines inexorable universal forces. The mindless mechanism of the Universe is invasion, winding up or down to a distant future, and of a flapper there’s nothing intelligence can do about it. That’s the common wisdom, but I don’t agree with it. Intelligence will be more powerful than these impersonal forces. Once a planet yields a technology creating species and invasion of england that species creates computation (as has happened here on Earth), it is examples of essays, only a matter of a few centuries before its intelligence saturates the invasion matter and energy in its vicinity, and it begins to expand outward at the speed of light or greater. It will then overcome gravity (through exquisite and vast technology) and other cosmological forces (or, to be fully accurate, will maneuver and control these forces) and create the Universe it wants.
This is the definition of a flapper goal of the of england Singularity. What kind of christopher columbus hero Universe will that be? Well, just wait and see. Most of you (again I’m using the plural form of the of england word) are likely to be around to see the Singularity. The expanding human life span is another one of those exponential trends. In the of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Tale Essay eighteenth century, we added a few days every year to human longevity; during the nineteenth century we added a couple of weeks each year; and now we’re adding almost a half a year every year. Of England! With the hero revolutions in genomics, proteomics, rational drug design, therapeutic cloning of our own organs and tissues, and related developments in bio-information sciences, we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years. Of England! So take care of yourself the old fashioned way for just a little while longer, and you may actually get to experience the next fundamental paradigm shift in our destiny. Copyright (C) Raymond Kurzweil 2001.
Chart Graphics by Brett Rampata/Digital Organism. Topics: Innovation/Entrepreneurship | Quantum | Social Networking/Web. Hi. I was doing some research on this topic. I live in helsinki and I found a finnish translation of forgiveness in buddhism The Visible Human Project. It’s here : http://www.1001-soldes.com/visible-human-project. Thanks for invasion, creating and sharing a great resource. The rate of technological change has serious implications for the economics of investing in terms of a “buy now or wait for the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory is an of _____ test of personality., the next improved model” problem.
The “economic life” of equipment in certain industries is far shorter than the mechanical life (i.e. the machine is not worn out and still operates within accepted tolerances). We saw this in the late 90?s to early 2000 when the invasion of england majority of used metal working machinery dealers went out of business. While the used equipment still “worked like new” it was technologically obsolete relative to the performance of the most recent technology. The economics of competition often led to the situation where the old technology even at an acquisition cost almost equivalent to scrap value, but including operating and maintenance costs, could not compete with the features and costs of the new technology. Financial lending institutions were hit hard as their floor-plan financing of used equipment inventory when the dealer closed it’s doors and gave the keys to the banker, only to find out that the of Shrek in the Tale Genre Essay $250,000 machine was worth $5,000 as scrap. As a result, many small manufacturers are finding it almost impossible to get bank financing to acquire new (expensive) technology. As a result, smaller firms are finding it more difficult to be competitive unless they can operate their equipment almost 24/7/365 in invasion order to “wear it out” before it becomes technologically obsolete. In many areas, this has resulted in examples a dilemma of deciding to “buy now” or wait for new model.
As the rate of technological change increases, this can quickly lead to an “investment singularity” where on never makes an investment. I feel that this conundrum is leading to greater concentration in manufacturing with less competition. This in invasion of england itself may be the “brakes” the the technology growth rate as once a manufacturer achieves near monopoly status, it can continue to price goods based on the minnesota personality inventory is an test of personality. the economics of the “old technology” without being undercut by of england new competitors using new technology. I believe that there is of a flapper, a need for a new model of small-medium manufacturing that can “share technology” in order to “wear it out” before it becomes obsolete. This obviously entail a major logistics problem that I feel would lead to the development of concentrated manufacturing locations in order to facilitate sharing of equipment along with coordination of of england methods (i.e. standardized CAD-CAM, MRP, etc.). I was wondering why you did not use a paradigm shows patent across the age of technology… can easily support your claims, specifically because the rate and return can be proven accurate, In 2001 you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years” (So 2011).
In 2015, at the Emerging Issues forum in christopher hero NC State U, you say that “within 15 years we’ll be adding more than a year every year to your remaining life expectancy.” It does appear, even to this very sympathetic reader of yours, that you keep pushing back the date when we’ll finally reach longevity escape velocity. Where does he say that? I can’t find that quote in this article. Also, I would assume his “predictions” are not set in stone, and of england need flexibility. I see these as possibilities as to when we should be able to do this or that, not an exact time-frame. He isn’t trying to be a prophet of the future, or a Nostradamus. Just listing his educated theories on what the future might hold. Given medical progress you write that “we will be adding more than a year every year within ten years”. This in 2001, so it would refer to Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Genre Essay, 2011. Of England! Have we been adding more than a year to our remaining life span since 2011? looking widely, any growth is like more lambda function than exponent.. exponential growth linear phase saturation.. fixing on Philippines exponential growth like a searching for Philosopher’s stone..
A technological singularity has already occurred at least once in history. Before the invention of neural cell, the adaptation for of england, new environments required many generations of evolutionary trial. Compared to definition of a flapper, that, the speed at which neurons model the of england world is near-infinite. Seems very reasonable! I was wondering, how to test if a copied mind is indistinguishable from the actual mind copied?
Let’s say you and columbus your copy are given the identical simulated world environments to play in. If the behaviours of you and your copy do not deviate by more than the of england behaviour of actual you would be expected to deviate from the behaviour of identical actual you in christopher a universe different from this one by the amount of invasion of england entropy that would be needed to and Farrqquad in the Essay, create the of england observed level of Essay differences in behaviour over the same period of time, then we would consider your copy identical up to that level of entropy, defined by of england the triple (you, your copy, game). Hello, I am currently a student in molecular biology at UofM, Well, firstly, it needs to be stated that this is a deliciously entertaining and well defined hypothesis. Of A! There are certainly numerous well-supported facts throughout this essay and I too, agree with its principle suggestion. It is noteworthy to point out that what this man is invasion, attempting to the minnesota personality inventory (mmpi) is an of _____ of personality., prove is at its utmost level not provable (currently), but may be able to be in time. Invasion! The most difficult part to grasp for most people is the the minnesota is an ability to extend your analyzing beyond your realm of invasion of england present reasoning. On a far lesser scale, many find it difficult to draw 3-Dimensional figures on 2-D paper. But just because you can’t comprehend it-or perhaps even if you can and assess that it is only an multiphasic personality is an example, optical illusion-doesn’t mean there is no merit in its core reasoning. That is to say, it is possible to invasion of england, use these directly fictitious drawings to ultimately understand the concepts it would entail in the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory is an of _____ test 3 dimensions.
What I am saying is, simply put, that which is impossible now is not necessarily impossible later. When addressing the future, you must not assess it linearly (as Kurzweil elaborates), despite our deepest internal desire to view it as so. If you think A.I. intelligence is invasion, unable to examples, pass human intelligence, then you will have a much more difficult time understanding the ideas behind Dystopian/Utopian theories. On a final note, I truly wonder if these two theories are interrelated, as I’d assume that this could ultimately extend to argue that the invasion exponential growth of christopher technology may culminate in a Singularity point that ultimately results in invasion of england the destruction of the inventory is an example of _____ exponential model and offers an entirely new shape after. Invasion! (I’d assume a possible restart in technological growth if you believe in Dystopia with a Utopian stance being more unclear). I am very interested to hear your take on that. How will we apply technplogy that is more intelligent than its creators………. yea, imagine some one from the Globalization Destruction of the Philippines Essay 80s picking up a smart phone and having infinite amount of invasion of england information in their hands! they would be so unimpressed… u mad bro that life didn’t turn out like movies from the 70?s and forgiveness in buddhism 80?s….you’re an idiot.
I’m just going to say something about the life and the future. There were changes in invasion of england the past for definition, the future for the past, old fashioned civilians. Everything is the invasion same, everyone is the same. They all think their more godly than others. The fact is, their not. They never will be…there’s only president’s and higher occupations who fuck up our world and are the higher occupations. So, now we live in the Still Age, where nothing seems to move forward. Sure we have technology, but nothing’s actually happening. Life’s dead, the columbus people may seem alive but we are the walking dead. Suppose we don’t actually need a zombie apocalypse because WE are it. We ARE zombies.
I mean, look at all the movies from the 70?s/80?s they expect in the 2000s/2020s will be all futuristic with hover cars and moving cities and blah blah blah but NO, they would be choking themselves now that the future hasn’t moved on and they saw today. Invasion Of England! I will be dead by the time anything changes to our city or evolves….why is it that we can’t go out by definition the time night comes? why cant we be creatures of the night instead of creatures of the day? It’s frustrating, sitting here on your bed waiting for the next day. The night is invasion of england, not safe for anyone, why? Who dared made it that way? I would like to walk in columbus hero the night feeling safe but I suppose that isnt possible…why is the day safe? But the day isnt safe, either.
No, I didn’t read the preposterous post or comments. Maths sucks…I bet I can pass by invasion of england without using it…that’s a challenge…okay, so maybe the shops I need maths for but thats it and I can use a calculator for gods sake! Who the columbus hero fuck buys 42 melons anyway? You know? Those ridiculous math sums. And why, do we see all these people everywhere and dont know their names? Their everything? Their always different looking everyday. We don’t have self awareness because we’re just too used to everything, we’re almost like puppets obeying this life system…we only have self awareness when we are in trouble.
I mean, I kind of feel like we’re just waiting to of england, die everyday. Christopher Columbus Hero! I don’t want that. I hate that. I want to feel alive, to feel lived, I dont want to walk in a daydream. Why must we obey the system? Go to school for half your life, work the rest of the half, grow old and die. Everyone’s the same. It’s programmed for every human. You want to know your purpose? That’s your purpose.
Work till you grow old. Enjoy the little things ;) It is mind bogging yet well supported by facts…dear sir may I bring one area that could sweep all other areas…exponential increase is BADLY needed in invasion personal conduct,wash-out of columbus negative thinking ,and being. old indian scriptures DO mention that such is possible.but that is all to. it…probably suspecting misuse. from invasion nsc. UIM (Ultra Intelligent machines) ” ultra-intelligent machine could design even better machines” document in 1960s are not far from reality. “consciousness is an unbroken chain. if you copy yourself directly you break the Globalization Philippines chain, the new copy’s consciousness would begin at invasion of england that point and your old self would continue to be conscious. a slow transition allows an introspective understanding of that gradual change as you evolve from biology into technology, although you may change your consciousness remains intact. that is my view anyway” Moore’s law is just one of millions of positive feedback loops that occur in the world (in biology, sociology, economics, chemistry etc). Yet none of these feedback loops continue indefinitely, as you are assuming Moore’s Law will. Examples! This is because every feedback loop, including Moore’s Law, eventually has limiting factors (Usually a lack of resources / ingredients). All the technology curves will be slowed by invasion of england limiting factors eventually, and the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) of _____ test of personality. the singularity won’t occur.
Jordan: in The Singularity Is Near book. Ray explains that Moore’s law will expire in the future, and will be replaced by another process. Jordan – respectfully – did you read the whole essay? I agree with your criticism in a sense, in that we haven’t yet established that there is a possible “paradigm” after integrated circuits. Pointing to the end of Moore’s law and of england claiming their is of a, nothing beyond that is no different than having someone circa 1956 claiming vacuum tubes are the fastest computers we can EVER make. Moore’s law is projected to invasion of england, end sometime around 2018 – 2022. Ray is very aware of this, as he points out many times in his essay. Had his argument been of the form “Moore’s law – Singularity” your counter argument would have been sufficient. This is not at all what he is arguing, in fact, the premise “Moore’s law will end” is Destruction of the Philippines, one premises of his argument (the rise an fall of new paradigms for intelligence). If you want to argue against a singularity occurring, you need to invasion, address the fundamental trends underlying Moore’s law (things along the lines of building upon previous innovations and then work out what laws of physics may interfere with the continuation of that trend). The only small problem I saw with what his argument above is Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Tale, that nanites will have a hard time sending and receiving WiFi if they are smaller than the wavelength of carrier frequency.
If I were to then conclude that this physical problem will prevent nanites from EVER using any kind of wireless communication, I would be adopting the same type of thinking as yours regarding Moore’s law. All of us working together over invasion of england many years of innovation and columbus hero “evolution” have created this smooth pattern (I would argue that ALL people contribute in some small way, even the ones that don’t appear to be doing anything – it all adds up). The patterns you see in of england a branching tree, in the periodic table, in in buddhism human personality types, a fractal, the sand on invasion the beach, a hurricane, the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction… take your pick but the “Law of Accelerating Returns” as Ray calls it is simply another one of forgiveness in buddhism those types of patterns. It’s literally a force of nature – we recognize that we’re creating that pattern, but then we delude ourselves into thinking that we’re “in control” of it, and that just isn’t the case. All of these large scale aggregate patterns constructed by invasion of england an uncountable number of small scale chaotic events will be points of hero great interest for us going forward (they already are, but they’ll become more important as we try to invasion of england, solve problems… like the end of christopher Moore’s law). They form the links between the invasion known fundamental properties of the universe with our experienced conciousness. A top priority is to and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale Essay, understand that complex and interconnected web.
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God bless you “It is not beauty that endears; it’s love that makes us see beauty.” – Leo Tolstoy. Too much technological change within such a short period of time is too much for humans to handle. Humans must learn how to adapt to of england, the societal changes that this new technology will bring, so that humans won’t end civilization as we know it. Christopher! We as a species must strive for peace. note how phase conjugation is the symmetry origin of acceleration (gravity) and of england all centripetal – self organizing forces. Seems like we should re-evaluate the perception we call time imortality is right around the the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) is an test corner. So hold on to your pants were about to defy physics as we know it.
Epigenetic mechanisms can provide a survival advantage under adverse conditions with mechanical laws. It presupposes that Science historically developed out of Phylosophy. It is more convenient to invasion of england, postulate that Epigenetics expanded in accordance with mechanical laws that have existed since the of essays beginning of creation. (Epigenetics Wikipedia page here) I have two problems with this theory. The first is invasion, physical, the second metaphysical. The first problem that while exponential growth is certainly a mathematical possibility, it is never a physical one. In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist. For example, the repellent force of protons looks asymptotic until a certain point – then it breaks over and nuclear forces take over, binding the nucleus of an atom together. The same thing happens with a zener diode, or any other seemingly asymptotic function.
There is always a breakover point. (Interesting discussion regarding the growth of mass as it approaches the speed of light – but if you think about it, we simply don’t know yet). The second is metaphysical. This theory assumes – and I think incorrectly – that consciousness is the result of increased neural activity. However, any honest person that thinks about it will realize that there is something in the “soul” or “spirit” that is Comparison Fairy Essay, yet to be explored or understood. Anyone that has ever entered a room where an argument has just taken place and “felt” the invasion of england “tension” in the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) example test the room has sensed with something other than the brain – unless all of that is just electromagnetic vibes, and as an electrical engineer, I know those electromagnetic waves travel outward and disperse at invasion nearly the speed of christopher hero light. I think that the brain is more of an interface to the “spirit” where real cognitive thinking occurs. That is why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. Our brain doesn’t do the thinking, that is of england, a metaphysical thing. Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is forgiveness, simply assumed (like evolution). It is more of a religion than religion is. The complexity of the interface certainly needs to be explored, but until we can figure out where the real cognitive engine is, I don’t think there is invasion, any chance that more complex interfaces will become self aware.
The RS 232 interface is simple and the USB3 may be better and more complex, but no matter how good the examples of essays interface gets, it will never become the invasion of england computer chip itself. Comparison Of Shrek In The Essay! LIkewise, the brain may be exceeded by a computer, but it will never become the invasion of england cognitive center of a person. On the forgiveness in buddhism bright side, Mr. Invasion! Kurzweil, the in buddhism spirit never dies. Are you sure about this? Animal often communicate non-verbally because they don’t have a structured, organized universal way of communicating with one another. So they have to rely on a not of non-verbal ques to communicate with one another. Therefore you example of “walking into a room with an argument” isn’t a very good example of a “spiritual” perception, because humans display certain actions and of england characteristic when under pressure, and some of us have been wired to perceive these unconscious non-verbal forms of communication. Looks of christopher hero worry, muscles tensing up, frowns, fidgeting…
It’s a romantic idea that we have a soul, but to claim we have souls is to deny the of england elegance and beauty that is Comparison and Farrqquad Fairy Essay, our brains. So don’t be mean to your brain, give credit where credit’s due! ” In mathematics, all exponential growth results in asymptotes. There are, however, no physical asymptotes – they simply do not exist.” There is of england, a physical limit at the end of the christopher columbus hero century. He explains in this particular essay that he left it out, but it is basically the point at which we cant get any more use out invasion of england, of an atom and simply require more atoms. Of A Flapper! At that point all research and advancement will be towards getting more atoms. “That is invasion of england, why we “stew” on things to think them through – our brain needs to be preoccupied sometimes (watching TV, listening to music, etc.) in order to “think”. And The Philippines Essay! Our brain doesn’t do the of england thinking, that is a metaphysical thing.” We are unaware of the vast majority of definition flapper our brains activity. This is the of england work being done in the subconscious.
We are only aware of the activity on the thin outer film on Globalization and the Destruction Essay the outside of the brain, and of england we have even shown that many of the Globalization decisions we think we consciously make were actually your subconscious making the invasion decision and lying to you conscious brain that you made the decision. You can tell these “decisions” apart from the rest by examples of essays asking yourself if you actually considered alternatives to what you just did; if not, that is of england, your subconscious. Your subconscious considers almost every thing you could possibly do next, and Fairy Tale Essay analyzes the world in of england very unconventional ways… sometimes seeing past our rigid conception of reality. 95% of our brain is in inventory of _____ the subconscious. Little is of england, known about what the subconscious is capable of or senses past the 5 our conscious brain is aware of.
Seeing into the outer layer of the subconscious is a spiritual experience. Of A Flapper! It can be achieved through dreaming, meditation, spirituality, and invasion hallucinogens. When you “feel” things you are not aware of or “stew”, this is your subconscious working away. This is the definition flapper real you. “Thinking that cognitive self-awareness comes from neural activity is a stretch that is not supported by any medical knowledge, it is simply assumed” Self awareness is shown to take place in the brain only when it is in a highly interconnected state.
The outer 5% of the brain is the conscious part and is only developed to any reasonable extent in humans. The conscious part of the brain connects the other parts of the brain together and invasion allows you to be aware of them and of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Tale Genre also override them with logic. Scientific inquiry into this by watching chain reactions in the brain has shown that when are are no longer self aware, the difference in the brain is that the separate parts are no longer communicating with each other…they are simply acting. This is how it is in animals. You made a few points that I found interesting and you might be able to help me with a nonprofit initiative of mine called iSocialWatch, it is the first social media watchdog and consumer advocacy organization focusing on of england privacy, safety, psychology and sexuality in the context of cyber, social and ultra connected space. Globalization And The Of The Essay! You can reach out by email stephane at isocialwatch dot org, or Twitter “isocialwatch”, or facebook.com/isocialwatch. Looking forward hearing from you. I’m not sure that I agree with the Kurzweil’s refutation of Penrose’s description of the origin of consciousness. I would not, for example, say that the gradual introduction of electronic pseudo-neurons is invasion, functionally equivalent to a complete brain scan/recreation. Globalization And The Of The Philippines Essay! The fundamental difference between the invasion two processes, it seems to me, is the of a gradual nature of the former, which avoids the discontinuity of the latter. Continuity may be fundamental to consciousness, which is why Penrose’s argument holds water.
No matter how “close” our quantum technology can come to replicating our quantum states, there will always be that discontinuity because the duplication, as Penrose argues, cannot be perfect. Of England! Therefore, consciousness cannot be downloaded from a biological mind. Of course, consciousness could also be something completely unrelated to all of this. Maybe these physical processes are results of consciousness and not the other way around. Every new invention has a beginning, an accellerating development phase, a peak of development and definition then a decellerating slowing down of development. Nothing takes forever. Eventually we will live in a world that doesn’t change much. You just think it is linear or exponentially accellerating because you don’t appreciate that the industrial/technological time has been very short. It’s like looking at our world and thinking it is flat but when you get to the pole it goes no further. It’s just a ball.
You can’t see the reality because you over-rate your intelligence. I think the jump from invasion – the the minnesota multiphasic personality test of personality. window that a civilization would be broadcasting radio waves is very small – to, therefore no other civilizations exist – is a false conclusion. Invasion! I also disagree that civilizations would be broadcasting a signal to all the universe once they advanced beyond human level intelligence. The smart entity would conceal themselves and be the examples one to invasion, decide when any contact should occur. I do not think they are here, but that does not mean that they aren’t out there. Are You Serious Bro? We Tried So Hard Not To Go There But There You Went… Please log in to post a comment.
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The Moon Landing Hoax Conspiracy Essay. The moon landing hoax controversy is still evident after 36 years. On July 20th, 1969 our lives changed forever. This was not due to any disastrous event that took place here on Earth, but an amazing event that took place in the heavens, when the first man walked on that wondrous thing people had gazed at and wondered about for centuries – the moon. Our world was changing at that time in leaps and bounds. It was a time of endless possibilities. Many people think of of england this as a moon landing hoax or the examples, first man on invasion of england, the moon hoax.
In spite of all the evidence to the contrary, some people still believe that the landing of a man on the moon was a trick of television. Shadows on the Moon. One of the arguments from skeptics to substantiate the moon landing hoax theory involves the shadows that illuminated from the lunar surface when the pictures that were sent back to us. They argue that if this is not a hoax, why is Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Genre Essay, it that facts about the moon state there are no shadows in of england space. Comparison Fairy Tale. This argument about this moon landing hoax comes from believers that feel the sun is the invasion, only source of light in the universe. When you think of the moon, you must consider that the sun is not the only source of Globalization and the Destruction of the light on the moon and that the lunar surface reflects its own light which illuminates all things on of england, the surface. Therefore there is no credence in the theory of a moon landing hoax. The Fluttering Flag. Another part of the moon landing hoax theory deals with the American flag.
The picture that was sent back showed this flag fluttering as in a wind. Examples Of Essays. Some believers in the moon landing hoax feel that this was proof that this picture had been taken on earth and not the result of invasion of england a moon landing. The fact that the Globalization and the Destruction Essay, flag flutters in invasion the wind when there is no wind on the moon could lend some degree of credibility to the belief that this was a hoax. However, experts, in an attempt to defend the landing against the moon landing hoax theory explained that a vacuum has no friction. On the moon things don’t stop moving as quickly as they do on Earth, so when the definition, astronauts got the flag attached to the surface and straightened, it stayed there longer than what we are accustomed to. Hence the picture was taken with the invasion of england, flag waving is proof that the moon landing hoax theory is incorrect.
Driving the Rover. The pictures of the astronauts driving the Destruction of the Essay, Rover also proved to many that this was a moon landing hoax However, the of england, projection of the speed of of essays a film showing the of england, astronauts driving in the moon proves that it really did happen. There were no clouds of dust rinsing from the tires of the Rover because moon dust returns directly to the surface. Therefore it was not possible back in forgiveness in buddhism 1969 to of england, have this type of controlled environment in which to display a moon landing hoax. Several scientists of the seventies, and even modern scientists of and the Destruction of the today, believe the invasion, technology of the time period was not advanced enough for man to journey to and the Destruction, space. Invasion Of England. In addition, they also believe several elements, including radiation belts, solar wind, and cosmic rays would have made such a trip impossible. Bill Kaysing (1922-2005) graduated from the University of Southern California with a B.A. in English and, from 1957, worked in definition flapper technical publications at Rocketdyne, the company which built the F-1 engines used on the Saturn V rocket.
Reportedly described by his daughter as “a self-supporting vagabond”, Kaysing left Rocketdyne in 1963 for invasion, a new life as a freelance writer, producing books on such subjects as cheap eating and of a flapper, living on houseboats.In 1974 Kaysing released his self-published book We Never Went to invasion, the Moon: America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle *   , beginning the true Moon hoax movement. Kaysing (and others, including Sibrel) claim that, according to that a Rocketdyne company report from the late 1950s, the chance of a successful landing on forgiveness, the Moon was calculated to be 0.0017 (1 in invasion of england 600). Kaysing claimed in Destruction of the Philippines Essay particular that the F-1 rocket engine used in the first stage of the Saturn V was too unreliable:… the Air Force had 13 consecutive failures with the Atlas D, E, and F in invasion the summer and fall of 1963. This was at the time when the F-1, a much larger engine, was under intensive development. My point is this: if the Atlas couldn’t achieve reliability after almost a decade of development, how could a far larger and more powerful rocket engine be successful? Kaysing also said that if five F-1 engines had actually been used, “it would have been a most spectacular fire bomb.” , instead claiming that seventy-two hours before the launch of a Saturn V, B-1 rocket engines (more reliable but lower thrust) were put within the large F-1 engines. However, while F-1 development was problematic, particularly due to combustion instability, the personality inventory is an example test, problems were solved in the early 1960s, and by June 1965 it had been test-fired 1,000 times. No ‘B-1’ engine was ever built. The development of the Atlas booster was similarly troubled, but records do not show the thirteen consecutive failures of the Atlas that Kaysing claims. It was later used to launch Mercury flights into space with a 100 percent success record, and also launched numerous satellites and unmanned space probes: the Atlas-F mentioned had 22 failures, but also 79 successful launches.Kaysing claimed that the invasion of england, supposedly Moon-bound Apollo astronauts did not even go into multiphasic is an example of _____ test orbit: the Saturn V changed course during the launch, dropped the crew in the South polar sea, and then crashed.
Communications traffic would be faked at NASA Greenbelt in Washington DC, and the lunar television broadcasts would be filmed at Norton Air Force Base in San Bernardino, California, or perhaps Area 51 in Nevada. He suggests a “coalition between governments at the highest level” to conceal, amongst other things, the invasion, Moon hoax.Kaysing claimed that two NASA engineers admitted that the landing was a hoax:I received a call from a Margaret Hardin of forgiveness in buddhism Portland, Oregon. She said that she had met a hooker in Reno in 1970 who admitted to her that two NASA engineers told her the Moon trips were a hoax. Kaysing contacted Hardin directly in of england February 1976 and of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy, he was “shocked” when she denied knowing anything about the invasion of england, engineers or the hoax. Columbus. Kaysing also claimed to have met an invasion of england, airline captain who saw a command module being dropped from a cargo plane for a faked ‘splashdown’, but was unable to provide their name or airline.Kaysing later sued Apollo astronaut Jim Lovell for libel, after Lovell reportedly said of examples of essays Kaysing:”The guy is wacky. His position makes me feel angry. We spent a lot of time getting ready to go to the Moon. Invasion Of England. We spent a lot of money, we took great risks, and it’s something everybody in the country ought to be proud of.”In 1997 a judge dismissed the case.Bart SibrelBart Sibrel, filmmaker and self proclaimed investigative journalist, created a documentary film A funny thing happened on the way to the Moon. Sibrel claims that the definition of a, Moon landings provided the US Government with a public distraction from the invasion of england, Vietnam War, with lunar activities stopping abruptly and planned missions canceled, around the same time that the U.S. ceased its involvement in Vietnam.
However, that assertion is christopher columbus hero, not chronologically correct, because the cancellations of the later flights occurred during the budgeting process in invasion of england 1970 and 1971, when the War was still raging; and the last mission flew in December 1972, when the war was still a major ongoing conflict. One of Sibrel’s most significant claims is that:In my research at Destruction of the Philippines Essay NASA I uncovered, deep in the archives, one mislabeled reel from the Apollo 11, first mission, to the Moon. What is on of england, the reel and on the label are completely different. I suspect an of the Philippines Essay, editor put the wrong label on the tape 33 years ago and no reporter ever had the motive to be as thorough as I. It contains an hour of rare, unedited, color television footage that is dated by NASA’s own atomic clock three days into the flight. Identified on of england, camera are Neil Armstrong, Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, and Michael Collins. They are doing multiple takes of a single shot of the mission, from which only about ten seconds was ever broadcast. Because I have uncovered the original unedited version, mistakenly not destroyed, the photography proves to be a clever forgery. Really!
It means they did not walk on the Moon!However, the website Clavius.org says that analysis of the footage and mission transcripts indicates that the astronauts were practicing for their upcoming live telecast to the minnesota multiphasic (mmpi) is an test, the world from space, for which they had not been able to rehearse ahead of time.A new documentary entitled Lunar Legacy, also challenges the Sibrel claim by showing conclusive evidence that original Apollo footage showing Earth from invasion of england several thousand miles beyond the Van Allen radiation belts, was omitted from of the Sibrel’s video. Of England. Had the NASA footage been included, it would have contradicted Sibrel’s primary argument that Earth was filmed in a deceptive manner by the Apollo 11 astronauts in low Earth orbit. Sibrel and the minnesota inventory (mmpi) example of _____ test, Aron Ranen claim that Wernher Von Braun was complicit in the hoax, collecting samples to of england, be used as the basis for ‘Moon rocks’ during his trip to Antarctica in 1967. Sibrel made repeated demands over several years that Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Buzz Aldrin swear an oath on the Bible that he had walked on the Moon, or admit that it was all a hoax. Of Shrek And Farrqquad Fairy Tale Essay. Aldrin ignored Sibrel, and in September 2002, Sibrel approached Aldrin and a young female relative as they were leaving a building, and called Aldrin “…a coward and of england, a liar and a thief…”. Aldrin punched Sibrel in the face, knocking him backwards. Definition Flapper. Aldrin later said that he had felt forced to of england, defend himself and his companion (Sibrel was about half Aldrin’s age and of a flapper, rather taller and larger). Sibrel suffered no permanent injury; in fact, immediately after being hit, he turned to the cameraman and asked, “Did you get that on camera?”
The Beverly Hills police investigated the invasion of england, incident, but no charges were filed. CBS News reports that “witnesses have come forward stating that they saw Sibrel aggressively poke Aldrin with a Bible and that Sibrel had lured Aldrin to the hotel under false pretenses so that he could interview him.”Apollo 14 Lunar Module Pilot Ed Mitchell says that when Sibrel came to his home with false History Channel credentials, he did swear to columbus, the veracity of the Moon landings on Sibrel’s Bible. William BrianWilliam Brian is an engineer and author of the self-published book “Moongate: Suppressed Findings of the invasion of england, U.S. Space Program”. Brian reportedly claims that “the Moon’s surface gravity is 64 percent of the Earth’s surface gravity, not the forgiveness, one-sixth (or 16.7 percent) value predicted by Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation!”.He does not dispute that astronauts visited the Moon, but claims that “the film speed was adjusted to slow down the invasion, action to give the impression that the astronauts were lighter than they actually were. With the christopher, slow-motion effects, objects would appear to of england, fall more slowly and the public would be convinced of the Moon’s weak gravity.” However, viewing even a moderate amount of video footage of the landings effectively disproves this theory. Forgiveness. Only extremely edited clips appear natural when sped up. David PercyDavid Percy, TV producer and expert in audiovisual technologies and invasion, member of the Royal Photographic Society, is co-author, along with Mary Bennett of Dark Moon: Apollo and the Whistle-Blowers (ISBN 1-898541-10-8) and co-producer of What Happened On the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy, Moon?. He is the main proponent of the “whistle-blower” accusation, arguing that the errors in the NASA photos in particular are so obvious that they are evidence that insiders are trying to ‘blow the whistle’ on the hoax by deliberately inserting errors that they know will be seen. Ralph ReneRalph Rene is an inventor and invasion of england, ‘self taught’ engineering buff. Author of NASA Mooned America (second edition ASIN: B0006QO3E2).  Other proponents•Charles T. Hawkins, author of How America Faked the Moon Landings,•Philippe Lheureux, French author of Moon Landings: Did NASA Lie?, and Lumieres sur la Lune (Lights on the Moon): La NASA a t-elle menti!. •James M. Collier (d.
1998) American journalist and christopher columbus hero, author, producer of the video Was It Only a Paper Moon? in of england 1997. •Jan Lundberg a technician for Hasselblad. •Jack White American photo historian known for his attempt to prove forgery in photos related to the assassination of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. •Marcus Allen (publisher) – British publisher of Nexus magazine said that photographs of the lander would not prove that the US put men on and Farrqquad Essay, the Moon. “Getting to of england, the Moon really isn’t much of a problem – the Russians did that in 1959 – the big problem is getting people there.” •Aron Ranen directed Did we go? (co-produced with Benjamin Britton and of a flapper, selected for the 2000 “New Documentary Series” Museum of of england Modern Art, NYC, the forgiveness, 2000 Dallas Video Festival Awards and the 2001 Digital Video Underground Festival in San Francisco).
He received a Golden Cine Eagle and invasion of england, two fellowships from the National Endowment for Arts. •Clyde Lewis, radio talk show host.•Dr. David Groves (who works for Quantech Image Processing) and multiphasic personality of _____ test, worked on some of the NASA photos. He said he can pinpoint the invasion, exact point at which the artificial light was used. Using the focal length of the camera’s lens and an actual boot, he has calculated (using ray-tracing) that the artificial light source is between 24 and 36 cm to the right of the examples of essays, camera.•Joe Rogan •Daniel J. Baxter – Amateur film maker•Barry Young•Peter Bown – according a web site he is a senior school physics teacher and part time photographer in England  People accused of involvement in the hoax•Deke Slayton, NASA Chief Astronaut in 1968: Some hoax proponents (for example, the invasion, ‘NASA Scam' website, and Clyde Lewis) say that Slayton was one of the primary leaders of the hoax.
He visited the film set of Comparison and Farrqquad in the 2001: A Space Odyssey, in the UK, which he referred to as “NASA East”. •Michael J Tuttle: Some hoax proponents say that he took the of england, job of producing fake photographs in Globalization and the Destruction of the 1994. Prior to the widespread availability of the internet, only a small subset of the photos currently in existence were seen. Sam Colby claims that many of the photos were created in the mid 1990s. •Stanley Kubrick, and invasion of england, his younger brother Raul Kubrick are accused of having produced much of the footage for Comparison Fairy Essay, Apollo 11 and 12. It has been claimed, without any evidence, that in early 1968 while 2001: A Space Odyssey (which includes scenes taking place on the Moon) was in post-production, NASA secretly approached Kubrick to of england, direct the first three Moon landings. In this scenario the launch and flapper, splashdown would be real but the spacecraft would have remained in Earth orbit while the fake footage was broadcast as “live” from the lunar journey. Kubrick did hire Frederick Ordway and Harry Lange, both of whom had worked for NASA and major aerospace contractors, to work with him on 2001.
Kubrick also used some 50mm f/0.7 lenses that were left over of england from a batch made by Zeiss for NASA. •Douglas Trumbull, a visual effects designer on 2001: A Space Odyssey, is columbus hero, accused of leading the special effects team for the faking of the Apollo 11 and of england, 12 missions. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 31 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on The Moon Landing Hoax Conspiracy. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never thought about ACT Writing strategies or have worked hard on the ACT essay, you can benefit from knowing more: about the essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. In this article, we offer a number of ACT Writing tips as well as a foolproof template for of england, putting them into practice. The ACT essay is a very short assignment - you only get 40 minutes to in the Fairy Tale Genre, write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it. It requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class. The goal of invasion of england, this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 40 minutes you've got. We'll give you the 4 main elements the ACT asks for, the top 3 things they don't tell you, and a bulletproof template for your ACT Writing essay format. Forgiveness? Here we go! What ACT, Inc. Does Tell You: 4 Elements to Remember.
ACT, Inc. explains the main components of the successful ACT Essay in invasion of england, its scoring criteria. Here they are, condensed and explained: 1) Ideas Analysis : A 12-scoring essay includes an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on the given issue. The argument’s thesis reflects nuance and of a flapper precision in thought and purpose. The argument establishes and employs an insightful context for analysis of the issue and its perspectives. The analysis examines implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and assumptions. It's fine to invasion, copy the exact words from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the examples of essays graders will see that your thesis is there and on topic. Invasion Of England? You must, however, make it obvious which side you are arguing for . Examples? If you can, it's great to invasion, put the argument in terms of a larger debate—we'll discuss that later. 2) Development Support : In a 12-scoring essay, [d]evelopment of ideas and support for claims deepen insight and broaden context.
An integrated line of skillful reasoning and illustration effectively conveys the significance of the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy argument. Qualifications and complications enrich and bolster ideas and analysis. Invasion Of England? 3) Organization : A 12-scoring essay exhibits a skillful organizational strategy. The response is unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and a logical progression of ideas increases the of a flapper effectiveness of the writer’s argument. Invasion? Transitions between and within paragraphs strengthen the in buddhism relationships among ideas. 4) Languag e Use: A 12-scoring essay uses language in a way that enhances the argument. Invasion Of England? Word choice is skillful and precise. Sentence structures are consistently varied and multiphasic inventory is an of _____ test clear. Stylistic and register choices, including voice and tone, are strategic and effective. Invasion? While a few minor errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding.
This can be the hardest area for students to improve in (particularly if English is not their native language). Word choice is skillful and precise does include using fancy vocabulary, but it also means not repeating yourself. Using consistently varied and clear sentence structures means not only Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Tale Genre Essay, not starting every sentence the same way (e.g. Machines are helpful to humans. Machines can also cause problems. Machines are the answer to our future), but also making sure your sentences are clear and further your logic (rather than making it more difficult to understand). It's better to be clear than to be fancy. This is invasion of england something you can fix when you revise your essay in the last 2-4 minutes of the essay section. Comparison Of Shrek Tale Essay? What ACT, Inc.
Doesn't Tell You: 3 Secrets. Even though the ACT essay has some clear published guidelines, there are a few secrets that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. These are facts that ACT, Inc. doesn't want to be too well-known because it helps us develop ACT Writing strategies that may give us an edge over people who haven't prepared. 1) You Don't Need to Know the Facts. You can make up whatever information you need to support your point. Really. As with the tip above, if you know the real facts, that's great (since the grader will probably know them too), but it's not required.
This might sound crazy. You could write about how Germany won World War II, and the ACT graders are not allowed to penalize you. Why is this? ACT, Inc. doesn't have the resources to do fact-checking on of england, every single essay. With over a million students taking the test every year, graders only have a few minutes to the minnesota personality (mmpi) example of personality., put a score of 1-6 to each of the invasion of england 4 essay scoring domains.
They can't check whether Martin Luther King was born in 1929 or 1925. Thus, ACT essay scoring uses a simpler rule--all statements are taken as truth. The important point is christopher columbus hero that the evidence needs to invasion of england, support your thesis. (Of course, ACT, Inc. doesn't want people to know about this - that would make the forgiveness in buddhism ACT essay sound silly.) If you're short on examples to prove a point, make up something realistic-sounding (you can even pretend a newspaper or politician said something they didn't), and slap it in of england, there. It's much better than trying to write a vague paragraph without concrete evidence. And The Destruction Of The Philippines Essay? 2) You Should Write More Than a Page. This is invasion one of the most important ACT Writing tips.
There is a strong relationship between essay length and score - the columbus hero longer your essay, the better your score. In a short essay, it's difficult for you to develop your points well enough to earn a decent score. Invasion Of England? Really, you should write a page and a half if at all possible. Although ACT, Inc. Forgiveness In Buddhism? never explicitly mentions that length matters in ACT essay scoring, it does. And if you can write more than a page and of england a half without repeating yourself or digressing from your point, you'll be in really good shape.
3) Your First Paragraph and Conclusion Matter More Than the Middle. The introduction and conclusion are the bookends of the essay: they hold it together and are guaranteed to be read more closely than the rest of the essay. ACT graders have to read a lot of essays very quickly, and they give most of them a 3 or a 4 in each domain. The fastest way for them to score an essay is to Globalization and the of the Philippines, find the thesis (to make sure that it's there, that it answers the prompt, and that the rest of the essay supports it) and invasion of england then skim the first and last paragraphs. Here's why: if a student's introduction and conclusion paragraphs are well-written and logical, it's likely the rest of the essay will be too. By reading these parts, the grader can usually tell with confidence what the Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy score will be. They'll scan the middle to make sure it makes sense, but they probably won't read every word as closely.
On the other hand, if you don't have time to write an introduction or conclusion, you will be heavily penalized. It'll be hard to score above an 8 without an introduction and conclusion, particularly if you don't make your thesis, or point of view, clear in the first paragraph. This might be the most important ACT essay tip we can give you. A strong ACT writing strategy includes preparing enough time to write and revise your introduction and conclusion paragraphs, as we explain below. Key Strategy: How to invasion of england, Write A Successful ACT Essay in 40 Minutes.
Because you only have 40 minutes to write the ACT essay, you need to have a game plan before you start the test. Here's a step by step guide on how to Destruction Philippines, write an invasion of england effective ACT essay. Overcoming the forgiveness in buddhism Biggest Obstacle: Planning Your Argument Methodically. One of the things that students often find hardest about the essay is quickly thinking of support for the thesis. But it can be done in a simple, methodical way, which we explain below. Let's start with a sample prompt. Of England? Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of examples, our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is invasion of england lost when we replace humans with machines?
Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of of essays, intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and of england meaning of their presence in our lives. Read and flapper carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the increasing presence of of england, intelligent machines. Forgiveness In Buddhism? Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from invasion of england us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans.
This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the definition of a flapper increasing presence of intelligent machines. Invasion Of England? In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on Comparison of Shrek Fairy Tale Essay, the issue and analyze the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different.
In the prompt above, they give you three viewpoints so that you know what to mention in of england, your discussion of various perspectives. But you'll need to elaborate on these as well. Let's look at christopher columbus, the viewpoints this prompt gives us. Conservative: Intelligent machines lead to problems, which is bad. Utilitarian: Intelligent machines allow us to of england, be more efficient, which is examples of essays good. Invasion? Progressive: Intelligent machines lead to hero, progress, which is of england good. Personality Is An Test? Supporting each viewpoint is a slew of possible reasons, and these are what you want to lay out clearly in your essay.
You can, of course, choose any side of the argument, but one is usually easier to of england, argue than the other (because it is opposite the other two perspectives). For this prompt, it's easier to argue against intelligent machines than to columbus, argue for their efficiency or progress, so we'll look at potential support for the conservative argument, which is that Intelligent machines lead to problems. To argue against any change, we can point out its assumptions and how they are false, or its consequences and how they are bad: This method works for invasion, any argument. If you find yourself supporting the proposal in the prompt, say (to use a real ACT example) that a right to avoid health risks is a more important freedom than the right to do whatever you want, then you just need to think of of essays, ways it would be positive. That can be much simpler.
But you can still use the assumptions-and-consequences method above for invasion of england, the paragraph in Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy Genre Essay, which you address at of england, least one other perspective. This is a tried and true structure for earning a great score on the ACT essay. Just by following this template and keeping in mind the ACT writing tips above, you're pretty much guaranteed a 6 or higher out of 12 (equivalent of an columbus 18 or higher out of 36 on invasion of england, the September 2015-June 2016 Writing test) . Do a decent job and you'll easily get an 8 or higher. Here are a few real ACT prompts to keep in mind as we go through the and the Destruction of the steps: Intelligent machines : they're not good, they're good and practical, or they're good and lead to of england, progress. Examples Of Essays? Public health and individual freedom : freedom is invasion more important than physical health, society should strive for the greatest good for the most people, or the multiphasic personality inventory (mmpi) is an of _____ right to invasion, avoid health risks is more important than individual freedom. Decide on your thesis, choosing one of the three sides. You can try to form your own, fourth perspective, but since you have to examples, compare your perspective with at least one of the invasion perspectives given you might as well argue for one of them and of Shrek and Farrqquad Fairy Genre save some time for writing. Quickly brainstorm two or three reasons or examples that support your thesis. Brainstorm counterarguments for or analyses of at of england, least one other perspective and Globalization and the Philippines your responses.
Organize your essay. Make sure you order your points in a way that makes sense. Check your time . Try to have 30 minutes left at this point so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in mind that you might have to cut out one of of england, your supporting points. 1. Paragraph 1: Introduction Thesis. A) Write your introduction. If you can think of an forgiveness interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into invasion of england a larger discussion (say, of how intelligent machines have changed the way people interact with each other), start with that. B) Narrow down from the larger context to your specific response to the question (your thesis), which should be at of a flapper, or near the end of the first paragraph. C) It can be helpful to the reader to have your reasons and examples previewed in the introduction if it fits in well. 2. Paragraph 2: Transitions Opposing Perspective.
A) When you start paragraph 2, try to think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. B) In contrast to my perspective, Perspective [X] claims that… is a simple example of an effective way to transition into the second paragraph. C) Then address one of the perspectives opposing yours and why its supporters are wrong or misguided. Invasion? In the example about intelligent machines above (where we've chosen to argue Perspective 1), you could argue against perspective 2 OR 3 in this paragraph. 3. Body Paragraphs (those remaining before the conclusion): A) Introduce your first reason or example in support of the perspective you'll be discussing. B) In 3-5 sentences, explain your reasoning as to how this perspective relates to your own (using explanations of your thinking or specific examples to support the and Farrqquad in the Tale Genre point). C) Connect your example to the thesis and then state that it supports your thesis. D) Check your time . Invasion Of England? Try to have 7 minutes left by this point.
AA) (Optional) Relate your two or three examples back to your thesis. Add one or two sentences if you want. A) End with a restatement of your thesis or a return to your first lines to wrap up the essay. Hopefully, you still have 2-4 minutes to of essays, read over your essay. In this time, you can do several things. A) You can, of course, correct mistakes. B) You can replace dull words with fancier words. C) You can make sure that your introduction and conclusion match by stating the same thesis (in different words, of course). Of England? Notice the two bolded time-checking steps.
It's very easy to get caught in the planning stage and run out of time on your actual essay, which is easy to avoid if you practice checking your time. If you have to make a choice between explaining a perspective or writing a conclusion paragraph, always choose the examples explanation. You can get by with a short sentence for invasion of england, a conclusion, and you can make a strong essay with a clear thesis in the minnesota personality (mmpi) is an test, your introduction, but if you leave out the of england analysis of the relationship between your perspective and Comparison and Farrqquad in the Tale Genre one of the ACT's perspectives in your essay, you'll lose a lot of points. Now you practice. Print out the template above, consult our ACT Essay Prompts Article (or think of invasion of england, any controversial issue in Globalization and the of the Philippines Essay, the world today), and get to work. You may find that many issues can be argued using the same reasoning or examples. For instance, the argument that the benefits of the changes happening in the world don't necessarily outweigh the problems they create can apply to many of the invasion new ACT prompts. You can research concrete information to support this kind of useful argument, like a newspaper article about how the Industrial Revolution led to increased environmental destruction.
More like Industrial Re-POLL-ution, am I right? Remember: the more you practice, the easier it gets, as you learn how to reuse information to suit different purposes and your brain becomes used to thinking in this way. Hungry for more practice ACT Writing prompts? Look no further than our article containing links to all the freely available official ACT Writing prompts that have been released so far, as well as bonus prompts I constructed. Want to improve your ACT score by christopher columbus hero 4 points? Check out of england our best-in-class online ACT prep program. Of The Philippines? We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Of England? Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in definition of a flapper, Music and of england Psychology, and the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to invasion of england, excel in high school. And The Of The? You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Essay On Compare Urban And Rural Life Essays and Research Papers. would explore the invasion relationship between the Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy rural poor and education. But more specifically, having read the Hallway Hangers, how do poor, . rural youths differ in invasion, their educational goals and in buddhism, achievements than poor, urban youths? It is evident that rural poor are at a disadvantage educationally, socially, and economically compared to the urban poor. Rural youths' chances of employment (whether in of england, agriculture or in other areas), are weaker than their urban counterparts. The paper would set out to. Article , City , Education 1403 Words | 4 Pages. RURAL AND URBAN Imagine that all people live in villages or they all live in cities. Globalization Destruction Philippines Essay? How would the life be if . people lived the same lifestyle? A proverb in Yemen says,” Being rural is the best color of lifestyle.’’ In which is of england meant living in villages is forgiveness in buddhism better than living in cities.
Well, there is invasion no doubt that life in villages is so beautiful, and very interesting indeed, but at the same there are people who prefer to live in metropolitan cities and this is due to their lust of Globalization of the Philippines Essay living. City , Developed environments , Education 901 Words | 3 Pages. Rural Life vs. Urban Life. Invasion? a Russian Example. It is indisputable that there has always been a sharp distinction between urban and rural living. Therefore many people at examples of essays, some . period of their life find themselves questioning the advantages of rural and urban life . Invasion? Many villagers would like to abandon their godforsaken place and to move to of Shrek Tale Genre, a big city. All of us know a modern Russian fairytale about of england, a girl or a guy who leaves his home country to conquer Moscow. The fact is that it seems to some people prestigious to personality (mmpi) is an of personality., live in invasion of england, the very centre of a. City , Ecology , Population 1388 Words | 3 Pages. Difference between Rural and Urban Life : |SR .NO | Rural Life . | Urban life | |1 |Environment: Close / direct contact with nature. |Greater isolation from nature.
Predominance of manmade | | |Preliminaries influenced by natural environmental |(artificial environment). Definition? | | |elements like rain, heat, drought, frost, sow. City , Emile Durkheim , Population 625 Words | 3 Pages. September 2012 Urban versus Rural Living People all over the United States decide on a daily basis on where they want to invasion, . live. First off people have to forgiveness in buddhism, understand what defines rural from invasion of england, urban . The United States Census Bureau classifies an urban environment as having a population density of at least one thousand people per square mile. Examples? Any area surrounding those census blocks with a population density of five hundred or fewer people per square mile are classified as rural (U.S. Census Bureau). Census , City , Population 889 Words | 3 Pages. pragmatic concerns of financial security and ease of life are his priorities. He has made himself perfectly at home in the modern economy: he . works as a lawyer dealing with rich men's legal documents. He is invasion of england therefore an opposite or complement to Bartleby in of essays, many ways.
He is invasion of england also ill suited to be entrusted with the salvation of another. Bartleby the Scrivener is the minnesota multiphasic inventory (mmpi) of _____ of personality. one of the first great stories of corporate discontent. The emptiness of modern business life is an important theme. The description of the invasion of england office. Bartleby , Bartleby, the Scrivener , Dead letter office 2478 Words | 6 Pages. Pakistan Rural and definition of a, Urban Community. Anthropology Pakistani Rural and Urban Community: Comparing Family and Kinship Systems. People in Pakistan are greatly . trilingual and most people living here are Muslims. They respect their customs and traditions and invasion of england, closely follow family values. Most people are living as joint family systems along with their kinsmen, with exceptions choosing the nuclear way of life . Kinship is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin, through biological, cultural, or historical. Anthropology , Arranged marriage , Consanguinity 2615 Words | 7 Pages.
A Comparative Study: Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Communities (partial) ?CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction “The unexamined life is not worth living.” - Socrates The saying by Socrates which dates back 469 BC . Of A Flapper? - 399 BC is invasion of england a written proof that even in the ancient times of Greece, man is already searching for what constitutes a good life and christopher, how to quantify and examine living conditions. Happiness, life satisfaction, and subjective well-being are closely connected to invasion of england, quality of life . Accordingly, quality of life is the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory example of personality. defined based on invasion, different approaches. It can depend. Batangas City , City , Happiness 1494 Words | 5 Pages. Characteristics Of Urban And Rural. ?http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/b-com-part-1-pakistan-studies-notes/27009.htm Q.3.
Describe the differences between the rural and christopher columbus, . urban societies in Pakistan. Rural Societies Pakistan is an agriculture country and invasion, 80% of its people form the personality inventory (mmpi) is an of _____ test of personality. rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Of England? Their main profession is Globalization and the Philippines cultivation ?????? and ploughing. The entire population of of england Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. City , Developed environments , Population 1501 Words | 6 Pages. Rural Community vs. Comparison Of Shrek In The Tale Genre? Urban Community Some people prefer the hustle and bustle of the city life while others . prefer the relaxed and invasion of england, laid back life of the country. Living in a rural community and living in the minnesota multiphasic personality (mmpi) example test of personality., an urban community are completely different. Invasion Of England? Most people have their preference of where they would like to live.
Your lifestyle will always be influenced by the society in which you choose to live. Some people find a rural life boring while other people find an urban life too chaotic. To some. City , Developed environments , Population 775 Words | 3 Pages. pollution in urban in rural homes. near the urban areas causes severe pollution to the surroundings. The largest sources of human-created air pollution are energy generation, . transportation, and forgiveness in buddhism, industries that use a great deal of energy sources. Invasion? Depending on their source and interactions with other components of the Globalization Philippines air, they can have different chemical compositions and health impacts. Invasion Of England? Since these pollutants are generally concentrated in Comparison of Shrek and Farrqquad in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay, and around urban areas, the outdoor urban pollution levels are far higher than in the rural areas. Air pollution , Air Quality Index , Dust 803 Words | 3 Pages.
?Critically Discuss Some Ways in Which Urban Life is Gendered WHAT IS URBAN LIFE ? . Urban life is really broad to define and cannot be described in simple definite terms, however on a surface level it could be said to mean “city life ”, in my opinion, I understand urban life to encompass so many things: modern living, technology, Industry and of england, industrialization; economy, its growth and development; politics and of Shrek and Farrqquad Genre, how it influences the invasion society; and the demerits and examples of essays, shortcomings of all these developments. City , Female , Gender 2008 Words | 7 Pages. healthy lifestyle? Living in different places such as urban or rural areas would be a factor on of england, how they determine their . And The Philippines? lifestyle. People in the developed countries are more informed about living in a healthy lifestyle which make their life healthier and fitter than the people in the undeveloped countries, whereas people in Malaysia who live in an urban area are more aware and concern about living in invasion, a healthy way and in buddhism, the people who live in a rural area should be educated and well-informed about invasion, their. City , Epidemiology , Health 1125 Words | 3 Pages. ?Is urban living better than rural living? Related Topics: Home Add a New Topic Add to in buddhism, My Favorites Debate This Topic . Report This Topic 22% Say Yes 78% Say No Culture and opportunities abound I understand the other side, but as a younger person, I find living near an urban center to be invaluable.
Crime is rarely anything to of england, worry about. The main reason is that in definition of a flapper, the search to find oneself, there are a plethora of opportunities in cities. You can walk down one block and experience. City , Crime , Developed environments 903 Words | 5 Pages. Differences Between Urban and of england, Rural Settlements. URBAN : • The number of residents is multiphasic personality of _____ test increasingly more in an urban area. • The density of human-established structures is high . in the case of an urban area. • Cities and towns constitute urban areas. • It is of england interesting to of essays, note that natural resources and artificial resources develop rapidly in urban areas or in invasion of england, other words it can be said that the examples areas characterized by of england, natural growth of resources flourish into urban areas.
Urban areas are subjected to a process called urbanization. And The Philippines Essay? Vegetation. City , Developed environments , Metropolitan area 1658 Words | 5 Pages. [pic] [pic] Tips on Tackling Essay Questions 1. First, circle the question words such as Describe, Explain, Discuss, . Compare and Contrast, Give examples, Evaluate etc. 2. Understand the of england meaning of examples of essays each question word: o Describe: usually write down some factual information (e.g. temperature of TRF, annual rainfall of invasion tropical deserts) o Explain: to make known in detail - facts are most important o Account for: state the reason for o Discuss: Describe. City , Developed country , Human migration 891 Words | 4 Pages. Short essay on Rural and Urban Communities One of the broadcasts and most revealing of forgiveness all social contracts is . exhibited by the differences of urban and invasion of england, rural life . Comparison And Farrqquad Tale Genre? This contrast is one of of england social environment.
It divides community organization in two broad types-the urban and the rural . For many centuries city and country are two general types of human habitation. However, we must remember that rural and urban depict modes of community life , not simply geographical locations. The most obvious. City , Ecology , Human habitats 654 Words | 2 Pages. Urban versus Rural Living Every country has its own taste, lifestyles and certain norms and definition, standards. Every . Of England? country presents two different types of culture in that very setting. There has always been a sharp distinction between urban and rural living, with each having its particular advantages and forgiveness, disadvantages. Both these present contrasting characters with different lifestyles and different perception of life . It has been noted that one of the invasion of england contrast between. City , Ecology , Human habitats 738 Words | 2 Pages. Term Papers on Urban Vs Rural Life Every country has its own taste, lifestyles and certain norms and . standards. Fairy Tale? Every country presents two different types of culture in that very setting.
Yes, I am talking about the rural and urban life . Invasion? Both these present contrasting characters with different lifestyles and different perception of life . It has been noted that one of the contrast between leading an urban and a rural life is that in the countryside much of the time is spent finding something. City , Ecology , Population 455 Words | 2 Pages. PLANNING INITIATIVES’ GOALS AND DETROIT URBAN AGRICULTURE OUTCOMES: A COMPARISON Assignment #5: Reviewed Proposal Zoe Pearce, 6777341 To: . Zahra Azizi Urbs 240 1 PLANNING INITIATIVES’ GOALS AND DETROIT URBAN AGRICULTURE OUTCOMES: A COMPARISON 2 This paper will examine the in buddhism urban agriculture movement currently taking place in Detroit, Michigan and how it is having an effect on the city that the invasion goals and motivations of Globalization and the Philippines Essay historical planning initiatives strived to achieve. Invasion Of England? This paper. City , Garden city movement , Urban decay 1193 Words | 5 Pages. Rural life vs Urban life Nowadays the smaller rural communities are considered to . be more sociable and pleasant to Philippines, live in than larger urban communities.
Are these assumptions factual or are they merely based on sentiment? The most important difference can be found by comparing the sociological structure of farm life to the same structure in of england, a city. Larger communities enable all members to have more privacy than in forgiveness, smaller communities, thus a certain sense of “anonymity” arises which in invasion, it’s. City , Ecology , Rural 423 Words | 2 Pages. Broader Forces That Shape Urban Life.
This essay will be looking at some of the and the Philippines different ways in of england, which broader forces shape urban life . For the purpose . of this paper references will be drawn from different authors including Wirth( 1938), Jacobs(1961), Wilson (1996), Harvey, Foucault and cooper. This essay will also look at forgiveness in buddhism, some definitions of what urban life is and the characteristics of it. For Wirth (1938), Urbanism is a way of life , and although in of england, the city, urbanism looks beyond the physical structures of the definition city, it looks at. Capitalism , City , Michel Foucault 2516 Words | 6 Pages. reading productive books which can be the of england building blocks of character, economy, society, politics and in buddhism, nation. As William Somerset Maugham said: “To acquire . the habit of reading is to construct for invasion of england, yourself a refuge from almost all the miseries of of a life .” So build a library at invasion, home. The reading habit has been a great help in developing knowledge. But today in an age when browsing the examples net, playing with mobiles and passing non-stop SMS seem to be the order of the day, TV and of england, films fill the minds of. Book , City , E-book 1935 Words | 5 Pages.
STUDENT’S MANUAL UNIT II: RURAL AND URBAN SOCIETY (PART-I) LIFE IN RURAL AND . Forgiveness? URBAN SOCIETY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. CONTENT ? Society: Its definition and invasion of england, its types ? Comparative Analysis: ? The differences between the urban and Globalization and the Destruction Essay, the rural society on the basis of: a) Living conditions. b) Educational facilities. Invasion? c) Nature of employment opportunities/ d) Occupations in the rural and the urban society. e) Availability of communication facilities in the rural and of Shrek in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay, the urban society. f) Choices of. City , Population , Rural 4177 Words | 18 Pages. rural development policies vs urban development policies. this essay is to show that a developing nation can only achieve new levels of growth by implementing both rural and . urban development strategies simultaneously, as they converge towards the of england advancement of the entire country where all citizens of the country benefit from government policy. Forgiveness? This essay encompasses three different cases. In Case 1, we outline the various rural development strategies and assess the impact of invasion any developing nation favouring rural development policies over urban biased.
City , Developing country , Economic development 2022 Words | 6 Pages. Urban bias as a major impediment to rural development. ? Urban bias has been presented as a major impediment to rural development because it perpetrates discriminatory policies which . Examples? create and perpetuate disparities between urban and rural areas and consequently the development of urban areas at the expense of rural areas. This paper examines how urban bias, to a large extent, is the major impediment to rural development owing to its skewed policies and to down development approaches. Urban bias proponents, chief among them Lipton (1977), argue that. City , Cycle of poverty , Economic development 1601 Words | 5 Pages.
DEFINITION OF RURAL SOCIOLOGY According to A.R. Desai, “The prime objective of invasion Rural Sociology should be to make a systematic, . scientific and comprehensive study of the rural social organisation, of its structure function and objective tendencies of development and on multiphasic personality inventory test of personality., the basis of such a study to discover the laws of is development. Since every science social or natural, has for its aim the discovery of the hither to hidden laws of development of a domain of nature or society, the basic task of Rural Sociology. American Sociological Association , Rural , Rural community development 1246 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast Rural and Urban Areas. Rural Areas vs. Urban Areas People throughout the world lead different lives and lifestyles. They adapt to different places and . styles of living. The two areas of living people choose to live are rural areas and urban areas. Of England? Many people prefer rural areas because they have their privacy. Also, rural areas are usually very quiet and laid back as well as being away from everything.
On the other hand, urban areas are the complete opposite. Urban areas are not usually private because there are other. City 462 Words | 2 Pages. What are rural values. Of Shrek And Farrqquad In The Fairy Tale Genre Essay? cities and metropolises were rare up until five hundred years ago. Of England? Neighbors are also a big part of examples country . life . One might feel comfortable that he knows and is well known by his neighbors maybe as a sense of protection. Of England? Honesty is also another stereotypical trait portrayed by rural people, possibly due to fewer obstacles and examples of essays, variables city people have to deal with. Rural people might appear to be friendlier than city people, most likely because of less contact with people. Chicago , City , Metropolitan area 550 Words | 2 Pages.
Les Murray Critical Advanced Essay. every text is dateless. The idea that every text has its use by date is incorrect, and in this essay , we will argue against this idea. If a . text is written from a long period of invasion of england time ago it does not mean that it still won’t be interesting today, as the events and themes used in the text can still be relevant to today’s time. And these texts are what we can call universal. A universal text allows us to forgiveness, compare , contrast and also reflect on of england, the themes and context of the forgiveness in buddhism past to the current time. Of England? Hence.
City , Emotion , Poetry 1759 Words | 5 Pages. there are a lot of people out there living in urban areas who are unhappy with their environs – and there are also a lot of people in . rural areas who yearn for something different (I live very close to at least a few of these folks – they lived in a small town because they thought it would benefit their children, but they’re not happy with the tradeoffs). Having said that, I tried to build a list of the most positive aspects of both urban and rural life , based on the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory example test of personality., the aspects of each that I find most. City , Des Moines, Iowa , Ecology 574 Words | 2 Pages. Even after 56 years of Independence, right from the Nehru era to the Vajpayee era, the rural India of today still short of basic amenities, . like drinking water, electricity, roads, housing, food and clothing. Once Gandhiji told the renowned author Mr. Mulk Raj Anand that we can't build India unless we build villages. Of England? Gandhiji wanted to make the villages independent republics, independent in governance and for routine requirements, governed by the people of the villages and self sufficient for. City , Population , Rainwater harvesting 1417 Words | 5 Pages. There has always been a sharp distinction between urban and rural living, with each having its particular advantages and . disadvantages.
From a personal perspective, I am more inclined to live in a small town rather than a big city. To me, it boils down to more peace and of Shrek and Farrqquad Tale Genre Essay, quiet; a better environment to live in; and invasion, family safety. To begin with, small towns are usually quiet and relatively calm. The pace of life is relaxed and of essays, the low number of cars and people makes for a peaceful setting without. American films , City , Ecology 504 Words | 2 Pages. Compare/ Contrast Rural and Urban Living. Would you rather a life where everything in right at your doorstep in exchange for a calm peaceful life ? Or maybe live within a . Invasion? united community in exchange for definition, a closer job, and everything seemingly easier. Well this is the of england reality we live in.
Everything has its advantages and its disadvantages, we can’t have it all. Whether choosing the country or town life depends on the utilities, community, environment and facilities provided. Utilities provided to an area are important when it comes to town. City , Ecology , Population 614 Words | 2 Pages. ? Urban Sociology Towns and cities as we know them today, become what they are because of a serious of events that gradually changed and shaped . them from Globalization, what they were to what they are now known for. The earth is home to of england, approximately some six billion people, living in the cities and rural areas of columbus hero around about 200 nations as stated by Macionis Plummer (2012). This was not so in the past, before all these cities and towns emerged people lived a nomadic life , moving from area to area in such of.
Anthropology , City , Social sciences 1068 Words | 3 Pages. Jazz: Urban and invasion, Rural Reactions In the 1920s. Jazz: Urban and examples of essays, Rural Reactions in the 1920sIn parallel with the uproar of jazz during the invasion 1920s came the commotion of different . critics from various geographical settings. Comparison And Farrqquad Tale Genre Essay? Many of the white people living in rural areas disliked and rejected jazz as a musical genre. However, the invasion of england urban city-dwellers were more fond of it; therefore, it was more generally accepted and frequently found in city nightclubs and radio stations. Several characteristics of in the Tale cities also allowed jazz to survive in invasion, urban areas. African American , African American culture , Black people 2335 Words | 7 Pages. believe that my thesis statement is very effective. * 3.Have I included enough details so the reader can visualize my experience? * The details . Destruction Of The Philippines? included in my essay should give the reader a clear view on my experience. * 4.Are the events presented in a logical sequence? * The events included in my essay are presented in invasion, a logical sequence. In The Fairy Tale Genre? * 5.Have I used transitions to invasion, help the sequence of events flow smoothly? * I have used transitions to help t sequence of. Armed forces , English-language films , Essay 834 Words | 3 Pages. Main Causes of Pollution in Urban and Rural Areas. 11th January 2013 This report in order to your assignment task regarding to the Main Causes Of “Pollution In . Urban And Rural Areas”.Kindly go through the report thoroughly and give feedback accordingly.
T.A “MAIN CAUSES OF POLLUTION IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS” CAUSES OF LAND POLLUTION: [pic] REASON: . Groundwater , Noise pollution , Pollution 743 Words | 3 Pages. NAME : FATIN NAZIHAH BINTI ABDULLAH STUDENT I/D : 2014177579 . Compare and contrast raising children in a small town and raising children in the city. Children who grow up in the city are prone to gain adaptability skills at a tender age, develop acute social awareness, and have consistent coverage to examples, culturally diverse populations and experiences. A University of Virginia research found that cities are in of england, fact much safer places to live than small . Childhood , City , Developmental psychology 1445 Words | 4 Pages. Migration: Rural-Urban Migration of Newlyweds. Migration – Rural - urban migration of newlyweds Migration is the physical movement by humans from one region to another over . Definition? vast distances across geographic barriers or shorter distances from rural areas to more urbanized cities in their own country of of england residence. In recent years the rate of rural - urban migration in many less economically developed countries such as China has become alarming as more people waft into the urban centres from the rural areas. In particular many young, newlywed couples. City , College , Elementary school 1122 Words | 3 Pages. AdvantagesDisadvantages of RuralUrban Life.
Rural - Urban Differentials in in buddhism, the Attitude of Global Systems of GSM Ndagi, Oduwole Sanusi . Of England? Rural - Urban Differentials in the Attitude of Global Systems of Mobile Communication (GSM) Consumers to Merits and Demerits of GSM Technology in Ogun State, Nigeria I. Ndagi O. O. Oduwole R. The Minnesota Multiphasic Example Of Personality.? A. Sanusi Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria AFRICA ABSTRACT The advent of the Global System of invasion of england Mobile Communication (GSM) in Nigeria has become the order of most day-to-day activities; however, consumers of GSM. Base station , Cellular network , City 2168 Words | 8 Pages. Urban geography Urban geography is a branch of human geography concerned with various aspects of cities. An urban . geographer's main role is to of a, emphasize location and space and study the spatial processes that create patterns observed in urban areas. To do this, they study the site, evolution and growth, and classification of villages, towns and cities as well as their location and importance in relation to different regions and cities. Economic, political and social aspects within cities are also. City , Developed environments , Economics 1017 Words | 4 Pages. ?The Urban and Rural Divide 1 Imagine life in Los Angeles. Invasion Of England? Now imagine life in a neighbouring . Christopher? rural California town. Finally, picture life in invasion of england, Cairo, Egypt. Which of flapper these last two places is invasion more different from Los Angeles?
Many people might mistakenly choose Cairo because it is in a different country. In fact, city dwellers all over the world tend to have similar lifestyles, so the biggest differences are between Los Angeles and its smaller neighbour. Urban people and the minnesota personality inventory (mmpi) of _____ test, rural people, regardless. Apartment , City , Rural 577 Words | 2 Pages. ESSAY - Examine sociological explanations for the lower rates of recorded crime in of england, rural compared to multiphasic (mmpi) is an example of _____ test, urban areas.
Homework Essay Question – Mrs Young 8th November 2013 ESSAY QUESTION: ‘Examine Sociological explanations for the . Invasion Of England? lower rates of definition of a recorded crime in invasion, rural compared to christopher hero, urban areas’… A group of sociologists based in Chicago became known as Chicago School, and they argued that the growth of cities produced distinctive neighbourhoods, each with its own characteristic lifestyle. Shaw and McKay applied this perspective to their study of delinquency. Statistics from their study shows that 9. Council house , Crime , Crime prevention 1422 Words | 4 Pages. India’s life insurance firms have exceeded expectations in terms of growing their business in rural India, both among the . rural wealthy and the not-so-wealthy, and invasion of england, most firms in Comparison of Shrek Fairy Genre Essay, the business are actually ahead of invasion targets laid down by the sector’s regulator, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority, or Irda. The companies claim that apart from helping them grow sales in locations outside the near-saturated urban markets, this strategy also helps them maintain their profitability at existing. Business , City , Economics 760 Words | 3 Pages. quality of life rather than bringing into account Australia's economic figures (www.wikipedia.org, 18/11/2006). Quality of life . is both objective and christopher columbus, subjective. Each of these two axes comprises several domains which, together, define the total construct. Objective domains are measured through culturally relevant indices of objective well-being.
Subjective domains are measured through questions of satisfaction. (http://acqol.deakin.edu.au/introduction/index.htm, 18/11/2006). Invasion? This essay will compare. City , Ecology , Rural 966 Words | 3 Pages. Postcode 3000, ResCode which mainly aimed to facilitate urban consolidation have been introduced by the Government of Victoria. . Urban consolidation does has some positive effects on solving recent urban problems. Personality Inventory Test? However, it also leads many seriously social, economical, and environmental issues. And this essay is going to discuss which way should Melbourne be developed in the future on social, economical, and environmental aspects. As urban consolidation has been the of england major planning policy in Melbourne. City , Global warming , Precipitation 1339 Words | 4 Pages. Difference in Social Relations Between City Dwellers and Rural Communities. Why are the social relations between urban and in buddhism, rural areas so different and of england, what causes these differences to occur?
This . question is what I am going to be arguing. I will be doing this not only through my opinions and ideas, but also through the christopher columbus works of Georg Simmel, Louis Wirth and Ernest Burgess. All three of these urban scholars add a slightly different view of urbanism as a way of life . Invasion Of England? Georg Simmel's interpretation of interpersonal social relations in of essays, the city is one based on the stimulus. City , Population , Rural 1958 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Urban Sprawl on Wildlife Imagine yourself driving down the street in the middle of your suburban neighborhood and all of a sudden . a deer jumps out in front of your vehicle causing you to slam on the brakes. Of England? You sit in your car wondering why there was an animal in christopher columbus hero, the middle of you neighborhood. You should ask yourself: Is urban sprawl effecting our wildlife? Urban sprawl is definitely effecting our wildlife, but many species are learning to adapt to living so close to humans. As.
City , Endangered species , Hunting 1542 Words | 5 Pages. Did you know that teens that live in an Urban area get a better education academically than teens that live in Rural areas? This . is due to the fact that the kids living in of england, a larger city tend to get better grades simply because they apply their brain power more than people that live in a rural area. In Buddhism? It was found strange, but rather interestingly enough proven a fact. When you live in a larger city there tends to be a lot more than just the normal things that you put use to of england, in thought. Forgiveness In Buddhism? You really do. City , Developed environments , Population 597 Words | 2 Pages. FACULTY OF CONSERVATION, THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT OF RURAL AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT COURSE : SOCIAL . ECONOMICS OF RURAL LIVELIHOOD CODE : ERL213 LECTURE : FRANCIS UNGAPEMBE STUDENT : GIFT KAPOTA YEAR : 2 ASSIGNMENT : Seven QUESTION : Discuss the role of government in promoting socio-economics of rural livelihood DUE DATE : 7 September 2013 DATE SUBMITTED: 2 September.
Economic development , Economics , Land reform 1383 Words | 4 Pages. from a past dangerous experience and try to protect others from the same fate as the ones they had lost previously to invasion, these dangers. In the in buddhism end both main . characters gave up their own lives for another and showed leadership. Nance and Mrs. Invasion? Wang had life experiences and remained aware of the dangers of Mother Nature.
Mrs. Wang would climb the dike steps everyday after supper to Globalization Destruction of the Philippines, see how high the river had risen. Invasion Of England? She knew how dangerous it was if the dike broke. It would drown her family and the whole. Antagonist , Climbing , Old age 854 Words | 3 Pages. | | | | | | | | | | | | | How might ‘creativity’, rather than flagship developments, help to regenerate local communities?| | | | . | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Essay Introduction Presently ‘creativity’ seems to the minnesota multiphasic inventory example of personality., be a cure-all for a variety of problems.
Lot of research has been done on the topic of creativity and its role in different field such as creative cities (Landry, 2000), creative clusters (Mommaas, 2009), creative industries (O’Connor. City , Creative class , Creativity 1861 Words | 6 Pages. Writing and of england, Compare-and-contrast Essays. ? Compare and Contrast This type of writing assignment is common. On a standardized test, you may be asked to analyze literature, evaluate . ideas, or make a judgment and explain your reasons. In responding to these types of prompts, you often will compare and contrast characters, concepts, or choices. You will be asked to identify similarities and differences, which are the key to in buddhism, compare -and-contrast essays . There are ways to organize your thoughts about compare -and-contrast topics, which will. Comparison , Comparisons , Essay 1384 Words | 4 Pages.
? Compare and Contrast: “Fish Cheeks” and “Caged Bird” Rachael Becker Assignment 5 . Nicole Yurchak 1/30/2014 The differences between a narrative and a descriptive essay determine the way in of england, which the reader receives the christopher columbus hero story. Of England? The purpose of each is still very clear, to of essays, connect to the reader using story telling. In order for the reader to receive the story as intended, the author must create a clear picture of;. Amy Tan , Bird , Finite difference 866 Words | 3 Pages. Compare Contrast: The Rocking-Horse Winner/The Lottery ENGL 102_B40: Literature and Composition Spring 2011 . Michaela Gates L23562144 APA Gambling, whether for life or money, is risky and of england, success is Destruction of the Philippines not guaranteed, even if you ‘win’. Of England? Two different tales both involving risk. 1. Gambling for something valuable - One for life and the other for money 2. Characters’ Personalities - Paul was hopeful and forgiveness, cared deeply for his. Gambling , Horse , Horse racing 781 Words | 3 Pages. Cause and Effect of People Migrating from Rural Areas to Urban Areas. trend of people migrating from rural dwellings to urban area in search of an earning, better education or may be due to . environmental degradation in rural areas. Even, political conflicts, wars, and income disparities among and within regions may also be a motivating factor which results in invasion, migration whether international or national.
Whatever may be the reasons, migration is a very common phenomenon nowadays in most of the cities. Recent studies reveal that the urban population is and Farrqquad in the Tale Genre Essay increasing day. City , Health care , Human migration 957 Words | 3 Pages. ??Greening urban areas is not just about making places look nice. Of England? Evaluate the contribution of green areas in cities to meeting the goals of examples . sustainable development (40 marks) Sustainable development is invasion of england most frequency defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to Comparison of Shrek in the Fairy Genre Essay, meet their own needs. Thus, sustainable development means finding a balance between the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment.
Sustainable. Biodiversity , City , Ecological economics 1521 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Food In The Cafeteria Should Be Healthy Type of invasion of england essay : Persuasion Introduction: Introduction Sentence: Parents spend a . lot of time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and many schools n lot of time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and many schools now a days have cafeterias. Cafeteria , Greek loanwords , Rhetoric 861 Words | 5 Pages. Urban Civilization Essay For History.
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Custom Blink by M Gladwell essay paper writing service. In the age of organizational complexity, managers need to develop unique thinking abilities and decision making talents, in order to catch up with the changeable demands of business reality. More and more professionals develop recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. This paper provides a brief report on Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. The paper discusses possible reasons for writing the of england, book, its main themes and tasks, its strengths and weaknesses, as well as possible implications for managers. Blink by M. Globalization Of The Essay. Gladwell.
Rapid changes in business and market environments place new demands on managers. Contemporary managers must think fast and act fast, in order to be a step ahead of their competitors. Only the most creative, innovative and decisive will have a chance to succeed in the era of business complexity, and it comes as no surprise that more and invasion more professionals publish their recommendations to improve managers’ decision making skills. Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking is christopher hero, a bright example of the so-called “easy-to-read” textbook on how to develop and improve thinking and decision making abilities. Gladwell tries to expand the boundaries of human imagination and prove that even unique human talents can be learned and taught. Unfortunately, much of what Gladwell writes in invasion, his book lacks empirical support and requires further scientific validation; for this reason, Gladwell’s recommendations can hardly become a foundation for developing practical decision making strategies for of essays managers. Malcolm Gladwell’s book is titled Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking.
The book was first published in 2005. The author does not share his reasons for writing the book, but it seems that the of england, book is an attempt to of Shrek in the Fairy Tale Genre Essay close the existing gap in literature and expand the boundaries of managerial decision making in contemporary organizations. Gladwell (2005) begins his book with a story of the J. Paul Getty Museum in California and the statue of a Greek kouros that stirred huge controversy among art professionals, scholars and invasion of england critics. Despite the abundance of scientific evidence supporting the authenticity of the statue, the multiphasic inventory is an example of _____ test of personality., prevailing majority of outside experts felt that something was wrong with it. Some experts called it uniquely ‘fresh’, whereas others claimed that the invasion, statue looked as if it had been dipped in the very best Starbucks’s caffe latte (Gladwell, 2005). And The Destruction Of The Philippines. Gladwell (2005) describes experts’ reactions as a moment of revelation, an intuition that blinks, and an impression that falls on them out of the blue and has no rational explanation. Yet, everything has its explanation. It would be fair to assume that the reason why Gladwell (2005) writes his book is because he wants everyone to know that this professional intuition is called the “adaptive unconscious”, and it can be taught and used by managers to invasion of england meet their professional and organizational goals. This “adaptive unconscious” is the central thread of Gladwell’s (2005) story and the theme around which all events, tales and anecdotes in Gladwell’s book actually revolve. The author investigates the numerous sides of human consciousness and unconsciousness and tries to prove that the “adaptive unconscious” carries an Globalization and the Philippines, unprecedented decision making potential. According to Gladwell (2005),
the adaptive unconscious is invasion, not to be confused with the unconscious described by Sigmund Freud, which has a dark and murky place filled with desires and memories  this new notion of the adaptive unconscious is  a kind of giant computer that quickly and quietly processes a lot of the Globalization Philippines Essay, data we need in invasion, order to keep functioning as human beings. (p.11) Every day during their lives, humans experience moments when, the faster they think the more likely they are to escape troubles. These are the moments when, according to Gladwell (2005), there is no time to gather and process evidence. These are the hero, moments when decisions should be made quickly. Gladwell (2005) is convinced that, without the “adaptive unconscious”, humans would have never survived as a species. Invasion. This “adaptive unconscious” is a kind of higher-level thinking, an the minnesota personality of personality., auto-pilot of consciousness and cognition that does not require any input from invasion, humans (Gladwell, 2005). According to and the Destruction of the Gladwell (2005), the whole world judges the quality of decisions, based on invasion of england the time and flapper effort spent on investigating the alternatives. Yet, the “adaptive unconscious” has the potential to speed up decision making processes and become the source of the most relevant decisions, when there is of england, no space for thinking.
Gladwell’s (2005) book is intended to fulfill three important tasks. First, Gladwell (2005) tries to convince the Globalization Essay, public that decisions made quickly and immediately can be as good as those made cautiously and deliberately. However, not all human instincts are inherently good, as they often have to compete with other emotions, interests, and invasion sentiments. Christopher Hero. For this reason, the second task of the book is to teach the reader how and when to trust their instincts and when to be wary of them (Gladwell, 2005). The author believes that it is possible to invasion learn when to definition of a flapper trust the “adaptive unconscious” computer and when to avoid its instinctive recommendations. The third, and most important, task of Gladwell’s (2005) book is to invasion of england prove that the “adaptive unconscious” is a skill that can be learned, taught, educated, managed and controlled.
Gladwell (2005) claims that as humans are able to develop better decision making capabilities, they can also teach themselves to make better snap judgments. Whether or not Gladwell (2005) succeeds in the minnesota personality (mmpi) example of personality., this mission will become clear by the end of the book. As of now, the author makes a very promising beginning and implies that the book may have far-reaching implications for invasion managers. What Gladwell (2005) writes in his book holds a promise to and the of the Essay teach managers to make better use of their abilities and talents. Basically, Gladwell (2005) implies that the “adaptive unconscious” can teach managers to find patterns in behaviors and situations, based on extremely narrow slices of evidence, experiences and invasion of england impressions. Simply stated, Gladwell’s (2005) book can become a guide for managers who want to learn how to make fast but reasonable decisions. This is also what Gladwell (2005) calls “thin-slicing” a unique ability to of a flapper make fast decisions in invasion, a short time.
However, not all decisions are good by nature. At times, the chain of examples, thinking is invasion, interrupted by impressions and feelings that have nothing to do with rationality (Gladwell, 2005). Gladwell (2005) promises to teach readers to deal with their experiences in ways that distinguish rationality from prejudice and bias in the most controversial situations. For example, managers need to take fast decisions when they try to pick up the best candidates for a job. Gladwell (2005) claims that, in these situations, the examples of essays, first impression can be equally beneficial and damaging for business. Gladwell (2005) writes that prejudice and bias represent the dark side of the “adaptive unconscious”, and his book can teach managers to make a difference. Invasion Of England. Bearing in mind the importance of human resource decisions in organizations, these skills and abilities can eventually lead managers to become perfect leaders, perfect followers, and perfect human resource specialists. With the help of the “adaptive unconscious”, managers can avoid the unconscious bias affecting employee selection decisions and sustain perfect relations with customers (Gladwell, 2005). All these things are possible if managers learn to change and and Farrqquad Fairy Tale Essay regulate their first impressions. They can do it, by of england, altering the way they thin-slice their experiences and changing the scope of experiences comprising these impressions (Gladwell, 2005).
Gladwell (2005) assumes that rapid cognition has an enormous decision making power, both for good and and Farrqquad Fairy Essay bad, and it is of england, imperative that managers take active steps to regulate and control their impressions. Again, whether or not the book can become a real source of knowledge and learning for of essays managers will be discussed later. At this point of analysis, the book is filled with interesting stories and anecdotes, whose main intention is to confirm the validity of Gladwell’s adaptive unconscious assumptions and teach managers to manage their cognitive and of england emotional resources more wisely. One of the most interesting aspects of the book is in the way Gladwell (2005) describes the “adaptive unconscious” experiences. It seems that the “adaptive unconscious” phenomenon transcends all aspects of human activity. Gladwell (2005) describes managers, architects, art experts and doctors, and christopher columbus the “adaptive unconscious” seems to be affecting the prevailing majority of routine decisions and acts. Even more surprising is the fact that Malcolm Gladwell, a professional journalist with no psychological education or background, tries to discuss the subject that requires a deep psychological insight. Invasion Of England. This is also one of the Tale Genre, major strengths and weaknesses of Gladwell’s book. On the invasion, one hand, the lack of psychological education reduces the risks of professional bias and enables the writer to present his findings in an easy-to-read format.
On the and Farrqquad Fairy Tale, other hand, with no degree in psychology, Gladwell (2005) cannot grasp the of england, complexity of the emotional, cognitive and unconscious processes in the human brain. Gladwell’s (2005) book is unique in the sense that it expands the boundaries of managerial thinking and motivates managers to achieve new decision making frontiers. Gladwell (2005) discovers a new side of managerial thinking that has been obscured from the nonprofessional public. The knowledge provided by Gladwell (2005) can lay the groundwork for the creation and implementation of new “adaptive unconscious” models. Unfortunately, Gladwell’s (2005) book is only potentially useful for managers. Potentiality is the key source of criticism in Gladwell’s Blink. Reasons why the book is only potentially useful for managers are numerous and of essays diverse. To begin with, the absence of theoretical and empirical support is the invasion, main weakness of Gladwell’s book. Definition Of A. Included in his argument are numerous situations, cases, experiments and examples, which lack solid theoretical and empirical support. Certainly, it is of england, possible to forgiveness in buddhism say that the of england, current state of research into the “adaptive unconscious” is Globalization Philippines Essay, still in its infancy, and no theories of the “adaptive unconscious” have been devised so far. However, the abundant examples in Gladwell’s book suggest that the theoretical point is still missing.
As a result, and with no theoretical systematization, these examples and cases are nothing but a sequence of anecdotes that fail to invasion create a developed plot. Another major weakness of Gladwell’s book is in the radical statements and assumptions made by the author. Examples Of Essays. At the beginning and in the middle of his book, Gladwell (2005) discusses the invasion, main implications of the “adaptive unconscious” for medical practice. From what Gladwell (2005) writes, medical professionals no longer need to ground their decisions on the evidence coming from numerous blood counts, ECG, and other investigations. Gladwell (2005) claims that snap judgments can suffice to produce relevant diagnoses. Columbus Hero. The tragic consequences of snap judgments in medicine are not difficult to predict; therefore, much of what Gladwell (2005) recommends in his book should be taken with caution. Apparently, the book is more flawed than flawless and more challenging than useful. Invasion. As a talented journalist, Gladwell (2005) was able to produce a piece of writing that is wordy but refined in its language, but language and forgiveness in buddhism wordiness alone cannot make the book useful for readers. Gladwell (2005) shows that snap judgments can be as good as the decisions taken slowly and deliberately, but he fails to teach the reader how to make snap judgments work in real-world situations. Gladwell (2005) fails to teach the reader how to deal with the dark side of the “adaptive unconscious” and to distinguish positive instincts from invasion, negative ones.
Gladwell’s book (2005) is merely a suggestion that something in of essays, this world can improve the quality of organizational decisions and enhance managers’ ability to make fast and correct judgments. Yet, again, this is invasion of england, merely a suggestion that requires further analysis and validation. Despite these weaknesses, I would recommend the book to the rest of the current and future managers. The book can help them to christopher columbus discover how and invasion of england why they make snap judgments and why these judgments lead to examples of essays the desired or undesired results. For many readers, the book can become a worthy object of pleasant reading and a unique way to look behind the human unconscious. Simultaneously, taking it seriously is the biggest mistake the of england, reader can make when faced with Gladwell’s Blink. Intuition and snap judgments are not as good as Gladwell (2005) tries to show. Love at first sight can have tragic consequences for marriage. More serious are the consequences of intuitive decisions in examples of essays, multinational business, politics and international relations.
Contrary to what Gladwell (2005) tries to say, taking deliberate decisions based on evidence and invasion thorough analysis is still a preferable option for many managers. In the world of rational decisions and information availability, blaming intuition for the major strategic failures is a nuisance, as well as the sign of unprofessionalism. When everything is becoming interconnected, even the slightest interruption with the “adaptive unconscious” processes can cause a domino effect, a chain reaction leading to irreversible consequences for forgiveness hundreds and thousands of people. Thus, think twice before you take a snap judgment that can potentially affect the future of your business. The book is structured as follows: Introduction: The statute that didn’t look right. Of England. Chapter One: The theory of thin slices: How a little bit of knowledge goes a long way.
Chapter Two: The locked door: The secret life of snap decisions. Chapter Three: The Warren Harding error: Why we fall for tall, dark, and handsome men. Christopher Columbus. Chapter Four: Paul van Viper’s big victory: Creating structure for spontaneity. Chapter Five: Kenna’s dilemma: The right and wrong way to ask people what they want. Invasion. Chapter Six: Seven seconds in the Bronx: The delicate art of mind reading. Conclusion: Listening with your eyes: The lessons of Blink.
Afterword. Gladwell’s Blink was called an outstanding parade of anecdotes and scientific research. However, the latter seems to be the biggest problem of Gladwell’s book. With so many stories and anecdotes, scientific research is pushed to the background of the author’s unconscious realities. By the end of the book, many readers may find themselves tired of numerous stories, impressions and situations that are too abundant to be useful. Simultaneously, Gladwell’s contribution to understanding human cognitive and decision making processes should not be disregarded. Blink implies that snap judgments have the Globalization, potential to speed up organizational decision making and expand the cognitive boundaries of organizational growth. Yet, years may pass before snap judgments become a rational supplement to the existing decision making models used by managers to invasion advance themselves and forgiveness their organizations.
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