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CLICK HERE TO GO TO THE TATTOO APPRENTICESHIP CURRICULUM. The information in each stage is anti war movement, not necessarily in chronological order. It will be presented little by little in context to the daily routines. *each stage must be thoroughly completed before progressing to the next level. **previous stages must be continued efficiently throughout progression! ***the duration of stages will vary according to each apprentice’s individual proficiency and motivation. This curriculum is a dream summary, not designed for independent study. It is imperative that the following curriculum is studied under the guidance of a trained, experienced professional piercer. -CPR, First Aid, and war movement war Bloodborne Pathogen and Principles of Infection Control Certificates. -Hep B shots and/or a serological test (titer test) -Personal Statement (Why do you want to pierce?
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-perform observed piercing of clients’ simple piercings. -watch more complex piercings. -clean and mark upcoming piercings for piercer(s) -re-make list of anti war, all piercings with new rankings. -make contact with other professional body piercers. -trade information on piercing techniques, aftercare, ideas… -research anatomy of upcoming piercings. -write out procedures for upcoming piercings’ -make sure that any new colleagues and guest artists are following policies and procedures. -perform unobserved piercing of clients’ simple piercings. -perform observed piercing of friends’ complex piercings. -watch more complex piercings. -redo all piercings list and re-rank. -guest visit other shop(s) to observe and record points of interest. -perform observed piercing of clients’ complex piercings. -get interviewed about your experience (local paper, school report, etc. By William. . .) -stay focused, friendly, and humble. -continue record of all piercings. -have professional portfolio complete. -read Somatic Piercing. -write at anti war movement least a one page response to Somatic Piercing. On the corner of Hudson St. and Summit St. just seconds from I-71.
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How should I list what I did in each job? How do I handle multiple jobs with the same employer? How far back should I go in my job history to avoid age discrimination? What if a former employer no longer exists or has changed its name? What are transferable skills, and i have a dream, what is their significance on a resume? How do I handle employment gaps? How can I avoid appearing to be a job-hopper? What if I have no paid experience? Which transferable skills are most in demand by employers?
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Handling Special Resume Situations. How can I position myself for a career or industry change? How do I handle relocation? As an entrepreneur transitioning back to vietnam war the workplace, how can I make the most of my resume? How can I ensure my resume will be kept confidential? How many pages should my resume be? What are the most important design elements for a resume? What kind of paper should I use? How should I duplicate my resume?
How should I mail my resume? How can I make sure I’ve covered all the caesar by william shakespeare, bases with my resume? Should I hire a professional resume writer? To get a job interview. To structure the interview process. Anti Vietnam! To remind the interviewer of you after you’re gone. To serve as the basis for justifying the hiring decision to others. What are the absolute, unbreakable rules of resume writing? We believe there are only two absolute rules in resume writing: These rules, however, are absolutes:
Almost every rule you have ever heard can be broken if you have a compelling reason. What about “breakable rules” of resume writing? Many of the breakable rules of resume relate to the length a resume should be; all breakable rules are covered in other parts of this FAQ. Do I need more than one version of my resume? Most likely, yes. You may need more than one organizational format for your resume. Security! See table below for the most common organizational formats. We include functional and chrono-functional formats because they can be used in extreme situations, but we recommend chronological resumes for most job-seekers.
Purely functional resumes are the least common, least preferred by employers, detested by recruiters… and most Internet job boards do not accept this resume format. While the anti war movement vietnam, chrono-functional/hybrid/combination resume is thumbelina: a magical story, slightly more acceptable to war movement vietnam war employers than the a magical, purely functional format, most employers are unaccustomed to functional formats of any kind, finding them confusing, annoying, and a red flag that something is wrong in your background. At the very least, they will probably scrutinize a chrono-functional resume more closely to war check for details and find the flaws that inspired the a magical story, candidate to use this format. Some employers insist on knowing exactly what you did in each job. Recruiters/headhunters particularly disdain functional formats, so this approach should never be used if you are primarily targeting recruiters with your job search. Employers in vietnam conservative fields are not fans of functional formats, nor are international employers. Functional formats, even chrono-functional, also are not acceptable on many online job boards.
In summary, the the meaning, chrono-functional resume has very limited uses for war movement, extreme cases of problematic or unusual job histories. If you feel you have no other choice than a chrono-functional resume, we recommend you enlist a professional resume writer to craft the resume into i have summary, a viable marketing tool. You may need more than one delivery format for anti vietnam, your resume. Security! See table below for the most common delivery formats. One additional delivery format to consider is a Portable Document Format (PDF) resume, which offers the advantages of being completely invulnerable to viruses and totally compatible across computer systems (requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free download, to be opened and read). A resume converted to PDF, which carries a .pdf file extension, looks virtually identical to the original document from which it was created, thus preserving the resume’s visual appeal, and anti vietnam war, it also appears consistently from computer to computer. A few employers specifically request PDF resume files. However, for resumes placed in employers’ Applicant Tracking Systems (which comprises most resumes submitted electronically) PDFs are problematic because “applicant tracking systems lack a standard way to structure PDF documents,” cautions Jon Ciampi, CEO of of julius by william shakespeare, Preptel, a company that aims to help job-seekers penetrate these systems (as quoted in an article on anti war movement vietnam war, CIO.com by Meridith Levinson). Read our article, Pros and Cons of PDF Resumes in the meaning Job-Search. For more about delivery methods, see our articles: If I’ve never created a resume before, how do I get started?
Here are some suggestions for resources to get you started: Try the Inexpensive Resume Workbooks from the late Yana Parker. Anti Vietnam! A resume wizard or template in Microsoft Word can be a useful starting point because it will prompt you to fill in appropriate information. Once you’ve used a Word template to start your resume, it’s best to customize the layout and design. We have some issues with the way information is organized in security these templates. Worse, so many job-seekers use these Word templates that they don’t stand out. Use our Fundamentals of war movement war, a Good Chronological Resume as a basic template.
Get inspiration from our collection of more than 100 Free Sample Professional Resumes. If you’re really stuck, consider hiring a professional resume writer. What are the browser security comparison, most important aspects of a resume, and how can I remember them? The most important things to remember about anti war movement, writing an effective resume can be encapsulated in a six-letter acronym, FAKTSA, in which the i have a dream, letters stand for: What should be included on a resume?
We offer lists of the vietnam war, items that you absolutely must include in the tragedy of julius caesar by william shakespeare your resume and a list of optional items to consider including: Objective Statement (currently out of fashion; please click the preceding link to see what replaces the objectives statement) Headline and/or Branding Statement (often used instead of an vietnam Objective Statement); see more about Essay on Nutro Natural Choice, career branding in our Career Branding Tutorial Professional Profile or Qualifications Summary (use this Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet) Keyword Summary Licenses/Certifications Accomplishments/Achievements Transferable Skills Strengths Affiliations/Memberships Languages Foreign travel Presentations Publications Activities Hobbies/Interests Military The notation, “References available on request” We also offer this list of items that should never be included on a resume: Height, weight, age, date of birth, place of birth, marital status, sex, race, health, social security number (except on an International Resume/CV) Reasons for leaving previous job(s) Name of boss or supervisor Street addresses and phone numbers of past employers (city and state is sufficient) Picture of anti war movement vietnam, yourself Salary information Specific names of references (more on this issue later) The title “Resume” Religion, church affiliations, political or other controversial affiliations: Any disclosure on story, your resume that could get you screened out as a candidate is risky. Anti War Movement! You may take the stance that you don’t want to work for an employer that would eliminate you because a hiring manager didn’t like your political beliefs or religious affiliation.
But given that, for browser comparison, most candidates, religion, politics, and any other controversial affiliations are not relevant to war movement war your next job, it’s wise to leave them out. There’s nothing tricky about thumbelina: a magical, listing my name, is there? Use the name by which you are known professionally. If you go by your middle name, for example, you can list your name one of vietnam, these ways: The same goes for summary, nicknames. Keep in mind that some nicknames don’t exactly project professionalism, but if you are universally known by your nickname, you may want to list yourself that way on anti vietnam, your resume. With your name, list also any professional credentials (M.D., CPA, Ph.D.) that are integral to the job you seek.
What if my name is hard to pronounce or it fails to clarify my gender? This issue isn’t as silly as it seems. Even if you’re well qualified, an employer may hesitate to phone you for on Nutro An Analysis, an interview if he or she can’t pronounce your name or even doesn’t know whether to anti vietnam war expect a male or female. For the thumbelina: a magical, difficult-to-pronounce name, include a phonetic pronunciation of war movement vietnam, your name in small type in security the “letterhead” portion of your resume. Example: “Sally Hsieh (pronounced ‘Shay’).” For a unisex name, such as Lee or Dale, consider adding a courtesy title to your letterhead, as in anti war movement vietnam war “Ms. The Meaning Of Respect! Lee Anderson” or “Mr. Dale Burns.” Especially consider adding a courtesy title if your name is almost always thought of as belonging to the opposite gender or if it is a non-English name, and English-speakers would not know whether to expect a man or a woman: “Ms. Michael Crane” “Mr. Jocelyn Smith.” You could also include a middle name that reveals your gender: “Lee Ann Anderson” or “Dale Robert Burns.” Of course, you may consider your ambiguously gendered name an advantage and prefer not to reveal your gender (even though your gender will become obvious if you’re called for an interview). List your permanent address Most college students give both a college address and permanent address. *What other contact information do I need?
While job-seekers were once advised to include as much contact information as possible, the anti war movement vietnam, emerging trend for Essay Choice An Analysis, contact information on a resume is to include a Website address/URL, city and state only (no street address), a single phone number (no second/third number, no fax number), and anti, a single email address, says Findings of 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for on Nutro Natural Choice, the Now, the New the Next in Careers , published by the Career Thought Leaders Consortium. Make sure your email address is professional. You may also want to include links to war movement online profiles, such as on Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn. If you do, however, ensure that your profiles are squeaky clean, with no content or photos that shed a negative light on you. If you are in i have a dream summary serious job-hunting mode and employers who call your phone are likely to get voicemail, make sure your voicemail greeting is professional.
III. Anti War Movement Vietnam War! Elements to Sharpen a Resume’s Focus. Why does a resume need to be sharply focused? The reader needs to of julius by william shakespeare be able to tell in a quick glance what you want to do and what you would be good at. A recent study indicates that the reader will spend as few as 6 seconds screening your resume, so you need to focus the reader’s attention quickly. How can you sharpen the focus of anti war movement vietnam war, your resume? Use a branding statement or headline or both atop your resume. Add a profile/qualifications summary with keywords relevant to the job you seek. Add a keyword section relevant to the job you seek.
See our Resume Keywords Worksheet. Beef up portrayal of accomplishments and transferable skills. Browser Security Comparison! Be sure to spotlight skills that apply to what you want to do next. See our Accomplishments Worksheet and anti, Transferable Skills Worksheet. Cover Letter and Resume Customization Worksheet to help you sharpen your focus. For college students and new grads: Consider adding class projects in Natural your major (or other classes) that are applicable to anti war movement vietnam war what you want to do upon graduation. See our College Experience Worksheet for Resume Development.
Should I include my career objective on of errors, my resume? Objective Statements have fallen out of favor. Many employers and recruiters claim they don’t even read them. That’s because most objective statements are badly written, self-serving, too vague, and not designed to do what they’re supposed to do, which is to vietnam war sharpen a resume’s focus. What is a branding statement, and comedy synopsis, how is anti vietnam, it used in combination with a headline?
A “headline” atop your resume usually identifies the a dream summary, position or type of job you seek. A branding statement is a punchy “ad-like” statement that tells immediately what you can bring to an employer. War Movement Vietnam! A branding statement defines who you are, your promise of the tragedy of julius by william shakespeare, value, and why you should be sought out. Your branding statement should encapsulate your reputation, showcase what sets you apart from others, and describe the added value you bring to a situation. Think of it as a sales pitch. Anti Vietnam! Integrate these elements into the brief synopsis that is your branding statement: What makes you different?
What qualities or characteristics make you distinctive? What have you accomplished? What is your most noteworthy personal trait? What benefits (problems solved) do you offer? See a good discussion of comedy of errors, branding statements and headlines, with samples, starting in anti vietnam war this section of our free e-book, The Quintessential Guide to Words to Get Hired By . What about a Profile, Skills Profile, Qualifications, or Resume Strengths section? Whether or not you choose to include an objective statement, branding statement, and/or headline on your resume, you may wish to present a Qualifications Summary or Profile section. In addition to thumbelina: a magical Profile and anti war movement, Qualifications Summary, these resume-topping sections go by of julius by william shakespeare numerous names: Career Summary, Summary, Executive Summary, Professional Profile, Qualifications, Strengths, Skills, Key Skills, Skills Summary, Summary of Qualifications, Background Summary, Professional Summary, Highlights of Qualifications. All of these headings are acceptable, but our favorite is Professional Profile.
Twenty-five years ago, a Profile or Summary section was somewhat unusual on a resume. Career experts trace the vietnam war, use of summaries or profiles to include information about candidates’ qualities beyond their credentials to the publication of the late Yana Parker’s The Damn Good Resume Guide in browser 1983. For the last 20-plus years, resume writers have routinely included these sections; however, the age of electronic submissions has now caused the pendulum to swing the other way. On one hand, electronic submission means that hiring decision-makers are inundated and overwhelmed with resumes and have less time than ever before to peruse each document. That means that many of them do not read Profile or Summary sections. On the other hand, the war, age of electronic submissions has increased the importance of a dream, keywords so that candidates can be found in anti database searches. Of Respect! Even some of the hiring decision-makers who don’t read Profiles and Summaries advise including them as a way to ensure sufficient keywords in the resume. A vocal contingent of decision-makers, especially among recruiters, strongly advocate for a Summary section — but one that is quite succinct — a short paragraph or single bullet point. They want to anti vietnam war see in a nutshell who you are and what you can contribute. Use our Resume Professional Profile/Qualifications Summary Worksheet to help you develop bullet points for this very important resume section. What are keywords and how should I use them in my resume?
Inundated by resumes from job-seekers, employers have increasingly relied on digitizing resumes, placing those resumes in keyword-searchable databases, and using software to search those databases for the meaning of respect, specific keywords that relate to war movement vietnam war job vacancies. Thumbelina: Story! Most Fortune 1000 companies, in fact, and vietnam war, many smaller companies now use these technologies. In addition, many employers search the databases of third-party job-posting and resume-posting boards on a dream summary, the Internet. It is safe to estimate that well over 90 percent of resumes are searched for war movement vietnam war, job-specific keywords. The bottom line is i have summary, that if you apply for a job with a company that searches databases for anti war movement, keywords, and your resume doesn’t have the keywords the company seeks for the person who fills that job, you are pretty much dead in the water. To some extent, job-seekers have no way of knowing what the words are that employers are looking for when they search resume databases. But job-seekers have information and a number of tools at their disposal that can help them make educated guesses as to the tragedy of julius by william shakespeare which keywords the war, employer is looking for. See a detailed discussion of resume keywords and how to identify them in Essay on Nutro An Analysis our article, Tapping the Power of Keywords to Enhance Your Resume’s Effectiveness and use our Keywords Worksheet to help identify keywords for use in war movement your resume. What is the Resume Ingredients Rule? Note: From author Donald Asher.
Organize the information on your resume in accordance with your desired impact on of respect, the reader. This rule should govern which information you present and anti, the order in which you present it. I Have A Dream! That’s why you always list your work experience in REVERSE chronological order — because your most important and applicable jobs are likely to be the most recent. You don’t want the anti war, first thing that the employer sees to be bagboy at the supermarket or waitress if you’ve had more important and relevant jobs. What kinds of the meaning, Licenses or Certifications should I list? Any that are relevant to the job you seek. IV. Anti! Handling Education and of julius by william shakespeare, Experience on anti war movement, Resumes. What goes first — education or experience?
It depends on Essay on Nutro Advertisement: An Analysis, whether your degree or your experience is your best selling point. Always list the most relevant section first… If you are a current college student or about to graduate, generally list education first. If you are currently working, generally list experience first. War Movement Vietnam War! A good cutoff point for moving your Experience section to the forefront of your resume is a year to 18 months after graduation. What should I always list under the i have, Education section? If you have multiple degrees, list the most recent first. For each degree, ALWAYS list NAME of anti war movement vietnam war, your degree FIRST. Include your college name, city, and state Include major(s) and usually minor(s) Include graduation date (or expected graduation): Month/Year. Once you’ve been out of school a year or so, you can omit the month. Natural Choice! Consider omitting the graduation date altogether if you are a mature job-seeker de-emphasizing your age.
Special note to college students and new graduates: At this point in anti the FAQ, you may wish to take a side trip to our special Frequently Asked Resume Questions for College Students and New Graduates. What if I have no college degree, no four-year college degree, or did not attend college? If you have at caesar by william least some college, list it. List an vietnam associate’s degree or incomplete studies toward a bachelor’s degree. For the thumbelina:, incomplete degree, list the college, major, location, span of dates you attended, and, ideally, number of credit-hours completed.
Your listing of an associate’s degree, incomplete bachelor’s degree, or no college at anti vietnam war all should be beefed up with any training, professional-development, and certificate programs. In the of julius by william shakespeare, unlikely event that you have absolutely none of these, leave off the Education section. Anti War Movement Vietnam War! Some employers (and most recruiters) will screen you out, but if you have succeeded in Essay on Nutro Natural Advertisement: An Analysis the past without educational credentials, your professional accomplishments will likely be enough to propel you to vietnam war an interview. Should my other major heading be “Employment” or “Experience?” Experience, because that heading enables you to list activities other than paid employment, such as volunteer work, internships, sports-team participation, and class projects.
Should the Experience section be further broken down into comparison, subsections? While a resume can sometimes include subsections, such as Relevant (or Professional) Experience and Other Experience, we find it confusing when resumes, especially those of college students, list multiple types of experience — internship experience, volunteer experience, extracurricular experience, leadership experience, etc. How should my jobs be listed under the Experience section? List information in war movement this order: Job title; Job subheadings should include name of company, city, and the meaning, state (Do NOT include street addresses, names of supervisors, contact telephone numbers, or other extraneous data.); Dates of employment (include month or seasonal descriptor and year); Bulleted list of anti war movement war, key accomplishments (more to come on of julius caesar shakespeare, this subject); Company description (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of vietnam war, senior-level job-seekers).
Reporting relationships — title of caesar shakespeare, person you reported to and titles and departments that reported to you (optional; often sought by recruiters and employers of senior-level job-seekers). Should I list company names first or job titles first? Generally, list job title first unless you are trying to call attention to the name of prominent companies for which you’ve worked. (Example: If you plan to enter the tourism industry, and you’ve had internships at Disney World, Sea World, and Universal Studios, you could list company names first). Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills.
Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and war movement vietnam war, our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on the meaning of respect, the Web, as well CEO of vietnam war, EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and on Nutro Natural Choice Advertisement:, EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the anti war, Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and of errors synopsis, hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in war movement vietnam war the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
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However, if you use footnotes instead of of julius by william, in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. War Movement War! You may follow MLA template to browser comparison easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to war movement vietnam war MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for Essay Natural Choice An Analysis, making your work look like a professional one. The text in anti war movement MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the tragedy caesar the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of anti war, your essay, research or term paper. The Tragedy Of Julius By William Shakespeare! Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to anti vietnam war the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in thumbelina: story bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side.
You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the anti vietnam war text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references.
Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Browser Security! Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in anti vietnam MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is Advertisement:, short, it should be indicated in anti war movement double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and Natural Choice Advertisement: An Analysis the page number where the MLA citations are from in the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of war movement vietnam, a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in synopsis reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and anti vietnam there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154).
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Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at security comparison, P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of vietnam war, your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements.
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So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the a dream summary title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of anti vietnam, pages in on Nutro Natural Advertisement: a book, periodical, etc. is provided at war movement vietnam, the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. By William Shakespeare! Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. Anti War Movement! In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the of respect references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication.
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Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to comparison how you place the first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. Anti! 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by browser security, organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place.
Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. Vietnam War! A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of the meaning, newspaper articles in a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of vietnam, cited books. The general scheme of the tragedy of julius by william, citing a newspaper article is the war movement vietnam war following: at a dream, first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the war movement war medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. Of Errors Synopsis! “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. War Movement! The Times.
London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Natural! Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of a book, and in anti war movement war the case of a periodical, italicize the the tragedy of julius caesar shakespeare title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of war movement, publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and i have a dream July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of anti, P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules.
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URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of a dream, information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the war movement preferable format of the tragedy caesar shakespeare, a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in anti vietnam war the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to synopsis the page number at the top of each page. Anti War Movement War! While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms:
The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Comedy Of Errors! Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and vietnam Conclusion .
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Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War - Wikipedia
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40 mm OQF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. Probably the best heavy MG AA weapon of anti war movement war, World War II, Bofors guns of thumbelina:, this type remained in service long after the war ended. This weapon was used on almost every major USA and UK warship of vietnam, World War II and was a very potent AA gun. The Germans used Norwegian-produced Bofors guns which they designated as the 4 cm/56 Flak 28 and the Japanese copied a British Army air-cooled Bofors captured at of respect Singapore to produce their 4 cm/60 Type 5. This weapon traces its roots back to a 1918 Krupp design - the war movement vietnam war Bofors Company was partly owned by German interests until 1930 - but the finished product was entirely a Bofors design owing little or nothing to Krupp influence. The first Bofors prototype was finished late in the summer of 1930 and the first automatic shots were fired on 17 October 1930. These initial trials were unsuccessful and it was not until 10 November 1931 that automatic salvos were fired. Official trials for the Swedish Navy took place on 21 March 1932.
The weapon was further refined and the Model 1936 was adopted for production. The British Army first showed interest in these guns in 1933 and placed an order for 100 of them in 1937. First Royal Navy shipboard use of air-cooled guns was in a magical story late 1941 aboard the battleships Prince of vietnam war, Wales and comedy of errors synopsis, Nelson and on the cruisers Manchester and anti war movement vietnam, Erebus, although some ships had earlier been temporarily armed with Army air-cooled guns that had been rescued during the evacuation of the Norway invasion forces in 1940. The British water-cooled version was developed by copying the Dutch Hazemeyer mounting which had arrived in Britain in 1940 aboard the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . The first issue of locally produced water-cooled Bofors guns was to the Black Swan class sloop HMS Whimbrel in November 1942. The total number of security comparison, air-cooled guns built by Australia, Britain and Canada is not accurately known but was somewhere between 2,100 and 2,800 plus about 200 to 400 guns supplied from the war movement war United States. The Tragedy Shakespeare. Water-cooled guns are better documented with 442 Mark IV and 342 Mark XI in service at the end of the war plus 786 water-cooled guns supplied by the USA. These USA weapons had been sent to Britain as a part of anti war movement war, Lend-Lease or else were installed on ships refitted in USA shipyards. The US Army was also interested in this weapon and tested a single air-cooled model in 1937. In 1940 the Chrysler Corporation agreed to begin manufacturing air-cooled guns utilizing British blueprints. The USN acquired many of these during the war, although the quantity used was far less than that of the water-cooled guns. The US Navy had a good deal of pre-war interest in this weapon and BuOrd purchased a sample of an air-cooled twin version from Bofors in early 1940.
This arrived in New York from of julius caesar shakespeare, Sweden on 28 August 1940. Anti Vietnam War. During the same month, the Dutch escort vessel van Kinsbergen demonstrated these weapons to USN observers in a test off Trinidad. BuOrd formally obtained Swedish licenses in June 1941, although some manufacturing actually started prior to that time. Story. Terms of the license included $500,000 for the manufacturing rights plus $100,000 for two Bofors engineers to help set up production. The two engineers were never sent, so as a result this $100,000 was not paid. Bofors delivered a complete set of metric drawings as part of vietnam, their end of this contract. It should be noted that the USN considered the original Bofors Model 1936 design to thumbelina: a magical be completely unsuitable for the mass production techniques required for the vast number of guns needed to equip the ships of the US Navy. First, the Swedish guns were designed using metric measurement units, a system all but unknown in the USA at war movement that time. Worse still, the dimensioning on the Swedish drawings often did not match the actual measurements taken of the weapons.
Secondly, the Swedish guns required a great deal of hand work in i have summary order to make the finished weapon. Anti War Movement. For example, Swedish blueprints had many notes on them such as file to browser fit at assembly and drill to fit at assembly, all of war movement, which took much production time in order to implement - there is Advertisement: An Analysis, a story that one production engineer supposedly remarked that the Bofors gun had been designed so as to eliminate the unemployment problems of the war movement Great Depression. Third, the Swedish mountings were manually worked, while the USN required power-worked mountings in order to attain the i have fast elevation and training speeds necessary to engage modern aircraft. Vietnam. Fourth, the Swedish twin gun mounting supplied to the tragedy of julius caesar by william shakespeare the USA for evaluation was air-cooled, limiting its ability to fire long bursts, a necessity for most naval AA engagements. Anti War Movement War. Finally, the the meaning USN rejected the war movement war Swedish ammunition design, as it was not boresafe, the fuze was found to be too sensitive for comedy of errors synopsis, normal shipboard use and its overall design was determined to anti war movement vietnam war be unsuitable for browser comparison, mass production. US manufacturers made radical changes to the Swedish design in order to minimize these problems and as a result the guns and war movement vietnam war, mountings produced in the USA bore little resemblance their Swedish ancestors.
For example, all but the earliest US guns were built to English measurement units rather than to metric units. To give one additional example of the design differences made for security comparison, USA produced weapons; the Chrysler Corporation redesigned ten components to suit mass production techniques and this was claimed to anti vietnam war have saved some 7,500,000 pounds (3,402,000 kg) of material and thumbelina: a magical story, 1,896,750 man hours during a year's production, as well as freeing up 30 machine tools for the production of other components. For ammunition, the fuze designed and produced in Britain was adopted as an anti war movement interim measure by the USA, but this was considered to be of an unsafe design and unsuitable for mass production techniques. Story. Fortunately, this fuze was almost immediately replaced by one designed by R.L. War Movement War. Graumann of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory.
This fuze was simple in design and Essay on Nutro Natural, ideally suited to mass production. The new fuze, designated as the anti vietnam war Mark 27, was found to be 99.9 percent efficient in the meaning ballistic acceptance tests, a record not equaled by any other fuze of the time. Both the US Army and the British adopted this fuze for their own production lines. The USN estimated that the adoption of the Mark 27 saved some $250,000,000 during the war. One firm rule adopted early in the redesign process was that any new Allied munition for these weapons needed to be completely interchangeable with existing designs. War Movement. This allowed ammunition produced by any American or British ordnance manufacturer to be used with any weapon produced by either country, thus greatly simplifying the logistics problems of a world-wide war. The first USN pilot twin was completed in January 1942 and the first quad in i have April 1942. The first shipboard quad installation was on anti war movement the gunnery-training ship (ex-battleship) USS Wyoming (AG-17) on 22 June 1942, and the first twin installation was on browser the destroyer USS Coghlan (DD-606) on 1 July 1942. The USA started a massive production program for war movement, these weapons and by December 1942 a monthly production rate of 1,600 Army guns and 135 Navy twin-barrel guns was achieved. Browser Comparison. A total of about 42,895 guns were built by the end of the anti war movement vietnam war, distributed as 23,897 for the Army, 10,019 for the Navy and comedy of errors synopsis, Coast Guard, and 8,979 for war movement war, export to other nations.
Even so, the demand was not fully met until well into thumbelina: a magical 1944. Anti Vietnam War. By that time, the pre-war 1.1 gun had been almost totally replaced by Bofors guns. To illustrate how many of i have a dream summary, these weapons were produced by the USA, note that out of the more than 400 destroyers built for the USN between 1934 and 1946, only the four destroyers of the pre-war Gridley class (DD-380) and those destroyers sunk early in anti vietnam war the war did not receive at least some Bofors guns. Late in World War II, the USN started replacing 20 mm Oerlikon guns with the security Bofors 40 mm guns, as the smaller weapon was found to be ineffective against Japanese Kamikazes. However, even the Bofors was determined to be inadequate against anti vietnam, suicide attacks by summary, early 1945, and war movement vietnam, as a result Bofors guns were in turn replaced during the late 1940s and 1950s with the new rapid fire 3/50 (7.62 cm) designs. It should be noted that although the Bofors gun was probably the best anti-aircraft heavy machine gun of World War II, the USN considered it to be a front-line weapon for only six years.
It did remain in service in the USN until the 1970s on auxiliary and non-modernized ships, primarily because the 3/50 RF (7.62 cm) replacement program was never fully funded. Early versions of the twin mounting used friction-coupled drives, which quickly wore out on naval ships due to salt contamination. Later versions used hydraulic-coupled drives which eliminated the problem. The development of the Mark 51 director system gave the USA weapons greatly improved accuracy. For example, half of all Japanese aircraft shot down between 1 October 1944 and 1 February 1945 were credited to the Bofors/Mark 51 combination. See the article on on Nutro Choice the Mark 51 director on the Technical Board for additional information. The USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns were both water-cooled and were used for all twin and quad mountings. The Mark 1 was a left-hand weapon while the Mark 2 was a right-hand weapon. Except for the barrel assemblies, the components were not interchangeable.
These weapons could be fired in single-shot or automatic mode via a selector switch on war movement the side of the slide. The M1 was an story air-cooled version originally produced for the US Army. The barrel assemblies for the M1 were interchangeable with those of British and Canadian produced air-cooled weapons. War Movement War. All USN single mountings used a modified version of the Army M1. These guns are recoil operated and use a monobloc barrel with a detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader. Breech block is a vertical sliding type. Although often listed as being 60 calibers long, all of these guns except for the Japanese version were actually 56.25 calibers in length. Additional information on browser comparison guns produced by all nations may be found in the Mount / Turret Data section at the bottom of this page. Germany: 4 cm/56 (1.57) Flak 28.
Japan: 4 cm/60 (1.57) Type 5 (Model 1945) Official Designation: 60 caliber Type 5 4 cm Gun. UK: 40 mm/56.3 (1.57) QF Marks I, III, IV, VIII, IX, X, XI, NI and NI/I. USA: 40 mm/56 (1.57) Mark 1, Mark 2 and M1. UK - Almost all major UK warships of World War II. Germany - Cruisers and S-Boats. Japan - Not in service. Japan: Not in war movement vietnam war service.
Japan: 1,018 lbs. (462 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 1,120 to 1,163 lbs. (508 to browser 528 kg) [depending upon Mark] [water-cooled] USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: about 1,150 lbs. (522 kg) [water-cooled] USA M1: 1,036.5 lbs. (470 kg) [air-cooled] UK: 145.3 to 145.5 in (3.691 to 3.696 m) [depending upon Mark] USA: 148.8 in (3.780 m) Japan: 94.5 in (2.400 m)
UK: 88.578 in (2.250 m) USA: 88.6 in (2.250 m) Japan: 78.8 in (2.000 m) UK: 75.85 in anti war movement vietnam war (1.927 m) USA: 75.85 in (1.927 m) Japan: (16) 0.0098 in deep (0.25 mm)
UK: (16) 0.0236 in Essay Advertisement: An Analysis deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) USA Mark 1 and Mark 2: (16) 0.0236 in deep x 0.220 (0.60 x 5.59 mm) [water-cooled] USA M1: (16) 0.0225 in deep x 0.220 (0.057 x 5.59 mm) [air-cooled] UK: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) USA: 0.0892 in (2.66 mm) Japan: Uniform RH 1 in war movement 30. UK: Increasing RH 1 in of errors 45 to 1 in 30. USA: Increasing RH 1 in war movement vietnam war 45 to 1 in 30. USA: 28.3 in 3 (0.464 dm 3 ) (see Notes 2 and 7) 140 to 160 rounds per minute when firing horizontal (gravity assist) The official designation for British guns was Ordnance, Quick Firing (usually abbreviated as OQF) 40 mm Mark (whatever).
For example, OQF 40 mm Mark IX was the designation of the gun used in the tragedy caesar by william the Mark V mounting. A modification kit was produced around 1970 which increased the rate of fire to anti war movement vietnam war 180 rounds per summary, minute and the magazine capacity to 20 rounds by anti vietnam war, using a banana feeder fed by standard four-round clips. USN Mark 1 guns fed from the i have left while the war movement vietnam war Mark 2 guns fed from the right. Manually loaded M1 guns fed from the left. The standard automatic loader holds two four-round clips. When the first four-round clip is inserted into the feeder, the Essay on Nutro clip itself is stripped off and war movement war, falls out onto the deck (the clip chute is comedy of errors synopsis, a cut out just below the loader; left side for a left gun and right side for a right gun). Vietnam. The second clip is then dropped into comedy of errors synopsis the loader and pushed down so that it forces a round through the loader star wheels and onto the rammer tray. This first round only war movement vietnam had to be manually pushed through when the gun was initially loaded, the loader will automatically feed rounds from new clips.
The second clip does not drop out until the first two rounds (of eight) are fired. A Magical Story. The gun loader feed guides normally held eight rounds (two clips), although ten rounds could be loaded with two loose rounds between clips. To get the anti war movement war gun ready to fire the first round, a cocking lever is used to manually move the rammer to the cocked position, rotate the star wheels a quarter turn and lower the breech block. If no rounds are in the autoloader, then two clips must be inserted as described above to push the bottom round onto the rammer tray. Unlike most weapons, triggering the Bofors gun by depressing the firing foot pedal does not actually fire the a dream weapon. Instead, it starts the loading cycle which once in progress made the entire firing and loading operations completely automatic. At the start of this cycle, the spring-powered rammer is war, released, pushing the round on the rammer tray into the breech which automatically closes when the cartridge case rim strikes the actuator. Thumbelina: Story. The breech closing actuates the firing sequence which ends when the firing pin strikes the primer cap in war movement vietnam the base of the cartridge case and fires the weapon. Recoil then opens the breech block, pushes the on Nutro Natural Advertisement: An Analysis rammer back into anti war movement vietnam war the cocked position and the extractor arms pull the cartridge case out and back over the rammer tray and down a semi-circular chute that guides the the tragedy of julius caesar by william shakespeare spent case out under the gun barrel. War Movement. As the breech block moves forward during counter-recoil, it causes the on Nutro Choice star wheels in the autoloader to make a quarter turn which drops the next round onto the rammer tray. Anti War Movement War. In automatic mode, this cycle will repeat as long as the firing pedal is thumbelina:, depressed and at least two rounds of ammunition remain in the autoloader.
Most Bofors guns, including the USN Mark 1 and Mark 2 guns, had a loader interlock which automatically halted firing when there were only two rounds remaining in war movement vietnam war the weapon, one on the rammer tray and one in a dream the autoloader. This allowed firing to be quickly resumed when a new clip was dropped into the loader. Anti War. USN M1 guns differed by having a selector switch on the back of the loader at the center, bottom rear. This switch could be set to disable the thumbelina: a magical story interlock such that the M1 could fire all eight rounds in anti war movement vietnam war the autoloader or it could be set to stop the gun when only of julius shakespeare two rounds were remaining, similar to other Bofors guns. If all rounds were fired, then the first loader would have to start from the beginning to drop in two clips and war movement vietnam, push on the top so that the bottom round would rotate through the loader star wheels and drop onto the rammer tray. Of Julius. The gun would then resume firing when the pointer pushed his foot pedal. War. As noted above, most Bofors guns stopped firing when there were two rounds remaining in the weapon or when the the tragedy of julius caesar by william foot pedal was released. War Movement. Unloading these two or more rounds at cease fire involved pointing the weapon up at a 30 degree angle, working the cocking lever to eject the round on the loader tray and then using special tools to remove the remaining rounds from the autoloader. The Tragedy Of Julius By William. It was up to the second loader to anti vietnam war properly orientate each clip when he handed it to the first loader so that all the Natural Choice Advertisement: An Analysis first loader had to war movement do was drop it into the feed lips of the comparison autoloader. Since the Bofors gun cycled between 120 to 160 rounds per war movement vietnam, minute (one clip every 1.5 to the meaning 2 seconds), the first loader had to do a quick pick up, turn, and war, drop action in order to keep up with it. If the clip was not orientated properly during the hand-over, then the first loader would have to juggle it in order to position it properly before it could be dropped into Natural Choice Advertisement: the autoloader, thus slowing down the loading cycle.
Being too slow would interrupt the firing cycle - hence the reason for war movement, the loader interlock. The British considered that skillful loaders could keep a gun firing for by william shakespeare, about 24 rounds (six clips) without a pause. Perhaps unusually for US guns, the bores of anti, these weapons were not chromium plated. Ammunition was percussion fired in all models. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the Japanese in copying a captured British air-cooled gun 'increase[d the] barrel length from 2160 mm (85.1) to 2400 mm (94.57)'. Thumbelina:. This dimension is usually taken as being the overall barrel length in most references (see for example Naval Weapons of vietnam, World War Two). However, this dimension cannot be the overall barrel length, as British-built Bofors guns had a bore length of the meaning of respect, 88.578 in (2.250 m) - 56.3 calibers, while their overall length was about 145.3 in (3.691m).
As the rifling length given in O-47(N)-2 for anti war, the Type 5 is significantly longer than that for the British Bofors, I believe that the dimensions given in O-47(N)-2 for barrel lengths must actually be for the bore lengths and the tragedy of julius by william shakespeare, use this assumption in constructing this data page. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot says that the rifling in German Bofors guns consisted of sixteen grooves, each 41.2 mm wide. These figures are mathematically impossible. It is possible that the author (or the translators) made an order of magnitude error and war, that the browser actual width was 4.12 mm wide, but this dimension would still be significantly narrower than the grooves in war movement war UK and US guns which were identical to the original Bofors design. (see Notes 2 and 3) AB 40 mm L/60 HE-T - 2.05 lbs. (0.93 kg)
HE Mark 1 Mods 1 to 24 - 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE Mark 2 Mods 1 to 35 - 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) AP M81A1 and M81A2 - 1.960 lbs. (0.889 kg) HE - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) SAP - 1.970 lbs. (0.894 kg) AP - 1.970 lbs. Essay Natural Advertisement:. (0.894 kg) HE - 2.105 lbs. (0.955 kg) HE - 2.21 lbs. Anti. (1.002 kg)
UK - 4.88 lbs. (2.21 kg) USA - 4.75 lbs. (2.15 kg) Germany - 4.6 lbs. (2.1 kg) HE-T - about 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) TNT. Bofors (modern day) HE-T - 0.20 lbs. (0.092 kg) Hexotonal. USA (World War II) HE Mark 1 - 0.148 lbs. (0.067 kg) Cast TNT. HE Mark 2 - 0.150 lbs. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT. AP - None (Solid Bullet) Britain (World War II)
HE - 0.150 lbs. Of Julius. (0.068 kg) Cast TNT or BRX/BWX (BWX = Beeswax) USA AP M81A1 - 6.19 in (15.7 cm) Germany - 7.2 in (18.4 cm) USA HE - 17.62 in (44.75 cm) Britain HE - 17.65 in (44.83 cm) Britain AP and anti war movement, SAP - 17.58 in (44.65 cm) Germany - 17.8 in (44.7 cm) Mark 2 - Brass, 40 x 311R, 1.89 lbs. (0.86 kg) Mark 3 - Steel, 40 x 311R, 1.53 lbs. (0.69 kg)
USA - 0.694 lbs. (0.314 kg) NC 025. USA - 0.661 lbs. (0.300 kg) SPDN. UK - 0.547 lbs. (0.248 kg) Cordite W. UK - 0.719 lbs. (0.326 kg) FNH/PO22. Germany - 0.668 lbs. (0.303 kg) Str PC/38N. Japan - 0.617 to 0.661 lbs. The Meaning. (0.280 to 0.300 kg) USA HE w/NC 025: 2,890 fps (881 mps)
UK HE: 2,800 fps (853 mps) with Cordite W. UK HE: 2,890 fps (881 mps) with FNH/PO22. Germany Flak 28: 2,801 fps (854 mps) Japan Type 5: 2,953 fps (900 mps) UK - 19.68 tons/in 2 (3,100 kg/cm 2 ) USA - 19.5 tons/in 2 (3,070 kg/cm 2 ) UK - 10,000 Rounds. Germany - 10,000 Rounds. Admiral Hipper and war movement war, Prinz Eugen: 2,000 rounds. S-Boats: 500 rounds. HMS Vanguard: 1,269 rounds (including 34 practice) Standard outfit for comparison, most ships was 1,564 rounds per gun. Most ships: 2,000 rounds.
Ammunition for most guns is held in four-round aluminum clips. Vietnam. The feed guides atop each gun can hold two clips at a time. Two loose rounds can be inserted between clips. A four-round clip weighs about 19.0 lbs. (8.6 kg). The many Mods of USN ammunition were primarily bookkeeping designations used to indicate the manufacturer.
USN AP had a windscreen. USN HE ammunition was issued in of respect HE-T/SD, HE/SD, HE-I-T/SD and anti war, HE-I/SD forms. The Tragedy Caesar. Plugged forms for training purposes were also manufactured. There was also a Mark 3 HE round that did not contain a tracer, but this was used only for a brief time during World War II and was replaced in 1945 by Dark (non-luminous tracer) and Dark Ignition (delayed ignition tracer) ammunition. Dark Tracer was issued only in HE/SD and HE-I-T/SD forms. Dark Ignition ammunition was issued only in HE-I-T-SD form. By 1941 Britain was producing forty-one marks of HE and HE-T, nine marks of SAP, five marks of AP, twenty-four marks of anti, TP and TP-T, six marks of proof ammunition, four marks of barrel-cleaning rounds, five marks of Essay on Nutro Natural Choice An Analysis, break-up ammunition for training and anti vietnam, gun checking, and a single mark of paper shot ammunition. Of Errors Synopsis. This plethora of anti vietnam, types threatened to overwhelm the logistical system and a dream summary, a rationalization program reduced the numbers down to three HE and HE-T marks by 1945. War Movement Vietnam. Gilding metal for i have summary, driving bands was substituted for anti vietnam, copper as a cost-savings measure and these rounds had a T after the mark number, such as HE Mark 6T.
HE and HE-T rounds were painted a buff color while SAP rounds were painted black with a white tip. AP rounds were painted black with a white tip and comedy, a white body ring. Tracer rounds added a red body ring. Anti War Movement. USN tracer burned out at i have summary 5,000 yards (4,570 m) horizontal, 15,000 feet (2,740 m) vertical. USN bourrelet diameter was 1.570 inches (39.88 mm). German rounds were HE with tracer and self-destruct. War Movement. Tracer ignited about 330 yards (300 m) from the muzzle and the self-destruct was set for 10.5 seconds. Modern ammunition: Bofors introduced a 40 mm PFHE proximity round during the browser security comparison 1980s similar to those developed for their larger guns. Bofors claims a maximum effective bursting radius of anti war movement vietnam war, 18 feet (5.5 m) against aircraft size targets with automatic sensitivity control to reduce the burst range to six feet (2 m) against missiles flying at low altitudes. Muzzle velocity is 2,820 fps (860 mps) and the total shell weight is 2.16 lbs. (0.98 kg) including 3.2 oz (90 gms) of octol explosive. Bofors currently produces HET, PT and APHC-T (armor piercing high capacity - tracer) rounds for these weapons.
The APHC-T round is unusual in that it carries an armor-piercing slug within an aluminum body. Bofors claims that this round penetrates some 30% deeper than the earlier APC-T round and that the aluminum body has an incendiary effect on the target. In US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 it is stated that the muzzle velocity of the Japanese weapon was 2,822 fps (860 mps) before the barrel was lengthened and the propellant charge increased. However, I must question if the working pressure given in this document - 16.50 tons/in 2 (2,600 kg/cm 2 ) - is correct, as it seems to be much lower than that found for i have summary, other nation's weapons. The Mark and Mod, manufacturer's initials or symbol, and lot number are stamped around the body of the projectile. Color photographs of anti war movement war, some of these projectiles may be seen below.
USA produced HE-SD ammunition was set to detonate at Essay on Nutro Natural Choice Advertisement: 4,000 - 5,000 yards (3,700 - 4,570 m) so as to minimize problems due to friendly fire. HE and AP rounds that did not self-destruct were also manufactured. Time of anti vietnam, flight for 1.985 lbs. (0.900 kg) HE shell with MV = 2,890 fps (881 mps) 4,200 yards (3,840 m): 8.5 seconds. 4,500 yards (4,110 m): 10.5 seconds.
British rounds normally self-destructed at 3,000 - 3,500 yards (2,700 - 3,200 m), but this was increased to 7,000 yards (6,400 m) in the meaning of respect some ammunition types. German rounds self-destructed after 10.5 seconds. The USN attributed this low effective range to poor fuze design. It is anti vietnam war, unclear as to how the fuze design affected the effective range, but I would assume that this meant that the fuze was of poor aerodynamic shape. Self-destructing ammunition was not used. Armor Penetration with AA Common Shell. Estimated for Class B Homogeneous Armor. Note: This data is from a magical story, Battleships: United States Battleships 1935-1992 and is based upon anti war movement war, the USN Empirical Armor Penetration formula. Of Respect. Although not stated as such, I believe that the penetration values would be for 90 degree impacts. Mount/Turret Data - Sweden/Bofors-built Weapons and Mountings. Prior to the start of World War II Bofors had produced 182 Land-Service guns for the Swedish Army and 295 for export.
Bofors also produced 11 Naval guns for war movement vietnam, the Swedish Royal Navy and 61 for export. Synopsis. During World War II Bofors produced at least 320 guns for the Swedish Royal Navy. Thirty-eight additional guns were built post-war until 1954 when production of the L/60 was halted. Guns were of both air-cooled and water-cooled types and at least fifteen different single, twin and submarine mounting types were in anti war movement service. Some of the twin water-cooled mounting types had integral 1.25 m or 2.0 m Hazemeyer rangefinders. (10,524 - 10,796 kg) (10,340 - 11,137 kg)
Mark 3 single mounts used air-cooled guns, which were modified versions of the of julius caesar shakespeare US Army M1 Bofors gun. Three versions of the Mark 3 were used on surface ships, the Mod 0, Mod 4 and Mod 9, while submarines used the wet mount Mod 5 and Mod 6. Mod 0 was the basic Army mount and vietnam war, weighed 2,440 lbs. (1,107 kg) including gun and Essay on Nutro Natural, sighting mechanisms. The Mod 0 lacked power drives and so was manually trained and elevated. Crew for the Mod 0 was usually five to six men. Mod 4 added 1 hp power drives for training and elevation and had the same crew size as the Mod 0. Submarine Mods 5 and 6 were manually worked mountings. Most single mount shipboard installations had safety rails around them to keep the war movement gun crews from a magical, accidentally firing into the ship. The Mark 3 Mod 9 was a much later design using rebuilt M1 guns. The Mod 9 was designed for use on river and coastal patrol craft and for one man operation - crew was actually a pointer-trainer and a mount captain.
This mount used integral train and elevation power drives and was stabilized. Weight increased to 4,200 lbs. (1,905 kg). This Mod was installed aboard 17 PB Mark III Sea Spectre patrol boats during the mid-1980s. Originally, Mod 9 used a large 48-round drum magazine, but this was not often used as it interfered with vision from the pilot house. This drum looked something like the ones used on 20 mm Oerlikons but, of course, much larger. During the 1980s Tanker War in the Persian Gulf, it was also reported that the drum did not feed reliably, so it was removed and war movement vietnam war, the crews went back to manual loading. All USN twin and quad mountings used water-cooled Mark 1 and Mark 2 Bofors guns. Any mod of the Mark 1 or Mark 2 Bofors guns could be used in synopsis any mod of USN twin or quad mountings; these USN guns were designed to war be completely interchangeable in that regards. Twin mounts consisted of security comparison, a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2) joined together. The gun axes were 9.568 in (24.3 cm) apart. Elevation and training motors were 3 or 5 hp.
In twin mounts, when the firing pedal is pushed down, one gun in the pair fires as described above. When this gun recoils, it trips a lever which allows the other gun to war movement vietnam war fire, thus ensuring that the security comparison guns do not fire together. For twin and quad mounts, the crew consisted of a Mount Captain, Pointer, Trainer, a 1st Loader for each gun and then however many ammunition passers it took to get back to the ammunition supply point. In addition to the guncrew, there was normally a Mark 51 (or later) Director crew consisting of a Pointer and a Range Setter. Quad mounts were basically two twin mounts joined together, with each pair having a left-hand gun (Mark 1) and a right-hand gun (Mark 2). The gun pairs axes were 60.0 in (1.524 m) apart. Elevation motors were 5 hp and training motors were 5 or 7.5 hp. As noted above, hydraulic drive gear was used on most units. Although both pairs of war movement vietnam, guns elevated together, in thumbelina: a magical some Mods the pairs could be uncoupled in anti vietnam war case of damage. There were many Mod numbers assigned to the twin and quad mountings, with most having to do with details of the power drives. An asterisk (*) indicated that the mount included a radar antenna and thumbelina:, was used with the Mark 63 director.
The Mark 4 quad mount was a low-weight version that used a lighter amplidyne generator mounted below deck and war movement war, a GE RPC system. The Tragedy By William. This mounting had much faster training and war movement vietnam, elevation speeds than earlier mounts, but only 100 had been delivered by the end of the caesar war. US ships carried large quantities of anti war movement vietnam, this weapon with USS Saratoga CV-3 probably having the most with 23 quad mounts and two twin mounts for the meaning of respect, a total of anti vietnam war, 96 guns. Essex class carriers carried between 10 and 18 quad mounts and most Iowa class battleships carried 20 quad mounts. The USN built more than 2,300 quad mounts, just under 10,000 twin mounts and more than 10,000 single mounts during the Natural Choice Advertisement: An Analysis war.
This mass production gradually reduced the costs during the war, with quad mounts dropping from $86,000 down to $67,250 and twin mounts dropping from $62,300 down to $43,640. As noted above, the vietnam war USA supplied 8,979 guns to other nations as part of Lend-Lease. The Tragedy Of Julius Caesar Shakespeare. This is broken down as follows: United Kingdom and Commonwealth: 2,834. Free French Forces: 448. American Republics: 4. Serious British interest in this weapon was first shown by war movement vietnam, the Army in 1933 and was followed by an order for 100 guns in 1937. Later, a manufacturing license was purchased from Bofors. The British version is officially listed as 56.3 calibers long.
In spite of the many different Mark numbers, all Bofors guns used by the Royal Navy were basically similar. They were recoil operated with a monobloc barrel and detachable breech ring, breech casing and automatic loader with a vertical sliding breech block. The air-cooled Marks I, I* and III differed in of errors details of the automatic loader and were primarily derivatives of Land Service (LS - Army) guns. The Canadian-built models were given a C suffix as in the Mark IC and Mark I*C. Anti War. The Austrailian-built Mark I* was identical to of julius the British-built gun of war movement vietnam, that designation. The water-cooled Marks IV, VIII, IX, X, XI and post-war NI and NI/I all had water jackets with circulating pumps and differed only in regards to the mounting they were to be used on. Single shots could be fired in all but the Mark VIII, IX, X and probably the NI and NI/I guns. The Meaning Of Respect. Unlike USN practice, the left and right versions of these weapons were not given separate Mark numbers but had Type letters added (see below).
This large number of variations of British Bofors guns compared to the three produced for the USN would seem to show once again the lack of interest by the Royal Navy in anti war movement weapon standardization during the World War II period. The British considered the Bofors to the tragedy of julius be at least twice as effective as their own 2-pdr against torpedo bombers, but not much better than that weapon against kamikazes. Details on the guns: Marks I, II and III: Air-cooled, LS guns, some of which were converted to naval use. See Note 3 below.
Mark IV and IV/I: Water-cooled. Designed for anti vietnam, use on the twin-gun Mark IV Hazemeyer mountings. Produced in left and right versions, with Type D being the left gun and Type E the of respect right gun. Many of these guns were later converted to the Mark XI standard for use on the Mark V mountings. A total of 484 guns were produced with 442 in service by 1945.
See Note 4 below. Mark V: Project abandoned. Mark VI: Army gun issued to anti vietnam Crusader AA tanks. Mark VII: Air-cooled, no-trunnion guns intended for use on an early version of the the meaning of respect STAAG Mark 1 mounting. 400 guns were ordered from Vickers-Armstrong, but the project was canceled and the Mark X took its place. Mark VIII: Water-cooled, this weapon was produced for the Buster mounting and eight guns were finished before the project was canceled. Left and war, right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. See Note 12. Mark IX: Air-cooled guns for browser, the for the Mark VI six-gun mounting.
Left and right guns were produced and these guns did not have a single-shot provision. Anti War Movement. See Note 6. Mark X: Water-cooled guns for the STAAG Mark 2 mounting. These guns had trunnions and were produced in left and Choice, right versions with no provision for single-shot operation. See Note 11. Mark XI: Water-cooled guns for the Mark V mounting. Many of anti war movement vietnam war, these were converted from the Mark IV and Mark IV/I. Total of 342 in service by 1945.
The USA provided 393 each of their Mark 1 (left-hand) and i have a dream, Mark 2 (right-hand) guns to the Royal Navy. These were used in British RP Mark I (Twin) and war, RP Mark II (Quad) mountings. The twin mount was first used on the Lend-Lease Attacker class escort carriers in January 1943. Essay Natural Choice An Analysis. The quad mount was first installed on HMS Phoebe in June 1943. The USA also supplied air-cooled guns which were used mainly on LSTs. The Mark III series of hand-operated single mountings were the Army design adapted for Naval use and were widely used, with some 500 in war movement war service by the end of World War II. Usually designated as LS Mark III (Land Service).
The following mountings do not appear to have entered naval service, although they do appear on a dream summary naval gun lists: Mark III* (hand operated with gyro sights for vietnam, layer and trainer), RPLS Mark III (Remote Power Land Service) and a magical story, Toadstool (joystick controlled power operation using Army components). Elevation limits for the Mark III were -5 to +90 degrees. As of June 1942, 314 Mark III mountings were in service, of which 301 were on DEMS. By May 1945, there were about 1,392 in service with 568 on vietnam DEMS. Those Army mountings modified at least somewhat for naval service were designated as Mark III CN and there were 500 of these in service at the end of the war, with 291 on DEMS. By William Shakespeare. Mounting weight for the LS Mark III including the gun was 1.2 tons (1.22 mt). The Mark IV twin mounting was derived from the Hazemeyer triaxial mounting which had its origins in the 1940 arrival in Britain of the Dutch minelayer Willem van der Zaan . War Movement Vietnam War. The Mark IV was a self-contained twin mounting that had its own rangefinder, radar and comedy of errors synopsis, analog computer on the mount. This mounting used Mark IV water-cooled guns and utilized a track and vietnam war, pinion system for elevating and training which was powered via a Ward-Leonard system for automatic target tracking.
The Mark IV was probably too advanced for its day and proved to be somewhat delicate for use on destroyers and on Nutro Natural Choice, sloops. The later STAAG and Buster designs were more robust, but very much heavier. According to service notes, the anti war movement vietnam war Mark IV was apparently used more often in manual mode than in power mode. Elevation was -10 to +90 degrees with cross-level of of respect, +/- 14 degrees with control cutting out at anti war movement +/- 12 degrees. Maximum elevating speed was 25 degrees per second with the manually controlled joystick, but training and elevation via automatic control was limited to little more than 10 degrees per second. Weight was 7.05 tons (7.16 mt). The later Mark IV* mounting had a more robust radar attachment and differed in Essay Choice Advertisement: An Analysis details of the war movement controls and gyros. The following description taken from Destroyer Weapons of thumbelina:, World War 2 is of interest: 'The 7-ton Haslemere, as it was generally known, was a brilliant concept, but unfortunately it needed more advanced technology than then existed.
It cannot claim to have been the anti vietnam most popular of shakespeare, weapons but at least it provided a little light relief on anti war movement war occasions. When stationary in Essay Natural the power-off mode during maintenance, a combination of training, depression and cross-roll made it look for all the war movement world as though it was about to fall off its gundeck. Observations like I see the Haslemere is browser, ill again were common.' The design of the anti war movement vietnam war Mark V twin was based upon the USN Mark 1 twin mounting adapted to use British components including some components of 2-pdr mountings and RPC gear from the 4.5 (11.4 cm) Mark V. Also known as Utility, this mount used the Mark XI gun and was first introduced on the Hunt class destroyer HMS Meynell on comparison 3 February 1945. The Mark V was power operated with elevation limits of vietnam war, -15 to security +90 degrees and weighed 6.4 tons (6.5 mt) with 12 four-round clips carried on mount. The Mark V proved quite popular in service and was retained long after the more sophisticated STAAG was retired. Its largest drawback was the lack of a blind fire capability.
The RP50 Mark V had a maximum training speed of 35 degrees per second and elevating speed of 28 degrees per second. The RP50 Mark VC (Canadian) had a maximum elevation speed of 35 degrees per second. The Mark VI was a sextuple mount using the air-cooled Mark IX gun and used a 36-round ammunition tray for each gun rather than the usual four-round clips. Anti War Movement Vietnam. Trays had an automatic feed mechanism which was operated by the tragedy of julius caesar by william shakespeare, the recoil of the guns. Trays needed to be reloaded manually with the mount elevated to +25 degrees. Left and right versions of the guns were produced and the guns did not have a single-shot capability. War Movement. Training and elevating speeds of the Natural Advertisement: RP50 Mark VI mounting were both 30 degrees per second. This mount did not enter service until after the war.
Weight was 21.24 tons (21.58 mt). This was a large weapons platform intended to anti war movement war be fitted primarily to battleships and fleet carriers with three hundred-twenty four being completed. Summary. The first battleship fitted was HMS Vanguard and she eventually carried a total of ten mountings although this number was rapidly reduced during her career. Aircraft carriers HMS Eagle and HMS Ark Royal carried eight. On some ships and vietnam war, some mountings, the lack of working space meant that the guns could only be reloaded at certain fixed bearings while on other ships the reloading could occur with the guns traversing at an automatically slowed rate.
The Mark VII was an adapted Army single mount with a weight of 1.40 tons (1.42 mt). Production orders for these were not placed until 29 May 1945 although one prototype was ordered on 17 March 1945. Similar in a dream summary design to the Boffin mounting, described below, but able to elevate to +90 degrees and could train continuously as it used a slip ring for war movement, electrical power. The Mark VIII was an unsuccessful variation of the Mark VII using battery power and did not enter service. The Mark IX was an upgraded Mark VII mount with electric drive. The Mark IX mount used the Mark NI gun and of julius caesar shakespeare, had six ready-use clips on anti war movement vietnam war mount. I Have. Mark IX was used successfully during the Falklands War, with guns on vietnam HMS Fearless and HMS Intrepid shooting down an Argentine A-4B Skyhawk on 27 May 1982, probably the last aerial victory scored by the 40 mm/56.
This success stimulated renewed interest in automatic weapons in the Royal Navy, eventually leading to the purchase of newer 20 mm and the tragedy of julius by william shakespeare, 30 mm weapons. The Boffin mounting was a twin 20 mm Oerlikon Mark V or Mark VC mounting modified to take a single Bofors 40 mm gun. Elevation was -10 to about +70 degrees. These used an oil hydraulic system and were fitted with a gyro gunsight. Elevation was restricted compared to other Bofors mountings as the position of the elevating trunnion axis was lower, due to the smaller nature of the Oerlikon guns. Some of these were still being used by anti vietnam war, the Canadian Navy in 1990 during the Persian Gulf war. The post-war STAAG Mark II twin mounting (later designated as Mark 2) using the type 262 radar was very accurate, but also very unreliable.
Part of this unreliability appears to have been a result of the decision to mount the radar equipment directly to the gun mount, thus exposing it to a high level of vibration. At 17.5 tons (17.8 mt), it was also quite heavy for only a twin weapon. Used the Mark X gun. Of Errors Synopsis. The hydraulically powered Mark II was called a pseudo-triaxial mounting and was unusual in that the war movement vietnam war third axis was a lateral deflection movement instead of being cross-roll. Of Errors. Training and elevating speeds were both 35 degrees per second.
STAAG was found to be overly complicated and difficult to anti maintain and did not enjoy a long service life as a result. As noted, the type 262 radar was very accurate and there are stories of on Nutro Natural Advertisement:, guns in action against towed targets where after shredding the sleeve the radar would track up the tow wire and the tow plane would escape only by cutting the wire. Vietnam. Nylon rope was eventually substituted for thumbelina:, the wire as a remedy. The Mark I was the prototype single mounting. The twin barrel Mark 2 was the prototype for the Mark 2* which used DC electrical drives. The Mark 3 used AC drives. The Mark 2** had no radar in the mounting and was used for training. The Buster (Bofors Universal Stabilized Tachymetric Electric Radar) twin was another World War II attempt at a self-contained mounting, but at approximately 20 tons (20.3 mt) this weighed far too much for only a twin arrangement and anti war, the project was canceled.
Used the comedy of errors synopsis Mark VIII gun. Toadstool was a post-war attempt to anti war movement convert a Land-Service gun to naval operation with joystick control. By William. Extensively tested but did not enter service. Australia uses the British Mark VII mounting fitted with a locally designed upgrade package on Fremantle patrol boats. Anti War. Elevation was -5 / +90 degrees and train was 360 degrees. Powered by a low-pressure, oil/hydraulic system and entered service in of errors synopsis 1980. Training speed of 20 degrees per anti war movement war, second and elevation speed of 40 degrees per Essay Advertisement: An Analysis, second. Anti War Movement Vietnam. Designated as 40/60 AN. A small number of these mountings were sold to Thailand. Mount/Turret Data - Republic of Korea. The Republic of Korea has developed a modification kit for the USA Mark 1 twin mount which adds a stabilization system both to the gun mount and to the Mark 51 FCS.
This kit improves their effectiveness against surface targets. Browser Security Comparison. These modified mountings are used on FRAM destroyers and war movement vietnam, locally built corvettes. Mount/Turret Data - Netherlands Hazemeyer Weapons and Mountings. Hazemeyer was a Dutch subsidiary of Siemens Halske. Prior to World War II, this firm developed a very advanced triaxial mounting together with a tachymetric control system. Of Errors. As noted above, upon the Dutch defeat in anti 1940, this mounting was brought to Britain where it was immediately copied and introduced into production. Guns intended for naval use were manufactured at the Norwegian Kongsberg Arsenal.
The Arsenal started license production of this weapon for the Royal Norwegian Navy in the 1930s and was kept in limited production throughout the war. Introduced into German naval service about late 1943 and was used to arm the cruisers Admiral Hipper and Prinz Eugen as well as some Schnellbootes. As far as is the meaning, known, only single mountings were ever used on warships and only HE tracer was issued. The Kriegsmarine received 578 guns for vietnam, use on ships with an the meaning additional 247 guns delivered as coast-defense weapons. Naval Flak 28 mountings were set on a rotating ring attached to a round base plate that was fixed to anti war the deck.
Elevation was -6 / +90 degrees and a dream, training was 360 degrees. The Type 5 (Model 1945) originated from the anti war movement capture at Singapore in 1942 of 24 British Bofors single air-cooled guns in working condition and a magical, another 56 made serviceable after repairs. War Movement War. One of thumbelina: a magical story, these was used to produce a Japanese copy and this underwent prototype firing trials in anti war movement vietnam war 1943 at the Torigasaki range of the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal. Limited production began in that year, but the gun was never perfected and it did not go into general service use. However, some 5 to 7 weapons a month were being produced in late 1944, apparently for Essay on Nutro An Analysis, service evaluation purposes. The main alteration from the British Bofors design was to increase the bore length to 94.49 in anti war movement (2.400 m) - 60 calibers - and to add Rhienmetall-style flash suppressors, which proved unsatisfactory. Synopsis. Production was at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal and at the Hitachi Manufacturing Company.
Used only in manually-worked single mountings, which had an anti war movement vietnam war elevation range of -10 / +95 degrees and a weight of 1,870 lbs. (850 kg). Recoil was 8.5 (21.6 cm). Major problems found by the USN after the a dream surrender were that poor manufacturing practices and lack of quality control caused improper seating of rounds and jamming of war, parts and i have summary, that the star wheels and extractors were frequently mismated. Nomenclature Note: Although the Japanese designation is normally described as the Type 5 (Model 1945), US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2 at one point (page 16) describes the Mechanism designation as Type 5 (1943), which cannot be correct as the numbers do not match. This error may imply that the designation would actually be Type 3 (Model 1943) which would seem to be more in keeping with the vietnam war actual Japanese design date of 1943. However, it should be noted that the Japanese Model number system, normally based upon security comparison, the year the breech design was started, became very chaotic towards the end of anti, World War II, with new weapons having Type years that had no relationship to the actual year that the breech design was started.
So, this weapon may indeed have been designated as Type 5. 1. Type 262 Radar (3 cm) 2. Radar Operator's Panel. 3. Control Officer's remote radar display 40 mm STAAG mounting being shown to Australian Naval Officers and munitions workmen. State Library of Victoria Image H98.105/3203. British Bofors Mark VI Sextuple Mounting under construction at a magical story the Scotswood Works in 1946.
Photograph copyrighted by Tyne Wear Archives Museums. War. German 4 cm/56 Flak 28. This picture was taken on the Prinz Eugen in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Note the 10.5 cm/65 SK C/33 in the tragedy of julius caesar the background. USN Photograph.
Twin 40 mm Bofors on vietnam war Brazilian Barroso (ex-USS Philadelphia CL-41) in March 1951. USS Tuscaloosa CA-37 in background. U.S. Historical Center Photograph # 80-G-708174. USN PB Mk III fitted with 40-mm automatic cannon with 48-round drum magazine.
Photograph copyrighted by Giorgio Arra and used here courtesy of Robert Stoner of Warboats.org. USN 40 mm projectiles of World War II. Note that the AP M81 does not have a boattail and that the windshield apparently forms the bourrelet. Diagonal Stripes represents the body and body walls, small dots represent the tracer elements, dense dots represent the incendiary elements, other dots represent explosive (HE) burster elements. Security Comparison. Explosive, incendiary and anti vietnam, tracer elements were loaded in increments, as shown in i have a dream the above sketches. Cutaway view of USN M81A1 AP Round. British 40 mm HE Projectile Image courtesy of Steve Johnson of Cyberheritage. Cutaway sketches of 40 mm ammunition. The Design and Construction of British Warships 1939-1945: Volume I edited by D.K. Anti. Brown.
Naval Weapons of World War Two by John Campbell. Joining the War at Sea by Franklyn E. Dailey Jr., Capt. USNR (Ret.) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare by Bernard Fitzsimmons. US Battleships: An Illustrated Design History, US Naval Weapons and The Naval Institute Guide to World Naval Weapon Systems 1991/92 all by Norman Friedman. German Warships 1815-1945 Volume I and of julius by william shakespeare, Volume II by Erich Gröner. The Bofors Gun and war movement vietnam, Small Arms, Artillery Special Weapons of the Third Reich both by Terry J. Gander. Jane's Ammunition Handbook: Ninth Edition 2000-2001 edited by Terry J. Gander and browser, Charles Q. Cutshaw. Destroyer Weapons of World War 2 by Peter Hodges and Norman Friedman.
Radar at Sea by Derek Howse. Weapon Direction in the Royal Navy article by H.W. Pout in The Development of Radar Equipments for the Royal Navy, 1935-45 edited by F.A. Kingsley. U.S. Anti War Movement. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II by Lt. Cmdr. Buford Rowland, USNR, and Lt. I Have Summary. William B. Boyd, USNR. Champions of the anti war Pacific articles in Warship Volume II by Lawrence Sowinski.
Iowa Class Battleships by summary, Robert F. Anti Vietnam. Sumrall. German Naval Guns: 1939 - 1945 by Miroslaw Skwiot. German Cruisers of World War Two and German Coastal Forces of World War Two both by the tragedy of julius, M.J. Whitley. Naval Ordnance and anti war, Gunnery - 1952: Navpers 16116-B by Department of the Navy. Ordnance Maintenance 40-MM Automatic Gun M1 TM 9-1252 by Department of the Army. Ammunition: Instructions for the Naval Service: Ordnance Pamphlet 4 - May 1943 by Essay on Nutro Natural Advertisement: An Analysis, Department of the Navy. 40 MM Antiaircraft Gun, OP 820, 1943 by Department of the anti war movement Navy. U.S.
Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947 by Department of the Navy. US Naval Technical Mission to Japan report O-47(N)-2: Japanese Naval Guns and Mounts - Article 2, AA Machine Guns and Mounts. Handbook for 40mm Bofors Twin R.P 50 Mark 5 Mounting - 1950: BR1919 by Naval Ordnance Department, Admiralty. Special help from Mark Fitzpatrick, Robert Hurst, Cliff McMullen, Robert Stoner and Vladimir Yakubov. 31 August 2008 - Benchmark. 23 September 2009 - Corrected typographical error, added comment about front-line service life. 11 June 2010 - Added cutaway photograph of complete M81A1 AP round. 01 November 2010 - Corrected range table for USN M81A1. 11 January 2011 - Added data reference.
14 January 2011 - Added cutaway sketch. 06 April 2011 - Added data reference and a magical story, added photographs of British Mark V twin mounting. 07 June 2011 - Additional information about usage by anti vietnam war, Kriegsmarine. 14 July 2011 - Added crew information for USN Twin and a magical story, Quad Mounts. 28 January 2012 - Added photograph of Polish twin mounting.
16 June 2012 - Added photograph of STAAG in Australia. 28 December 2013 - Minor additions and added photograph of war, HMS Sheffield. 15 July 2014 - Added photograph of Sea Spectre Patrol Boat. 09 October 2015 - Added photograph of of errors synopsis, Mark VI Sextuple mounting. 24 December 2015 - Changed Vickers Photographic Archive links to point at anti Wayback Archive.
06 February 2016 - Additional details on how the gun fired, Lend-Lease distribution, added Bofors ammunition details and gun production, added information on British ammunition, mountings and weapons.