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Participatory Communication for Development

Power and Participation in Development Communication Essay

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Participatory Communication for Development

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The paradigm of communication in development: from knowledge

resume le libraire Lattaque littraire envers le clerg faite par les ?uvres qubcoises La Scouine. dAlbert Laberge et Le Libraire de Grard Bessette. De 1870 1930, le Qubec est en proie un phnomne migratoire, lExode, duquel rsulte le dplacement de centaines de milliers dhabitants vers la Nouvelle-Angleterre en raison du manque de terres cultivables pour la population du Qubec. Power In Development? Ds lors, les autorits clricales ragissent par la colonisation des rgions loignes du Qubec ainsi que par limposition faite aux auteurs dune littrature dite du terroir, qui idalise la vie la campagne. Which Was Not Of Industrialization?? Cependant, certains crivains sy opposent, notamment Albert Laberge [1871-1960] qui publie en 1918 le roman La Scouine qui fait alors partie du courant anti-terroir. In Development? Plus de cinquante annes plus tard, les crivains smancipent, additionnant les ?uvres contestataires. What Are Available In Pharmacy? Les annes soixante sont marques par un esprit de renouveau, une volont de se dtacher des institutions sociales omniprsentes dans la socit. And Participation In Development Communication Essay? Cest la Rvolution tranquille.

Ds lors, les diffrents auteurs peignent avec svrit lglise et les valeurs catholiques, dites du pass. Rock 1950? De surcrot, les reprsentants religieux sont pris pour cible et sont accuss dincomptence, de mensonge et de corruption [1] . Power And Participation In Development? En 1960, anne charnire soulignant le dbut de la Rvolution tranquille, la publication du roman Le Libraire de Grard Bessette poursuit cette mission. loignes dans le temps, La Scouine dAlbert Laberge et Le Libraire de Grard Bessette sont toutefois ressemblantes du fait quelles sont des ?uvres littraires qubcoises qui sattaquent au clerg parce quelles font un portrait ngatif de la socit ainsi que de la condition humaine de leur poque. 1. Shahadah Facts? La Scouine (1918) dAlbert Laberge. 1.1 Sommaire du contexte sociohistorique et littraire du dbut du 20 ime sicle. Lentre dans le 20 ime sicle est une priode caractrise par des changements considrables au c?ur de la socit. Power? Il est question ici dune expansion industrielle, conomique et dmographique [2] . Shahadah Facts? Toutefois, ces transformations ne sont pas suivies dajustements idologiques, la pense conservatrice des lites canadiennes-franaises ne pouvant saccorder avec des mutations structurelles. Power? Le conservatisme rsiste donc et rsonne encore dans la littrature. Cesar Chavez Movement? Au dbut du 20 ime sicle, la littrature a pour mission de faire lloge de la terre et de la vie la campagne afin dviter lexode vers les tats-Unis et lexode rural. Communication? Cette littrature nomme rgionaliste ou dite du terroir est encourage et faonne par le clerg et par certaines figures ecclsiastiques motives nationaliser la littrature canadienne-franaise.

Pour ces dernires, la langue, la religion catholique et lagriculture sont une formule pour que la race se conserve. Shahadah Facts? Rester la campagne, cest rester franais et donc, par la force des choses, rester catholiques [3] . And Participation In Development Communication? Ce concept est transpos dans les romans de lpoque dans une intrigue assez simpliste et redondante : toute une famille travaille sur la terre, spanouie et senrichie par le dur labeur. In "The Rule Of The Essay? Tout devient dramatique lorsquun fils dcide de quitter la terre pour la ville ou pour les tats-Unis. Power And Participation In Development? Adviennent alors tous les maux possibles au pauvre fils qui, suivant sa raison, retourne sur la terre o il prendra femme, poursuivra le travail de la terre et sera un bon chrtien. Les auteurs des romans du terroir dictent comment la socit canadienne-franaise devrait tre et o elle devrait tre. Genius Of Entertainment? En rsum, on Power and Participation in Development Essay, remarque trois missions dont se dote la littrature du terroir soit celles dmouvoir le lecteur de lpoque par la reprsentation dune vie ardue mais libre, de l'effrayer en lui racontant les dangers de l'exil ou ceux de l'industrialisation et de le convaincre que l'avenir de la race dpend de la rponse des Canadiens-Franais leur vocation historique de colonisateurs et de paysans. Between Mother And Daughter In "The Of The? [4] Ces trois missions sont respectes par les auteurs qui font un tableau pittoresque, sublime, allchant de la campagne.

Lidalisation de la vie la campagne qui constitue une des caractristiques principales de la littrature du terroir reste donc un thme rcurrent dans les romans et flicit par lglise. Power Communication Essay? Par exemple, Menaud, matre-draveur (1937) de Flix-Antoine Savard et Maria Chapdelaine (1914) de Louis Hmon sont des romans typiques du courant. 1.2 Lauteur fait un portrait ngatif de la socit. Dabord, le roman La Scouine sattaque ncessairement au clerg en faisant un portrait ngatif de la vie la campagne et de la socit qui y vit. And Roll? L?uvre dAlbert Laberge voque un environnement malsain puisquil illustre la misre du milieu campagnard. Power Communication Essay? Le narrateur omniscient dcrit avec sobrit un cadre physique dgrad en rapportant que le pays avait t empest dune odeur de charogne. Was Not Of Industrialization?? Du sein des campagnes verdoyantes et des champs en fleurs, la puanteur slevait c?urante, insupportable [] la rgion tait devenue un immense charnier, un amoncellement de pourriture et de corruption [5] . Power In Development? Lantithse qui oppose le visuel lolfactif souligne lminent contraste entre la splendeur de la campagne et lodeur nausabonde qui y rgne.

Le roman va alors lencontre du clerg en envoyant pour message que la vie la campagne, aussi belle que lon a pu la dcrire, laisse entrevoir une aura de misre. Cesar Chavez? Puis, lusage de la rgion comme compar et du charnier pour comparant connotent le paysage de dsolation, insinuent que les paysans y meurent, y pourrissent, en plus de lnumration dadjectifs pjoratifs tels c?urante et insupportable. L?uvre de Laberge rvle que la difficult des fermiers est caractrise par leur pauvret. And Participation Essay? La rude existence des habitants est voque par le narrateur : Lon traversait une mauvaise anne. Essay On Walt Genius Of Entertainment? Le charbon avait effroyablement dcim les troupeaux et le bl tait venu de si mauvaise qualit que, dans trente paroisses, les habitants mangeaient un pain lourd, fade, impossible cuire [] la rcolte avait t trs mauvaise, et les fermiers allaient soucieux, jongleurs, la tte basse, voyant avec effroi arriver la date des paiements [6] . And Participation In Development Communication? Le portrait anodin de la pauvret des paysans formul comprend une numration dtats ngatifs, comportant des adjectifs qualificatifs tels jongleurs, soucieux et la tte basse qui illustrent les proccupations des paysans quant leur incapacit profiter de leur terre et consquemment amasser largent pour payer leurs redevances. Rock And Roll? Sans aucun doute, la grande pauvret montre dans le roman est une flche dirige vers le clerg tant donn que ce dernier incite les auteurs de lpoque annoncer, linstar dune publicit, la vie florissante, prolifique de la campagne.

1.3 La Scouine prsente un personnage, le Taon, qui nest pas prospre. Non seulement le roman La Scouine voque une socit qui sombre dans la misre, mais il aborde aussi le sort des individus linverse des romans du terroir en prsentant un personnage, le Taon, qui est loin dtre prospre la campagne. In Development Essay? Les personnages prsents dans les romans rgionalistes sont des dfricheurs, des cultivateurs et des colonisateurs qui saccomplissent et prosprent par le travail de la terre la campagne. Cesar Chavez Movement? Au contraire, dans La Scouine , le narrateur dcrit un personnage pratiquant un travail dgrad qui ne lui permet pas de senrichir : Le Taon, garon de seize ans, [] faisait le commerce des ferrailles, des os et des guenilles. In Development? En change dune pice de ferblanterie ou deux, il obtenait la permission de ramasser les carcasses qui gisaient de tous cts. The Relationship Between Mother In "The Rule Game"? [] Comme il avait puis son maigre assortiment de marchandises et que son gousset tait plutt lger, il avait propos Charlot de lui donner son chien en paiement de son repas [7] . Le Taon peine survivre en effectuant son travail qui ne lui alloue pas la facult damasser de largent et ses rserves sont puises considrablement. And Participation Communication Essay? De toute vidence, cette constatation permet de voir que le roman sattaque au clerg en allant lencontre de la littrature du terroir par la cration de ce personnage qui ne russit pas la campagne. Career In Pharmacy Essays? En outre, le fait que le personnage soit ponctuel dans le rcit suggre que ses conditions de vie ne samliorent pas. Power In Development? Labattement du personnage est radicalement montr dans cet extrait de La Scouine , o la violence du Taon ressort: Lorsque que le Taon avait voulu repartir [], sa rosse navait pu avancer et stait abattue []. Was Not Of Industrialization?? Furieux, le Taon avait frapp la bte avec acharnement [], lui cinglant les oreilles de grands coups de fouet. In Development Communication? [] lanimal ne bougeait plus. Shahadah Facts? [] Et finalement, il avait expir sous le bton et les jurements.

Mais le Taon ne stait pas arrt l. And Participation? Dans sa rage, il stait attaqu au cadavre de la pauvre haridelle, lui dmolissant les ctes de ses lourdes bottes [8] . La progression de la colre du Taon, voyant la bte qui lui permet de survivre lui chapper, montre son total dsespoir. Cesar? Cette hyperbole indique la violence et lacharnement que le Taon dploie sur sa bte, se voyant sans issue. Power Communication Essay? Somme toute, le roman La Scouine introduit un personnage ne profitant daucun succs tant donn quil pratique un mtier avilissant et prouve un dsespoir accablant. A Result? Alors que la littrature du terroir voque des personnages qui spanouissent la campagne, le roman de Laberge soppose radicalement cette ide en prsentant un personnage dsespr. 2. And Participation Communication Essay? Le Libraire (1960) de Grard Bessette. 2.1 Sommaire du contexte sociohistorique et littraire de la Rvolution tranquille. Les romans comme celui de Laberge sont prsents et plus nombreux au fur et mesure que lon avance dans le 20 ime sicle.

Cependant, le pouvoir politique et social de lglise et du clerg est assez fort pour rprimer et condamner avec facilit ces derniers jusquen 1960. Which Was Not? Les ides conservatrices sont alors toujours de mise dans la littrature et les auteurs qui refusent de se conformer ces dernires sont somms de revenir sur le droit chemin, forcs de sexiler ou ignors. Power? Ce principe commence se dsagrger vers 1960, une anne connue comme le dbut de la Rvolution tranquille, une priode qui se rsume aisment par lexpression saffirmer plutt que conserver [9] . Shahadah Facts? Celle-ci fait rfrence lesprit de renouveau qui nat au Qubec et qui veut crer une place pour lindividu qui est, depuis si longtemps, pitin par les institutions sociales comme lglise. And Participation Communication? Grard Bessette publie Le Libraire en 1960, anne du dbut de la Rvolution tranquille. Essay Disney: Of Entertainment? Son ?uvre reprsente bien le courant littraire qui se faonne durant cette priode et constitue un roman-modle pour certains auteurs qui veulent leur tour crer une ?uvre contestataire. Depuis 1940, des brches se remarquent au niveau des institutions sociales, notamment quant lglise, au clerg. And Participation? En fait, ces dernires perdent graduellement du pouvoir sur la socit et la sparation entre ltat et Lglise est de plus en plus marque. What Career Essays? Les ?uvres littraires vont dans le mme sens, cest--dire que ds 1940, la littrature de la contestation sociale et de lengagement prend forme et quelques ?uvres dnoncent les problmes sociaux.

Puis, en 1960, la liquidation des valeurs du pass et la dprciation des institutions sociales apparat comme un mouvement littraire. In Development? Les attaques envers le clerg sont rudes et ds lors, la plupart des romans prsentent des individus qui ont maille partir avec une collectivit, et leur action se rsume contester l'emprise que les diverses institutions sociales exercent sur eux [10] . Essay? Le roman Le Libraire de Grard Bessette est celui qui donne officiellement le ton ce nouveau mouvement littraire contestataire et, ncessairement, son attaque vis--vis le clerg apparat sans aucun doute comme bien froce par son personnage principal qui na rien dun hros et qui dnonce par ses actions. 2.2 Le Libraire prsente un village contraignant. Grard Bessette fait lui aussi un portrait ngatif de la socit au Qubec. Power Communication Essay? Le personnage principal de son roman Le Libraire travaille dans une libraire qui, ncessairement, par la nature des objets vendus, constitue un lieu suspect par le clerg. On Walt Disney: Genius Of Entertainment? Ltablissement est donc censur de manire officielle et gnrale par lIndex, une liste douvrages interdits pour tous les catholiques, et de faon officieuse par les pouvoirs de St-Joachin, c'est--dire M. And Participation In Development Communication? Le Cur. And Roll 1950? [11] Ainsi, peu aprs son arrive, M. And Participation Essay? Chicoine, son employeur, lui montre le capharnam, un endroit o les livres non dsirables selon lglise sont entreposs : Je pntrai dans le capharnam. Rock? [. And Participation In Development Communication? ] De l'intrieur on and roll, prendrait ledit capharnam pour un caveau avec ses murs de blocs de ciment sans fentres ni soupirail [12] . Power Communication Essay? Cette comparaison du capharnam un caveau illustre parfaitement lide de censure et de captivit. Between And Daughter In "The Rule Game"? Un champ lexical form des mots caveau , sans fentres , ni soupirail voque labsence de lumire qui rfre ltat de contrainte des gens du village qui lon interdit certaines lectures. Communication? Ainsi, le roman de Bessette conteste haut et fort lemprise de lglise et du clerg sur lindividu. Ainsi, lorsque le personnage principal, Jodoin, vend le livre LEssai sur les m?urs de Voltaire un tudiant, le cur de St-Joachin sempresse de se rendre la librairie pour rprimander le nouveau libraire, aprs quoi les mmes remontrances lui seront communiques par M. What Paths? Chicoine, apeur : - Au nom du ciel, pouvez-vous mexpliquer [] ce qui vous a pouss vendre pareil livre un jeune collgien?[] Je lui rappelai que ctait lui, M. In Development Communication Essay? Chicoine, qui de son plein gr mavait rvl lexistence du capharnam; que, par consquent, javais suppos, peut-tre tort, que javais lautorisation de vendre lesdits livres, en usant, naturellement, dune certaine circonspection - Mais un collgien, sacrebleu! Et vous parlez de circonspection!

Vous osez parler de circonspection [13] ! Lusage dexpressions familires connotant le mcontentement ainsi que la ponctuation exclamative montre lampleur du problme quest devenue la simple vente de LEssai sur les m?urs dans le village de St-Joachin. On Walt? Plus encore, la rptition du mot circonspection amplifie lide que le libraire est restreint dans ses activits et doit constamment faire preuve de prudence sans quoi il sera rprimand, rabaiss. Power In Development Essay? Cet extrait dnote le souci de lauteur critiquer labsence de libert pour les individus dans la socit au Qubec et la place bien trop importante que prend le clerg dans cette dernire. 2.3 Le Libraire prsente un personnage en Mal de parole [14] . Le protagoniste du roman est un personnage en proie un Mal de parole , cest--dire que Jodoin, confront une socit axe sur le pass et refusant dvoluer et de sadapter aux besoins et aux dsirs nouveaux des gens qui la composent, ne sait pas sil doit parler ou conserver, se taire. Cesar Movement? Ce conflit intrieur ressenti par le protagoniste souligne latmosphre rgnant au Qubec lpoque o il a t crit. Power And Participation In Development Communication? linstar de la socit dans laquelle vit Bessette avant la Rvolution tranquille, ce dernier prsente le personnage de Jodoin qui garde donc en jachre sa parole, qui devient un silence articul [15] , on on Walt Genius, parle alors dune parole absente, mais non dune absence de parole.

Dabord, ce Mal de parole se traduit par la banalit apparente du rcit, cre par limpression de sommaire, dinconsistance ressentie par le lecteur. Essay? En somme, cela sexplique par le fait que le personnage de Jodoin agit comme lment-filtre [16] du rcit. Chavez? Plus prcisment, il est impossible pour un personnage de livrer un discours sans l'entremise de Jodoin. And Participation Communication Essay? Ainsi, le lecteur na accs aux paroles, aux actions et lexistence de personnages que par le biais du protagoniste qui, au grand dam du lecteur, ne parle pas et axe son rcit sur les dtails insignifiants de sa vie : Avec une certaine rudesse, je lui demandai de me prciser ce quil entendait par personnes srieuses. 1950? Il me parut un peu confus et se lana dans une explication embrouille do il ressortait peu prs que les personnes srieuses taient celles qui on Power in Development Communication, pouvait vendre ces livres sans risques. Rock And Roll 1950? Bien sr, M. Power And Participation? Chicoine na pas exprim cela en toutes lettres. And Roll 1950? Il a invoqu la libert de pense, le droit linformation, linfantilisme de notre peuple, la constipation de nos censeurs, etc., etc. In Development Essay? Je l'coutais peine. Mother And Daughter Of The Essay? Non pas que, selon moi, il et tort. Power Communication? Mais a manquait, me semblait-il, de conviction [17] . lvidence, le style indirect joue un rle crucial puisque le personnage de Jodoin est constamment en train de filtrer l'information, de faon ce que les paroles des personnages et les siennes soient rapportes indirectement par des groupes de mots comme je lui demandai, Il a invoqu, na pas exprim cela.

Dune part, le lecteur dsire que le voile soit lev, cest--dire que les informations se rendent jusqu lui. Which Was Not? Toutefois, et comme dans la socit lpoque, un voile est dpos sur chaque individu de manire lempcher de parler librement et cest ce quvoquent les auteurs de la Rvolution tranquille. Essay? Aussi, cette filtration omniprsente est une attaque directe visant le clerg puisque le roman accorde une place norme au narrateur par lequel est dpeinte la socit. Shahadah Facts? Par son roman, Bessette montre que lindividu doit avoir une place et une parole dans la socit quil peut modeler sa guise, puisquil doit tre libre. 3.1 Les auteurs font un portrait ngatif de la socit. Dabord, les deux ?uvres se ressemblent quant au fond, de lhistoire, cest--dire que les romans prsentent des socits contraignantes. In Development Communication? Alors que lun peint la campagne comme misrable, implacable, do il est impossible de se sortir, lautre voque un petit village du Qubec o le clerg exerce son pouvoir en censurant la littrature et en octroyant que trs peu de libert aux individus. What Career In Pharmacy? Lattaque lgard du clerg quant la socit rside dans le fait que le roman propose que le malheur de la socit est caus par lglise et ses dirigeants. Power In Development Communication Essay? ce niveau, les deux ?uvres qubcoises se diffrencient lgrement puisque Laberge instaure cette proposition en laissant voir que ce qui est dit et racont dans les romans du terroir nest avant tout quune chimre, une publicit. Cesar Chavez Movement? Lauteur souligne que le clerg pousse les gens sinstaller la campagne et cultiver la terre puisque cest la faon, dit-on, de rester un Canadien-Franais et un bon catholique. Power And Participation Communication Essay? Une fois sur la terre, cest l que le malheur surgit, lorsque le sol ne permet plus la culture et quil est impossible de vendre des produits et mme de subsister. Shahadah Facts? En somme, le roman La Scouine peint ralistement la campagne au 20 ime sicle puisque le malheur des gens vient du fait que le clerg et les auteurs du terroir ont trop louang la vie la campagne, qui savre plutt tre une grave farce.

Pour ce qui est de Bessette, ce dernier accorde aussi laspect contraignant de la socit au clerg, mais il accentue son attaque en mettant en scne une figure ecclsiastique et ses mfaits dans le village de St-Joachim. And Participation Communication Essay? Durant tout le roman, le cur est dcrit grotesquement de faon discrditer le clerg. En somme, les intentions de Laberge taient claires : il voulait dabord et avant tout faire un roman raliste. What Paths In Pharmacy Essays? Il russit grandement son projet par lcriture de La Scouine qui fait de long en large le portrait de la socit rurale. Power And Participation In Development Communication? De nombreux lieux et personnages sont prsents dans le rcit qui na pas dhros, mais plutt un lot de gens dans la mme situation misrable dont on shahadah facts, apprend les problmes.

De ce fait, Laberge invite le lecteur le lecteur faire le constat dune socit en dclin. And Participation? Pour sa part, Bessette ne se contente pas de faire un tableau et de permettre un constat : il attribue un coupable au mauvais tat de la socit, le fustige et propose entre les lignes que la socit se porterait bien mieux sans le clerg qui se mle de tout. 3.2 Les personnages prsentent un portrait ngatif de la condition humaine de leur poque. Le personnage principal de chaque ?uvre est une victime dun abrutissement considrable. The Relationship Between In "The Essay? Comme mentionn, plus le rcit de La Scouine avance, plus le Taon devient violent et immoral.

Cela se prouve par la cruaut de lhomme envers sa bte. And Participation In Development? Aussi, la ponctualit du personnage montre que le Taon, dans sa descente vers la misre, et mme vers la mort, atteint un stade de non-retour, de dsespoir total. Cesar? son tour, Jodoin dans Le Libraire , est victime dun village qui le contraint rapidement dans ses paroles et ses actes. Power And Participation Essay? Dans ce roman, la menace est bien souligne, soit celle du clerg omniprsent, de la corruption et de la censure opre dans le village de Saint-Joachim. Which A Result Of Industrialization?? Cependant, les deux ?uvres se diffrencient par le fait que le personnage de La Scouine est vou lchec alors que celui du roman Le Libraire pourrait faire une diffrence. Power In Development? En effet, le Taon ne peut daucune faon se sortir de la misre, sauf en vendant les derniers biens quil possde; son chien, et son honneur. On Walt Disney:? Pour ce qui est de Jodoin, son sort est presque entirement dtermin par lui-mme, en supposant quil y met des efforts.

Par contre, ce personnage choisit lindiffrence, accepte son sort et sy tablit confortablement. And Participation Communication Essay? Une importante ironie plane alors dans le rcit o Jodoin, durant la premire moiti du roman, fait tout pour ne pas tre engag envers quelle chose que ce soit ou de quiconque. Rock? Ce comportement diverge extrmement des ides de lauteur et cest probablement pour cette raison que durant lautre moiti de l?uvre, Jodoin vend un livre interdit, sengage, et son sort en est jet; il devra quitter la ville. Pour ce qui est de la forme, les deux romans se diffrencient dans la narration : La Scouine a un narrateur htrodigtique (racontant une histoire do il est absent ) et Le Libraire a un narrateur autodigtique (racontant son histoire). Essay? Le choix de chaque auteur se rattache au contexte sociohistorique. On Walt Disney:? Dans La Scouine , il est ais de supposer que dutiliser un narrateur absent attnue le portrait ngatif fait de la condition humaine de lpoque. And Participation In Development? Lattaque envers le clerg est modre par la prise en charge du rcit par un narrateur la troisime personne. Rock And Roll? linverse, le contexte de la Rvolution tranquille, plus favorable laffirmation de lindividu rime bien avec lemploi dun narrateur autodigtique, dun rcit la premire personne. La notion des modes de reprsentation narrative fait rfrence aux degrs dinformation et la rgulation de linformation dans le rcit. Power And Participation In Development Communication Essay? Ce concept est intressant puisquil permet de se questionner sur la quantit dinformation livre par le rcit, et, consquemment, par le narrateur. The Relationship Between Mother In "The Of The Game" Essay? Pour lanalyse des deux ?uvres littraires qubcoises, cest la distance (lvaluation des degrs dinformation narrative) qui requiert de lattention. And Participation In Development? Le rcit peut imiter plus ou moins la ralit en tant proche des faits et objectif ou en tant loin des faits et en tant subjectif.

En privilgiant la proximit, on What Career Paths are Available in Pharmacy Essays, renforce lillusion mimtique. Communication? On livre donc un maximum dinformations le plus discrtement possible, on was not a result of industrialization?, montre plus quon raconte, et on and Participation in Development Essay, donne limpression que lhistoire ne dpend daucun narrateur, quelle se produit toute seule. Between Mother In "The Game" Essay? linverse, en privilgiant la distance, on Power Communication Essay, affaiblit lillusion mimtique en livrant le moins discrtement possible un maximum dinformation, en racontant plus quen montrant, et en certifiant le caractre fictif du rcit par la prsence incontestable du narrateur [18] . Between Mother And Daughter In "The Game"? Cette tude des degrs dinformation narrative se forme sur trois niveaux, soit le rcit dvnements, le rcit de parole et le rcit de penses. Power And Participation? Pour les ?uvres tudies, seuls le rcit dvnements et le rcit de parole seront abords. Il est ais de comparer les deux ?uvres sur le plan du rcit dvnements. Career In Pharmacy Essays? Dabord, celle de Laberge privilgie la proximit : Soudain, lon heurta en avant, lon branla la contre-porte. Power Communication Essay? Deschamps nentendit pas. Disney: Of Entertainment? De nouveau et plus fort, lon frappa, mais sans plus de succs. Power And Participation In Development Essay? [19] Cest leffacement de linstance narrative et la prsence importante de dtails et de faits inutiles qui permettent leffet de rel. In Pharmacy Essays? Laberge a assurment voulu dpeindre avec le plus de fidlit possible la condition humaine de mme que la socit, et cest en racontant les vnements avec le plus de prcision possible que le but est atteint. L?uvre de Bessette favorise plutt lloignement : Ensuite, elle ma quitt.

Je ne rapporte pas tout, videmment. Communication? Ce serait trop long. Which A Result Of Industrialization?? Mais elle ma communiqu quantit dautres dtails dun gal intrt. Communication? [20] Le roman de Bessette privilgie lloignement dans le rcit dvnements en commentant, rsumant et en ayant une attitude distante face ce quil raconte. What Paths Essays? Cette mthode est une forme dattaque envers le clerg puisque Bessette dsire montrer limportance de lindividu dans la socit en transposant cette ide dans son ?uvre. In Development Communication? Le personnage et par le fait mme, narrateur, agit comme lment-filtre et rsume les vnements selon son gr, et devient essentiel au fonctionnement du rcit. Cesar Chavez? Il est ais dy voir un message comme quoi une socit fonctionne dabord par la force des individus qui la composent. Le rcit de paroles doit absolument tre tudi puisquencore une fois, les ?uvres empruntent des avenues divergentes.

Ici, cest le degr de littrarit des paroles qui est tudi. Power And Participation In Development Essay? Alors que dans La Scouine lillusion mimtique est forte grce un discours rapport ( Elle ajouta : - Ernest Lecomte est ben malade des fivres. Which A Result Of Industrialization?? I a t administr et i va mourir. Power Communication Essay? I a t recommand aux prires. Movement? [21] ), Le Libraire diminue leffet de rel par un discours narrativis : Mme Bouthiller a pris lhabitude de frapper ma porte pour me demander si je nai besoin de rien, si je suis satisfait de ma chambre. Power And Participation? Je lui rponds presque invariablement que je suis satisfait. And Roll? [22] Encore une fois, le rcit de Laberge a pour but principal de faire le portrait de la condition humaine de lpoque et pour y arriver, il doit ncessairement rapporter les paroles littralement. In Development Essay? Lattaque face au clerg se situe alors surtout dans le fond, dans ce qui est racont : en sabstenant de rendre son rcit subjectif, Laberge peut dune faon attnuer la colre des ecclsiastiques et permet la socit de faire le mme constat que lui, soit que le portrait idalis de la campagne fait par la littrature du terroir la demande de lglise nest en rien fidle la ralit. En somme, les ?uvres littraires qubcoises La Scouine dAlbert Laberge et Le Libraire de Grard Bessette attaquent le clerg en faisant un portrait ngatif de la socit; le premier voquant la misre du milieu campagnard et le deuxime montrant un village bien contraignant. Between Mother And Daughter Rule Of The? Les deux romans caractrisent ngativement la condition humaine de lpoque; Laberge prsentant un personnage, le Taon, qui nest pas prospre et Bessette mettant en scne Jodoin, un personnage en mal de parole.

La comparaison des deux ?uvres prouve que ces dernires font vritablement une attaque vis--vis le clerg, mais elles se diffrencient par la mission dont elles se dotent. Power And Participation In Development? Effectivement, La Scouine fait un constat de la socit alors que Le Libraire , en plus de faire un constat, prend radicalement pour cible le clerg. Essay On Walt? Le deuxime volet comparatif souligne que les deux romans prsentent des personnages qui sont des victimes, mais ils se diffrencient, car le roman La Scouine favorise lobjectivit, leffet de rel et montre un personnage vou lchec alors que dans Le Libraire il est question de subjectivit et dun protagoniste qui est matre de son sort. In Development? En ralit, les deux romans qubcois poussent encore plus loin lattaque lgard du clerg en octroyant une place importante la sexualit dans lunivers narratif de leur ?uvre. Cesar Movement? La Scouine et Le Libraire prsentent des personnages qui ont des relations sexuelles en dehors du mariage, sans y ajouter de ton moralisateur ou de consquences directes pour les personnages, ce qui entrane sans aucun doute la colre du clerg. BELAIR, Michel, Du silence la non-parole, Le Qubec littraire, revue trimestrielle , Montral, Gurin, 1974, 166 p. BIRON, Michel et al. In Development Communication? , Histoire de la littrature qubcoise , Montral, Boral, 2007, 692 p. HBERT, Pierre et Yves LEVER, Dictionnaire de la censure au Qubec , Montral, FIDES, 2006, 720 p. HBERT, Pierre avec la collaboration de Patrick NICOL, Censure et littrature au Qubec. On Walt Disney: Of Entertainment? Le livre crucifi, 1625-1919 , Montral, FIDES, 1997, 294 p.

JOUVE, Vincent, Potique du roman , Paris, Armand Colin, 2 ime dition, 2009, 238 p. LEMIRE Maurice et al. And Participation In Development Essay? Dictionnaire des oeuvres littraires du Qubec , Montral, FIDES, tome 4, 1991, 918 p. LESSARD, Jean-Louis. Shahadah Facts? La littrature qubcoise , [En ligne], 1999, Baie-Comeau, [http://www.litterature-quebecoise.org/] (11 fvrier 2010). RENAUD, Andr et Rjean ROBIDOUX. Power Communication? Le Roman canadien-franais du XXe sicle , Ottawa, ditions de l'Universit d'Ottawa, 1966, 221 p. WYCZYNSKI, Paul, La Scouine dAlbert Laberge, dition critique , Montral, Les presses de lUniversit de Montral, 1986, 297 p. 1. Paths? J-L. And Participation In Development Communication? LESSARD. Shahadah Facts? La littrature qubcoise , [En ligne], [http://www.litterature-quebecoise.org/] . 2. Power In Development Essay? HBERT, P. Was Not A Result Of Industrialization?? et P.NICOL, Censure et littrature au Qubec.

Le livre crucifi, 1625-1919 , p.123. 3. In Development Essay? J-L. And Roll 1950? LESSARD. Power In Development Communication? La littrature qubcoise , [En ligne], [http://www.litterature-quebecoise.org/] . 4. The Relationship Mother In "The Of The Essay? RENAUD, A. Power In Development Communication Essay? et R. What Paths Essays? ROBIDOUX. Power And Participation In Development Essay? Le Roman canadien-franais du XXe sicle , p.26. 5. Game" Essay? A. And Participation In Development Communication Essay? LABERGE, La Scouine , p.43.

7. What Career Are Available Essays? A. Communication? LABERGE, La Scouine , p.44. 9. Paths Are Available Essays? J-L. And Participation? LESSARD. The Relationship Between Of The Game"? La littrature qubcoise , [En ligne], [http://www.litterature-quebecoise.org/] . 10. Essay? M. In Pharmacy? LEMIRE, Dictionnaire des ?uvres littraires du Qubec , t. Communication? 4, p.14. 12. Rock And Roll? G. Power Communication? BESSETTE, Le Libraire , p.41.

14. The Relationship In "The Rule? M. Power And Participation In Development Communication Essay? BELAIR, Du silence la non-parole, Le Qubec littraire, revue trimestrielle , p.59.

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analogy ideas essay INTELLECTUAL HERITAGE (at Temple University) Subject Study Aids: (needs some pruning): Topics in Classical Culture: The Legend of the House of Atreus: Greek Tragedy in Power and Participation in Development Essay Greece. From 1996-2001 I taught in the Intellectual Heritage Program at Temple University in Essay on Walt Disney: of Entertainment Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Power In Development? This page is part of shahadah facts my teaching materials for and Participation Intellectual Heritage 51, a course covering literature and was not a result ideas from Sappho through Shakespeare. And Participation Communication? Learning to Essay on Walt, write a critical essay is and Participation Communication, like: Remember learning to drive? Remember going down that checklist before you started the engine? Checking your mirrors, fastening your seatbelt, adjusting the seat and steering wheel, checking the gas and oil gauges, looking in your blind spot before pulling into traffic, putting your directional on. Inexperienced drivers are also often too timid to pull into the stream of traffic, even when it is safe to The Relationship Mother and Daughter in "The Essay, do so. Power And Participation? And how is it now that you are an experienced driver? Do you actually go through that same checklist?

Do you wait until there isn't a car in sight before you make that left? Yes, the rules are still important, but after a while they become second nature. If you *don't* check the rock and roll gas, you could get stranded. And if you *don't* check your blind spot, you could get killed. But we are all more comfortable driving with an old-hand, someone we know will give us a safe and Power and Participation Communication Essay profitable ride without needing to resort to cesar movement, the rule book every five seconds. Young drivers lack the finesse, know-how and confidence they will gain as they gain experience. You don't jump on the expressway before you are comfortable driving at a high speed, do you? And you don't choose a curvy, hilly road until you are comfortable driving down streets without such challenges, do you?

Writing works the same way. You have your permit as a beginning writer. Follow the rules until you are comfortable. As a beginner, your handbooks are essential references and provide necessary information. Checklists of what to do and what not to do keep you on task.

Sticking to a format you are comfortable with is a better choice than trying to and Participation, take on too much. The more you write, the better you will get. Confidence is a big part of this game, as well as technical skill. So take it slowly. If you don't know the most basic rules (how to avoid writing sentence fragments or run-on sentences), you are in cesar movement big trouble, just as if you didn't know what a STOP sign meant. Even when you do master these basic mechanics, as a beginning writer, you may feel that your writing is too stiff, your essays technically correct yet otherwise boring. But if you are too sloppy, you crash.

Just like in driving. Find the middle road. Have patience. Learn why the rules exist before you try to stretch them! Before you leap into the stream of traffic (= that great discussion that you can#146;t wait to get to), alert your reader about the direction your paper is going to take! Putting your blinker on (= writing good transitions between paragraphs) allows other drivers to see your intentions. Let your reader know your intentions too. Following these simple rules will allow you to and Participation in Development Communication Essay, write essays that will transport your reader to the destination of your choosing.

Have a safe trip. What Career In Pharmacy? Writing a critical essay is like#133; Any baker will tell you that creating a successful confectionery demands his paying attention to Power and Participation Communication Essay, a great many details, all of which can be compared to writing a successful critical essay: baker's recipe = writer's outline. This is the cesar overall blueprint which represents not only the desired end result of your efforts, but the and Participation in Development Communication Essay exact way in which you will achieve that end. It includes the shahadah facts names and amounts of ingredients, directions on how to prepare, combine, and cook ingredients, and any other details necessary to the project. Power? A writer's outline should offer an overall view of the in Pharmacy project, carefully setting forth not only the arguments of the essay, but how those arguments will be argued. good ingredients = supporting details. Power In Development? The baker's ingredients might include eggs, flour, milk, and sugar. The writer's ingredients might be details of rock and roll plot and and Participation Communication Essay supporting quotations from the text. Shahadah Facts? In neither case is it acceptable to plop down the and Participation in Development Communication ingredients and 1950 call it a finished product!

You wouldn't call a bag of groceries a cake; don't call a collection of details an essay! Take your raw material and make something of it! Both bakers and writers must determine exactly how much room to devote to particular ingredients. In both cases, an ingredient might be essential, but too much of that one thing could ruin the cake. You can easily err in the other direction, too. Careful! order of presentation of ingredients. A good recipe will tell the baker to keep dry ingredients separate from in Development, liquid, or in what order to add certain ingredients in the cooking process. Cesar Chavez Movement? A good writer will understand that it is not just the argument itself that can persuade, but the overall presentation that can augment or diminish the persuasiveness of the Essay presentation.

All writers should consider in what order to present his arguments - which to in Pharmacy, save for last, which to Power in Development Essay, start off with. It can make a world of difference in the end. how to mix the ingredients. A lot depends on the right method of mixing the ingredients together: sometimes the recipe calls for a gentle folding-in of ingredients, and Essay Genius sometimes you really have to mash stuff together using a blender! The same goes for writing an and Participation Essay, essay - determine the best and most persuasive way to present every argument. Is this a good place to paraphrase the text, or does this observation need a direct textual citation as support? Don't belabor a minor point, and don't leave a major point in movement chunks. Everything should be blended into the body of the essay appropriately, according to its nature.

After a cake is prepared according to in Development Essay, the recipe, it needs to go in The Relationship and Daughter Rule the oven, where everything comes together. Power And Participation In Development Essay? The baking time of an essay can correspond to the time the writer devotes to crystallizing the ideas he has set forth in the course of the essay. On Walt Disney:? If you don't bake it long enough, then you risk ending up with mush. If you keep it in too long, your reader will get indigestion. Spend just enough time at the end of Power Communication Essay your essay pulling together the threads of cesar chavez your argument. and then let it cool! Every cook has his own secret ingredient that makes his concoction uniquely his own. Writers work that way, too, except with writers it is more a question of style than anything else. A nice presentation caps a baker's effort. Make your essay look like it is worth reading (neat, proofed), just like any good cake looks like it is worth eating. Reading a critical essay is like. . taking a roller-coaster ride blindfolded. Make your ideas flow smoothly #150; you are taking your blindfolded reader on Power and Participation in Development Communication a roller coaster ride of your design #150; nothing too jarring, but not a straightaway stretch for the whole length of the ride, either.

Good anticipatory progression toward your best argument, with all the excitement of that last climb and downward swoop. You are the shahadah facts architect - design a good coaster! . or going on a long car ride. Remember the and Participation Communication driving analogy? Well, now imagine you are the passenger in that car. As a passenger, wouldn't you get more out of a car ride to an unfamiliar place if you were prepped before hand on interesting landmarks you might pass along the shahadah facts way, and and Participation Essay the route you were going to take on your way there? Otherwise, might it just be a boring, untutored waste of time during which your attention wandered away from the main point? Your paper's introduction should act as such a map of the journey you are about to cesar, take your reader on.

Your reader will then be able to enjoy the different legs of the trip, marvel at in Development Essay the landmarks you might pass, and otherwise get a good overview of the journey right from the beginning. Each paragraph should begin with a spot-check of interesting landmarks you are about to pass. When you get to the end of the chavez trip you will feel fulfilled and confident that as a reader you have gotten everything out of the Power and Participation Communication trip you could have #150; remember #150; it is not the destination (thesis proven) that reflects the writer's skill, style and and roll 1950 spirit, but the Power journey the cesar chavez movement reader takes to get there. copyright 2001 Janice Siegel, All Rights Reserved.

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explicative essay An explication of a student essay in Power in Development Communication, critical analysis. Here we will be doing (a particular kind of) critical examination of an expository/argumentative essay. That essay itself is doing a critical analysis of a piece of fictional narrative. (The writer of the essay has asked to remain anonymous, so we'll refer to her here as Mary.) [Keep in mind that criticism, in the sense in Essay on Walt Disney:, which we are using the term, is not synonymous with fault-finding. See the general discussion of critical analysis.] In the left-hand column below you will see how Mary notices what some of the moves are by which Katherine Mansfield went about setting up the situation we are confronted with in her story Miss Brill. In particular, she is watching how the authors moves work to get the reader to make certain moves. In the course of her calling attention to the features of the story that work to produce certain effects, she has occasion as well to call attention to the conventions the author takes for granted that readers will be working under if they are to produce these effects (infer these meanings, have these reactions) on the basis of the facts she chooses and arranges to construct what the and Participation in Development, narrator explicitly conveys. In the right-hand column you will see me doing a particular kind of critical analysis (in the most general sense of the term) of Marys essay. Essay On Walt Disney: Genius! In particular, I am doing the kind of running commentary that constitutes what we call an in Development Communication, explication. Notice that the order of my points there is dictated by the order in which the features commented upon unfold in the essay that is their subject. This is the mark of was not a result of industrialization?, explication.

Its organization is and Participation in Development Communication Essay, passively determined by something outside it the already-existing order of What Career in Pharmacy Essays, points in and Participation in Development, its subject. In writing an explication we dont have to was not, confront the and Participation Communication, problems of organization that higher forms of Paths are Available, exposition must solve: I just took over (followed) the organization that was already embodied in Marys essay. We could say that the organization of my explication is parasitic upon the organization of what it discusses. This is not the Power in Development Communication, case with Marys essay itself. She is not doing running commentary on the narrators story in and roll 1950, Miss Brill. She is showing how the Power and Participation Communication, point of view by which the story is disclosed to the reader contributes to the overall theme of the piece. This confronts her with three basic tasks. She has to produce (and clarify and Paths demonstrate) a sub-thesis that states what precisely the Power and Participation in Development Essay, point of view is. She has to commit herself to a statement (another sub-thesis) about what the storys theme is (or at least about what some essential part of it is).

This means discovering, formulating, unpacking, and proving some insight that she didnt have when she sat down to start writing. And she has to shape the particular way in which she develops each of cesar, these theses in Power and Participation Essay, such a way that we can see how the features of point of view that shes calling attention to make possible the features of the theme shes calling attention to. Cesar Chavez Movement! The logical relationships among these three sub-tasks are what determine the organizational strategy of her essay, as a whole and within its respective modules. What does not determine the organizational strategy is the plot of Mansfields story. Hence her essay exhibits a logical rather than a chronological structure. This structure is something she herself had to in Development Communication, fashion, in response to the logical properties of the task at hand. She had to rock and roll 1950, assume the responsibility for actively making it. Before getting into the detailed explication provided below, read the Power Communication Essay, essay itself all at one go. Ask yourself if you can detect what its thesis is and what the distinct lines of development are by which Mary clarifies and earns it. When you are done, return here, and work through the frames carefully.

Always read all the cesar chavez movement, way through a box on the left-hand side before proceeding to the corresponding. comments in the right-hand column. When you turn your attention to the right-hand column, you'll make best use of the comments if you don't read them all at in Development Communication, once, but instead work carefully back and forth, refreshing your sense of exactly what each comment points to before thinking your way through it. When you come to the comment following the which was not, first paragraph, you'll need to have a fresh sense of what was said both in the original paragraph and in and Participation in Development, the comments upon it. Consult the original paragraph again after you've worked through the long summary comment following it. This is What Paths are Available in Pharmacy Essays, rather dense stuff, so you may want to take a rest from time to time. When youve finished writing your essay, give some careful thought to fashioning an appropriate title.

It should reflect something particular about your particular angle on your specific subject. Just one example: Inside an and Participation, Outsider: The Pathos of Loneliness in Mansfields Miss Brill. This short story is narrated in the third person from the point of view of the limited omniscient narrator who primarily acts as the voice of the which was not of industrialization?, storys protagonist , Miss Brill. By telling the story through the eyes of the protagonist, Mansfield is able to Power and Participation Communication Essay, convey to the reader the protagonists loneliness and the lack of self-awareness. She offers no explanation as to the Miss Brills past, leaving it to the readers to draw their own conclusions. At the same time the author provides XX illuminating insights into the protagonists character and lifestyle that effectively communicate to the reader the theme of this short story . The central theme of and roll, Miss Brill is the pain of loneliness, and inadvertent attempts to experience life through the Power and Participation in Development Essay, experiences of total strangers. Right on. You get right to the point, and and Daughter Game" Essay you are accurate about both the concept and the story in and Participation in Development, question. Now youve turned your opening insight to account by posing answering the question So what? The answer is logically eligible to serve as a thesis within the framework of the assigned topic.

You point out how the authors adoption of these means to that end affects the activities the reader is called upon to undertake i.e, how it defines the on Walt Disney: of Entertainment, readers task. That is: you show how it establishes a certain kind of game for the reader to play. (In effect, this indicates the kinds of moves we can expect you to be undertaking, in the body of your essay, as you unpack and back up your thesis.) See how your point would be more accurate if you were to insert here a phrase like details from which the Power Essay, reader can derive or specific facts about Miss Brills mental experience the reader can use to infer ? At the climax of your introduction you sharpen your thesis still further. We have an exact idea of what you will be driving at through the body of your essay. Here you give a restatement of your thesis, but you do it in The Relationship Between Mother and Daughter in "The Rule of the, a way that advances it beyond mere repetition. Starving for warmth and companionship is a particular mode in which one might be lonely. You then back this up with an example. Power And Participation Essay! And, in fact, the one you feature at just this juncture is a gesture on Miss Bs part that speaks especially to the warmth idea (fur) in connection with the companionship idea (pet), intensifying each in that the pet is of the Essay, not only not a real person but dead, an effigy. You proceed to give an additional example. This one requires to be developed in steps, and you undertake each. You promise something more and anchor it in a specific fact.

Then you provide a citation to anchor that characterization in turn. Then you explain, in two parts (Despite.But.), how this detail establishes the point you promised. Now you set out to give still a third example. This one requires still a different strategy of development than either of the first two. Moreover, your move into it flows smoothly from what youve just nailed home in respect of the second example. And Participation In Development Communication! Its only at the end that we realize youve taken us to a third supporting line of evidence. Your second sentence in chavez movement, this section ups the ante, since it raises the anxiety in us that you may be wandering from the Essay, point (or that we may not be getting your drift). This drives us forward to look for clues as to how this might be on-point after all. First, though, following the What Career Paths in Pharmacy, colon, you slip us 3 particular details that back up the point youve just made. And then you serve up the confirmation weve been looking for . You show us what ties all these together (a disposition to Power and Participation in Development, feel envy). And then you show how this (envy) in turn can be turned to account on behalf of the thesis you started out the paragraph with.

When we think back over the paragraph as a whole, three things stand out: It is unified . There is nothing there that does not serve the topic sentence (which in turn is a specific twist the essays thesis overall) It is richly developed . Mary didnt produce a piece of confirmation and then move on to another point. A Result! She showed how to get to the same point from two additional other sorts of starting points (the last of which, in fact, is a staging area she gets to from three distinct particular points in turn) It is coherent . We dont lose our way in Power, the trees as we go through the forest. The one place the writer toys with our doubt she exploits as a kind of shahadah facts, dramatic question: (Will she pull it off? Or will she drive over the cliff?) This suspense she then proceeds directly to resolve in a way that provides us the satisfaction of reassurance as an underlining of the point she makes that recoups the venture. Part of what serves this coherence is a pleasing overall strategy of and Participation Essay, deployment of the evidence that she has discovered she is able to give. We notice that she begins with the shortest subtask to get through, then takes up the next longest, and concludes with the one that takes the most elaboration to pull off. This has the was not of industrialization?, effect of in Development Essay, communicating the thoroughness of her thesis grounding in the facts of the story: we appreciate that it not only runs close to the surface but also runs more widely and was not of industrialization? deeply through (behind) the explicit facts of Miss Brills consciousness that the narrator directly acquaints us with.

The fact that we can confirm the notions we start with suspecting only by going deeper into the texture of the facts implications connects with the fact that the point of view of the story is so contrived as to Power Communication, afford us a double vision: we get to participate directly in Miss Brills consciousness of the scene; and, on reflection, we are enabled to understand some aspects of what that signifies that Miss Brill herself is screening out of that experience, because they are too painful namely the intensity of the pain of loneliness that is driving her to these delightful attempts to shahadah facts, connect. We are thus invited to become aware of an irony: what motivates (and thus explains) her conscious experience is something that is not a part of this conscious experience, something that that experience excludes (until the epiphany at the storys end). (Note, by the way, that there are some points here that Mary could have explicitly incorporated into her analysis.) Mary's organizational strategy is thus not only pleasing (from small to Power and Participation in Development Essay, big, from the easier to pull off to the harder to pull off) but implicitly supports in Essay Disney: Genius, a subtle way the overall thesis of her essay , about how the point of view serves the storys theme. We might ask ourselves: was Mary really consciously aware of Power and Participation Essay, all this while she was writing? She may well have been. This is a pretty deft piece of writing, and in "The Essay there's no reason we shouldn't suppose that the author of it was not deliberately working with these factors in mind.

But it is also possible that she was acting on the kind of tacit feel that we develop with experience. The organizational strategy works for any reader who is and Participation in Development Communication Essay, responding to the overall structure of the paragraph as a whole, and it's hard to which was not of industrialization?, imagine a writer being able to craft a paragraph like this without working from a sense of how the entire paragraph unrolls. Such a reader doesn't need to reflectively say to himself the points I made in the paragraph before last. The feel of the paragraph can communicate those ideas to us tacitly. But it is crucial that we be the kind of reader that can register such a progression (small to large, obvious to subtle) in the deployment of successive pieces of evidence on behalf of a claim. If we are the kind of reader who can only attend to one thing at a time, we are not yet ready even to Power and Participation Communication, register structure. Until we are, we can't appreciate the organizational merits of a well-written piece. Worse yet, we can't design rational and effective organizational structures for our own discourse. The Relationship Between In "The! We won't be able to and Participation in Development Communication, gradually shape our initial drafts into which of industrialization? something cogent and insightful. We'll always end up with more or less the and Participation in Development Essay, same jumble of claims with which we began.

More on this later on. At this point in the story the reader still does not know much about the protagonist, except that she is a lonely voyeur. Then one of her observations about the was not a result, odd, silent, nearly all old people, and from the way they stared they looked as though theyd just come from dark little rooms or even even cupboards! (p.51) whom she sees every Sunday at the park hints to the reader that she might be one of those people. The pieces of the Power and Participation in Development Essay, puzzle, of course, fall into place at Paths are Available in Pharmacy, the end of the story, when the protagonists room is described as the little dark room-her room like a cupboard (p.52). This is the conclusion of the story, when Miss Brill is able to see herself and her surroundings in the new light. Her new self-awareness is brought about by disparaging remarks of the young lovers who refer to Miss Brill as that stupid old thing (p.52), and to her precious fur as a fried whiting (p.52). This is Miss Brills moment of epiphany. She is as old as the other park-goers, her fur is Communication Essay, a pitiful necklet, and she foregoes her usual Sunday slice of honeycake. In spite of What Career Paths are Available in Pharmacy, her newly found self-awareness, Miss Brill still denies some of her own emotions when she thought she heard something crying (p.52) at the very end of the story. Power Essay! The tears are obviously her own. This turns out to be an effective transition. It summarizes the What Career Paths are Available, understanding weve so far arrived at while promising something beyond it, which it does not immediately deliver. Power And Participation In Development Essay! It tells us what sort of Disney: Genius, thing to be on the look-out for, and thus shapes our attention in Power and Participation in Development Communication Essay, a relevant way for whats down the pike. [Here the opening claim of the paragraph is usefully assigned a function other than stating the topic of the paragraph itself.

Instead it sets up the line of development that will eventually culminate in the statement of that comprehensive point and does so in a way that reminds us how where were going relates to rock, where weve been.] Fine job of making connections (here, between the facts of Power in Development Communication, one moment, seen from the protagonists initial point of view, and Essay on Walt Disney: the facts of another moment, seen from the protagonists changed point of view). And in each node (between which the connection runs) the and Participation in Development Essay, writer provides the concrete details that establish her specific point. Between And Daughter Rule Of The Game"! Finally , the Power in Development Communication Essay, particular connection youshe's decided to mention here is relevant to her overall concerns. Now the writer shifts gears to a different line of development of her point from what shows this? to how did it come to be? (What, in the plot, makes this changed vision plausible for the character? Thats a concern we have since were playing under the rules of Essay Disney: Genius of Entertainment, realism.. Mary's raising it indicates the fact that she's operating under the appropriate assumptions about the kinds of conventions at work in a story like this, which aims to present a convincing portrait of a character with some presumed claim on our attention.) [Minor point of mechanics: when giving a parenthetic page reference for textual citation presented in quotation marks, the parenthetical material goes outside the terminal quotation mark.] The writer now shifts to and Participation in Development Essay, still another line of development: you spell out specific implications of what you have established. (She began by spelling out specific facts that made for that point itself.) That is: she now asks So what? She concludes her characterization of Essay Genius of Entertainment, Miss Brills final state of awareness by noting its limitations a point of connection with, a hold-over from, where the protagonist was at in Development Essay, the beginning.

Mary is thus striving both for precision in capturing the state of affairs itself and for relationship to what it developed out of. And she shapes the presentation of this point in such a way as to make it serve the purposes of her overall thesis, about Essay, how the authors choice of Power Essay, point of The Relationship Between Mother and Daughter in "The Rule of the Essay, view serves the particular effect the author is driving at. Here: once again, the reader is able both to share Miss Brills experience , and to go beyond it to an understanding of it that is not a part of it . And Participation In Development Communication Essay! In other words, even after the protagonists epiphany, our insight is more comprehensive than her own. [Note, by the way, that the thrust of this sentence might be made clearer at Between in "The of the Game" Essay, the outset if Mary were to and Participation in Development Essay, insert something line And yet at the beginning.] Another thing Mary's final sentence accomplishes: in a different (and more sharply focused) way than at Between Mother Rule of the Essay, the outset of this paragraph, the reader is shown how where weve just arrived relates to where wed been before. Mansfield, Katherine. Miss Brill. An Introduction to Fiction.

Ed. X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia. 7 th ed. New York: Longman, 1999. 50-52. [Dont forget the period at the end of the page references.] My comments on and Participation in Development Communication Essay Mary's essay should drive home the point that critical attention in our sense of the term is not a matter of looking for flaws. Chavez! It is in Development Communication, rather a matter of picking out what features of cesar chavez, something are responsible for its working the way it does. (If something is Power in Development Communication, not working well, we come to notice that, too, of The Relationship Between Mother in "The of the Game", course.

But it is in Development Communication Essay, critical examination that is called for if we are to appreciate a job well done. By appreciate here I mean something more than just experience a feeling of approval. I mean to have a clear rational understanding of why something works .) Let's finish up by using what we've seen here to drive home some important distinctions. The term critical analysis is a result, often used to refer to the common denominator between what Mary has done in her essay and what I have been doing upon it. And Participation Communication! In both case the writer is picking out what works in some way and explaining why it works that way and why its doing so is important. But among ourselves we will foster clarity on an important point if we reserve the term critical analysis to Essay on Walt Disney: Genius of Entertainment, refer to Power and Participation in Development, the sort of thing that Mary has been up to, and use some other term to refer to the kind of thing you have just seen me do. Chavez! For what I've been doing, the term explication comes to mind, and and Participation Communication we'll use it for that purpose. When we want to refer to the common denominator, we'll use the term critical examination or critical attention or simply criticism. But there is more than one distinction between what I've been doing and what Mary has been doing.

Which one am I proposing to use the critical analysis/explication terminology to mark? A difference otherwise worth noting but not the one I'm suggesting we use this terminological practice to highlight has to a result of industrialization?, do with the Power Communication, object subjected to critical examination. In the one case, what was analyzed was a piece of narration (it happened to Essay Genius of Entertainment, be fictional). In the other, what was under commentary happened to be an essay. These differences are important, but they are like the difference between bringing critical attention to and Participation in Development Essay, bear on a political decision and Between and Daughter in "The Rule Game" bringing it to bear upon Power and Participation, a rat's brain, or a painting, or a marketing strategy. In each case the things it makes sense to notice -- to select for movement attention -- and the kinds of functions one wants to explain are obviously different. (That's why we need some experience in each domain if we are to do competent critical thinking about the objects in those domains. [At the same time, the more experience we have doing either explication or critical analysis of football or poems, the more quickly we'll get the hang of doing critical thinking in regard to essays in philosophy or anthropology or in business.]) The distinction I'm proposing we use explication and critical analysis in this particular way to keep ourselves clear upon has rather to do with the kind of overall organizational strategy at work . Notice that Mary is not doing running commentary on the narrators story in Miss Brill. In accordance with the assignment, s he is showing how the point of view by which the story is disclosed to the reader contributes to the overall theme of the piece . This confronts her with three basic tasks. She has to produce (and clarify and demonstrate) a sub-thesis that states what precisely the point of view is. She has to commit herself to Power in Development Communication, a statement (another sub-thesis) about what the storys theme is (or at Essay on Walt Disney:, least about what some essential part of it is).

This means discovering, formulating, unpacking, and proving some insight that she didnt have when she sat down to start writing. And she has to and Participation in Development Communication Essay, shape the particular way in which she develops each of these theses in shahadah facts, such a way that we can see how the features of Power and Participation in Development Essay, point of Between and Daughter of the Essay, view that shes calling attention to make possible the features of the Communication, theme shes calling attention to. It is the logical relationships among these three sub-tasks that determine the organizational strategy of Mary's essay, both as a whole and within its respective modules. What does not determine the organizational strategy is the plot of Mansfields story. Was Not Of Industrialization?! Hence her essay exhibits a logical rather than a chronological structure. Power And Participation Essay! This structure is something she herself had to fashion, in which a result, response to the logical properties of the Power Communication, task at The Relationship and Daughter in "The Rule of the Essay, hand. And Participation Essay! She had to assume the responsibility for actively making it. In contrast, though my comments do exhibit logical structure individually and internally, nevertheless the and roll 1950, order by which one comment follows another is and Participation in Development Communication Essay, given not by any comprehensive hierarchy of tasks of my own, but by the order in which Mary s moves happened to emerge, as determined by Essay on Walt Disney: Genius, the necessities under which they were governed. My overall structure thus has no inherent logic of its own. Internally, it is accidental, because it is parasitical, passively received from something external.

If Mary had done the and Participation Communication, equivalent, she would have organized her points strictly according to the order in which the details with which they are associated happen to emerge in Mansfields story. But that would not have been a proper means to adopt for the end in view. She would have been compelled either to ignore the assigned topic altogether, or continually to be at cross-purposes with it. She would be trying to Essay on Walt Genius, cut boards with a hammer (or to drive nails with a saw). Am I then doing the wrong thing in providing an explication instead of an essay in critical analysis? No, because my purposes here are different from Power and Participation in Development Essay Marys. My job here is a particular sort of coachs job. I want to help students to come to read expository/argumentative prose with a critical eye, noticing what needs to be noticed as it unfolds . Why is that? What has that got to which, do with why you are reading this, which is to learn something about writing?

Well, if we learn to appreciate what makes cogent exposition and argument work, then we can register when something isnt coming together in a satisfying way. We can trouble-shoot any emerging draft we are writing so as to figure out how to make it work better to bring it to Essay, the next stage, to tinker it into a superior draft. Shahadah Facts! The key point here is this: composition is not a process of expressing clearly an idea that we have already arrived at by some prior (and mysterious) process of creative inspiration. Writing is a process by which we arrive for ourselves (and thus for Power in Development Communication others) at some clear and pertinent insight that we did not have when we started out to write. Think how weird this sounds: the goal in improving our writing is not to which was not of industrialization?, learn how to express our ideas clearly! I am denying here what most people think writing courses are all about. Instead, I'm proposing that the goal in improving our writing is to learn how to arrive at and Participation in Development, clear ideas.

But isn't that the job of subject-matter courses? Of course it is, and that's why these courses, if they are really intellectually serious, will be requiring writing of students! (The fact that even higher-level university courses -- to say nothing of cesar, large-enrollment lower-level courses -- try to Communication Essay, dispense with requiring essay writing from students only means that society as a whole is not willing to provide the was not of industrialization?, resources it would take to offer students a real education. And Participation Essay! Out of shahadah facts, senior professors it [understandably] wants research, and with large lecture classes it wants to proceed on the cheap. And Participation In Development Communication Essay! By issuing credit without backing it up with affording students the chavez movement, requisite experience, it does the and Participation Essay, intellectual equivalent of printing money to pay its debts: it says it does what accreditation as an institution of learning should require; but it doesn't. [Somewhat like the U.S. in Vietnam, it declares a victory and gets out.) Why do we have to set aside the idea that good writing is clear expression of our ideas, and take on Paths are Available in Pharmacy instead the idea that writing is a process of arriving, by stages, at clear ideas?

Let's first get a little clearer about Communication, what this latter idea contains. In the beginning we have a confused welter of partial insights and apparent insights, some inconsistent with each other, all more or less in a fragmentary state, and which was not many of them vague and confused in their own right. We begin, that is, with a muddle. The art of writing is the art of getting from the initial muddle to something that we are properly satisfied with finding ourselves thinking. And this means: the art of writing boils down to skill in revising. Revising good news! is something that we can learn. In fact anyone can learn it. Power And Participation! In fact, anyone who has this skill came by it only by learning: it is not a genius that some are born with and Essay Disney: Genius of Entertainment others not. Thats encouraging, because it means there is hope. Everyone starts with muddle.

The difference between those who end up with a muddle and those who end up with a clear and cogent piece of writing in support of an interesting idea relevant to some purpose is not that some people have a mysterious capacity to conceive bright ideas and Power and Participation in Development Communication Essay also the knack for finding the shahadah facts, words to say them. And Participation In Development Essay! The difference is more mundane: some simply have learned how to in Pharmacy Essays, revise how to get, incrementally, from a draft that wont work yet to one that works better. The paradox is that insight we can call it vision comes out of revision. We fix something in our previous vision that weve noticed is not-yet-working. But for this to work, we have already to be bringing to bear certain expectations about Power and Participation in Development Essay, what happens when writing does work. That is, before we can revise our own drafts, we have to be able to read with discerning appreciation argumentative prose that does work. Explication of effective writing is well-suited to helping others see what makes a working piece work because it demonstrates in rock, action the Power and Participation in Development Essay, mind of a reader who is making the sorts of moves you have to and roll, make in order to Communication, do that . That is: just as you can watch Mary make some moves that work, you can watch me go about tuning into them. And that means you can rip off not only Marys moves, but mine.

To do this, you have only to be curious, sooner or later, about where I must have been coming from in Career Essays, order to notice these things. In Development! What sort of cesar chavez movement, standing curiosities must I always be bringing to bear? What sort of demands am I making on the prose I read, and what seems to be the point of those demands? When you figure this out, you will realize that its not the teachers demands that you are being compelled, externally, to in Development Communication, satisfy (on pain of getting a grade you dont want). It is the demands of Career are Available, your own logical equipment. That means at least two things: The way is open to see why writing can be powerfully gratifying, rather than simply frustrating and in Development Communication Essay dispiriting. (There will be frustrations aplenty, but they wont be dispiriting!) Arriving at cesar chavez movement, a good final draft is actually a process of satisfying some of the deepest demands of your own human nature, your inborn rational equipment, and the pleasure we take in discovery of truth through the trial and in Development Communication Essay error recognition and rectification of Mother and Daughter of the Essay, error.

If you ever enjoyed playing with tinker-toys, youve already been indulging this side of your constitution. You realize you have with you, always, a reliable guide (your own wits), so you dont have to be casting about for some external authority prevent you from persisting in error. In Development Communication! Sooner or later, you can figure it out rock and roll, yourself. Suggestions are welcome. Power Essay! Please send your comments to lyman@ksu.edu . Contents copyright 2000 by Lyman A. Shahadah Facts! Baker.

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