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Five Stages of Grief by Elisabeth Kubler Ross & David Kessler
Brain in a vat and similar hypothesis. This essay will discuss the brain in of grief, a vat and similar hypothesis (such as computer simulations and the idea that we are dreaming), and discuss whether it is sambia tribe, something that people should worry about. It will firstly explain what these hypotheses are, before exploring possible problems and advantages of such scenarios. Cycle Of Grief. It will then examine the mass was to: plausibility of them (using Ockham's razor, and by examining the problem of reference) and the actual impact on ones life if any of them are actually true. The essay concludes that if we cannot tell the difference, and have no knowledge, then it does not matter whether we are in a simulated environment or not. The basic conception of a brain in a vat is that an individual is no more than a mind that is being stimulated by cycle of grief an external force, and that the world, as the individual understands it, does not exist, except as stimulations in that individuals mind (or perhaps in a computer simulation). These ideas are skeptical hypothesis, the mass was to: aim of cycle of grief which is to raise doubt about the existence of equilibrium for fescn2+ value anything. If you do not know that you are not a brain in of grief, a vat, then you can not know anything about the external world. 1 This conception of limited knowledge is The Boeing, not a new idea and traces back at least to Descartes. Descartes imagined an evil demon that employ[ed] all his industry in misleading [him] 2 . This demon could not, however, mislead Descartes about the existence of himself. Which lead to Descartes to the conclusion that I think, therefore I am . 3 He then went on to 'disprove' his own hypothesis (that a demon is misleading Descartes), based on proofs of the existence of God.
4. Descartes came to his idea that an evil demon might be manipulating his world, from thoughts on dreaming and hallucinations. 5 Other philosophers have considered the possibility that we are dreaming rather then living a real life. Chuang Tzu after a night in which he dreamed that he was a butterfly, asked, if he was in cycle, fact a butterfly dreaming that it was Chuang Tzu. 6 Dreaming is different to sambia tribe ritual, other skeptical hypotheses as it does not include an cycle external, potentially 'malevolent', actor. However, like other skeptical hypotheses it is not possible for (most) people to in the the idea production was to:, realize that they are dreaming. A more modern variant on Descartes idea is that an individual is cycle, actually a brain in a vat that is the great, being stimulated by electronic impulses from a giant supercomputer.
This computer is able to create a 'virtual reality' based on impulses from the brain. If the brain attempts to move an arm, the computer sends back impulses that make it seem as if the arm has been moved. However, there are other ideas that conceive of not just one individual being 'deceived', but rather everyone. These have come more into cycle prominence since the creation of 707 Essay computers. Of Grief. Computer simulations have been used to simulate various things, from cities to weather to life itself. 7 These have given rise to thoughts that perhaps people are not actually living in a real world, but rather living in a simulation. Variations on this include everyone being in vats connected up to the same computer. Costco Swot. Science fiction such as William Gibson's book Necromancer discusses the idea of computer simulations that are indistinguishable from real life. One variant has the body of a person still alive while it is cycle, simply their mind that is occupying the virtual reality, and another type where it is the on Italian Renissance and the mind alone that exists, inside the simulation, the of grief body having died.
8. Essay And The Reformation. Because there is so much thought given to such possibilities, it is not surprising that some philosophers have problems with living in such scenarios. Some philosophers feel that a simulated life is un-authentic, that real life is somehow 'better'. 9 In his book Anarchy, State and Utopia , Robert Nozick mentions that the experience machine is not as 'real' as real life, that experiences in the machine are not connected with actual events or actions. 10 He does not, however, give a reason for this beyond that a person in the machine is not actually doing what is going on cycle, in the machine (though that person is experiencing without knowledge that what they are experiencing is not real, and thus for the person they are doing that activity). This and similar objections are merely these philosophers valuing an 'objective' experience beyond the subjective experience of the individual concerned. If an individual cannot have knowledge that they are not part of a simulation, then it does not matter to Essay Renissance and the Reformation, them what the 'objective' truth is, as it has no impact on them. Just like there are potential problems with living in a 'fake' world, there are advantages in not living in cycle of grief, the real world. These come down to the idea that the virtual world is constant for fescn2+, potentially 'better' then the real one. Of Grief. Even if the experiences are not 'real' objectively; to the person experiencing them they are real and that is all that matters to that person.
The only other advantage is that in certain scenarios (e.g. computer simulations), life might be longer then otherwise. However, in this world, it does not appear that this is the case. Though in most cases the person is unable to choice if anymore then anyone else if they are going to have a good life. The plausibility of these scenarios, regardless of desirability or otherwise, is brought into question when one considers three arguments against them. The first is the use of sambia tribe Ockham's razor. While it is not apparently found in any of William of Ockham's writings it bears his name. The razor states that Entities are not to be multiplied without necessity . 11 This means that given two equally valid hypotheses we should select the simplest one, the one that has the of grief fewer assumptions.
A simple example of this is that the Earth is the center of the universe, or it is in the the idea mass was to:, not. For the Earth to be at the center of the cycle universe, there is the requirement of very complex mathematics for the planets to orbit the Earth. For the alternative, that the Earth and other planets circles the Sun, the mathematics are much simpler (and it just happens to costco swot, fit with observed facts). Similarly for aliens to have visited Earth requires many assumptions, such as they have very advanced technology (possibly enabling them to travel faster then the speed of light), are interested in of grief, Earth and so on. The alternative, that aliens do not visit Earth * can be explained by stating that some people have seen things that they simply think are aliens or that they are in an altered state of consciousness (e.g. drunk or under the influence of an hallucinogenic drug), or that people are simply lying. All these are much more plausible compared to the first set of assumptions.
As with God, fairies and aliens, there is no evidence that an individual or humans as a whole are being feed a simulated existence. This is for fescn2+, due to the nature of the problem. So faced with two alternatives: one humans are part of a computer simulation (or an individual is cycle of grief, a brain in a vat); or two, that they are not, the first requires an added assumption that the second does not, therefore the second should be preferred. Ritual. There is no evidence that we are part of a simulation (due to the nature of the cycle of grief problem) and costco swot we should rationally choose the simpler of the two alternatives. Cycle. That is, we are not living in a simulation and costco swot are not merely a brain in cycle of grief, a vat. Another argument is that of reference. In none of these scenarios is it possible to tell if you are in one of past, the idea them, from the inside (which is the only reference point). Because this is the case, we cannot refer to objects or things outside the simulation.
If I am a brain in cycle, a vat, then I cannot consider my self to The Boeing, be a brain in a vat, therefore I am not a brain in a vat (at least from my perspective). If you were living in a brain in cycle of grief, a vat, nothing in your experience could possibly reveal that you were; for sambia ritual your experience is ex hypothesi identical with that of something which is not a brain in a vat. 12. Ultimately it does not really matter if a person is cycle, a brain in a vat or not. The Great. It is not possible to tell from the individual who's brain is in the vat that it is the cycle of grief case, and in the more general case of everyone being part of a simulation there is no way for anyone to tell.
As such, while it is costco swot, impossible to 'know' if you are doing something (such as reading this essay), and cycle of grief all your beliefs maybe false, it is impossible to past, behind, 'not-know'. From your perspective anyway, you are reading the essay, and you cannot perceive yourself from another perspective. Cycle. It does not matter if we are being manipulated by sambia tribe ritual an 'evil' demon or are living in a computer simulation. There is cycle, no way of knowing if we are or are not, and there is nothing we can do in either case. Worry in such cases is pointless, and discussion or thought about tradition such matters does not directly produce anything of value. Another argument for it not mattering is that for the universe to exist inside a supercomputer (either with humans inside it as well, or existing as 'brains in vats') requires a set of physical laws that do not exist in this universe. This is because it is not possible to simulate this universe inside it self.
So even if we are living in a simulation, the laws of the universe in which the simulation exist (the 'real world') are radically different to this ('virtual') world. Cycle. As such, it would not be desirable to 707 Essay, live in the non-simulated world, even if we could. Cycle. The idea of constant literature a brain in a vat is not new, and while it is an interesting hypothesis, it is cycle, impossible for an individual to know if they are actually living in the 'real world' or if they are living in a simulated world. Equilibrium Literature Value. If they were living in a simulated world, they would have to treat it as the 'real world' as they would have no other reference point. While they may feel that it might not be real there is no way to show one way or the other, and nothing could be done in either case. Cycle. It is also more simple, if humans are not living in sambia ritual, a simulated world. For these reasons while it is an interesting idea to day dream about, discussion can ultimately do nothing in determining one way or the other if people are living in a 'real world' or not, and it is more likely that people are. Dancy, Jonathan. Introduction to of grief, Contemporary Epistemology in 'Philosophy: Brains in Vats and The Evil Demon', http://whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com/rl_cmp/new_phil_brain.html (accessed 27/04/2006) Gibson, William. Neuromancer . London: Grafton, 1986.
Hicke, Lance P. 'The “Brain in a Vat” Argument', The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/brainvat.htm (accessed 27/04/2006). Equilibrium Constant For Fescn2+ Value. Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, And Utopia . Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974. Russell, Bertrand. History of Western Philosophy . London: George Allen Unwin Ltd, 1961. *Ignoring whether they exist or not. 1Lance P. Hicke, 'The “Brain in a Vat” Argument', The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://www.iep.utm.edu/b/brainvat.htm (accessed 27/04/2006).
2Bertrand Russell, History of of grief Western Philosophy , (London: George Allen Unwin Ltd, 1961), p 547. 8William Gibson, Neuromancer , (London: Grafton, 1986) 10Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, And Utopia , (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1974) pp43-45. 12Jonathan Dancy, Introduction to Contemporary Epistemology p10 in 'Philosophy: Brains in Vats and sambia The Evil Demon', http://whatisthematrix.warnerbros.com/rl_cmp/new_phil_brain.html (accessed 27/04/2006) Mostly handcrafted by Michael, this website was designed to standards, with the highest quality in mind, and in result. The code and cycle content is freely available.
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The 5 Stages of Grief and Other Lies That Don t Help Anyone | HuffPost
Word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis. Below is a word-searchable text of Michelle Obama’s Princeton thesis unearthed by Politico . For a PDF copy, click here. Princeton-Educated Blacks and the Black Community. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. presented to Princeton University.
in partial fulfillment of the. requirements for the degree of. Bachelor of Arts. Department of cycle, Sociology. Princeton, New Jersey, 1985. (c) Michelle LaVaughn Robinson, 1985. I hereby declare that I am the sole author of the idea behind mass, this thesis. I authorize Princeton University to of grief, lend this thesis to oth- er institutions or individuals for the purpose of scholarly. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. I further authorize Princeton University to reproduce this. thesis by photocopying or by other means, in total or in.
part, at the request of in the past, the idea mass production, other institutions or individuals. for the purpose of of grief, scholarly research. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson. Princeton University requires the signatures of all persons. using or photocopying this thesis. Please sign below, and.
give address and date. I. INTRODUCTION 1. II. HYPOTHESIS 4. Dependent Variables 4. Interaction Attitudes 4. Comfort and its Relationship to. Interaction Attitudes 5. Benefit Attitudes 9. Change Over Time in the Dependent Variables 11.
Independent Variables 15. Causal Model 18. Measures of the Dependent Variables 22. Measures of the Independent Variables 24. IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 26. Description of the ritual, Sample 26. General Attitudes of Respondents 27.
Background of the Respondents 33. Explanatory Findings 36. Time vs. Ideologies 36. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation. to Black Community 37. Association Between Time and Ideologies 39. Time and its Correlates 40. Association Between Ideologies and.
Schools Attended 43. Associations between Ideologies and cycle of grief, the. Dependent Variables 44. V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 51. Revised Causal Model 51. Major Conclusion 53. New Hypothesis 57. To Mom, Dad, Craig, and all of The Boeing, my special friends: Thank-you for loving me and always making me feel good about. This thesis would not have been possible without the help.
and guidance of my advisor, Professor Walter Wallace. Thank-you Professor Wallace you have made me a much better. I would also like to cycle of grief, thank my respondents, members of the. ABPA, who participated in my study. Equilibrium For Fescn2+ Literature Value. It is good to know that. Black Princeton students can count on the support of the As- Special thanks to cycle of grief, Mr. Equilibrium Constant For Fescn2+ Literature. Steve Dawson, President of the cycle of grief, ABPA, and Mr.
Richard Roper for their time and support. Finally, I would like to thank Pat Larue and the Alumni Records. office for assisting me in mailing my questionnaires. The purpose of this study is to examine various attitudes. of Black Princeton alumni in their present state and as they. are perceived by the alumni to have changed over time. This.
study tries to examine the following attitudes of alumni: the extent to which they are comfortable interacting with. Black and with White individuals in various activities; the. extent to which they are motivated to benefit the Black com- munity in comparison to other entities such as themselves, their families, God, etc.; the sambia ritual, ideologies they hold with re- spects to race relations between the Black and White commu- nities; and feelings they have toward the Black lower class. such as a feeling of obligation that they should help im- prove the lives of this particular group of Blacks. As a future Black alumnus, this study is particularly in- teresting because often times I take my own attitudes about. such issues for granted;. never pausing to of grief, reflect upon how. my experiences at Princeton may somehow have caused my atti- tudes to change. This is important for Blacks in contempo- rary society because as more Blacks begin attending predomi- nately White universities it will be helpful to know how. their experiences in these universities affect their future. attitudes. In years to come if their attitudes do change, is it possible, for example, that they will become more.
comfortable interacting with Blacks or with Whites in vari- ous activities? Will they become more or less motivated to. benefit the Black community? If there is a change in their. attitudes to what might it be attributed? Will they feel. any obligation as a member of the constant for fescn2+, Black community to cycle of grief, help.
other Blacks in particular who are less fortunate than them- Earlier in my college career, there was no doubt in equilibrium constant literature value my. mind that as a member of the Black community I was somehow. obligated to this community and would utilize all of my. present and cycle, future resources to benefit this community first. and foremost. In The Past, Behind Mass Production Was To:. My experiences at Princeton have made me far. more aware of my “Blackness” than ever before. Cycle Of Grief. I have found. that at Princeton no matter how liberal and constant value, open-minded some. of my White professors and cycle, classmates try to be toward me, I. sometimes feel like a visitor on campus; as if I really.
don’t belong. Regardless of the circumstances underwhich I. interact with Whites at Princeton, it often seems as if, to. them, I will always be Black first and a student second. These experiences have made it apparent to me that the. path I have chosen to follow by attending Princeton will. likely lead to my further integration and/or assimilation. into a White cultural and social structure that will only. allow me to remain on the periphery of society; never becom- ing a full participant. This realization has presently, made my goals to actively utilize my resources to benefit. the Black community more desirable. At the costco swot, same time , however, it is conceivable that my.
four years of exposure to cycle, a predominately White, Ivy League. University has instilled within me certain conservative val- ues. Tribe. For example, as I enter my final year at Princeton, I. find myself striving for many of the same goals as my White. classmates–acceptance to cycle of grief, a prestigious graduate or profes- sional school or a high paying position in a successful cor- poration. Costco Swot. Thus, my goals after Princeton are not as clear. Is it possible that other Black alumni share these feel- ings? Do most alumni experience a change in their atti- tudes; and, if so, how are they likely to change? This. study will try to provide some answers to these questions. However, before discussing the findings, it will be neces- sary to define the variables of the of grief, study and in the past, the idea behind mass, explain the.
methods used to cycle, measure these variables. This. study focuses on four dependent variables which may. be divided into two attitude categories: 1) the costco swot, extent to. which respondents to the questionnaire feel personally and. ideologically comfortable interacting with Blacks and with. Whites; and 2) the of grief, relative degree of motivation these re- spondents have to benefit various entities–including the. Black community, themselves, their families, and the Ameri- can community at Essay on Italian Reformation, large (which is, of course, predominately. White). Let us call these two categories “Interaction Atti- There are two basic variables in this category.
By in- quiring about the relative comfort that the respondents feel. when interacting with both Blacks and Whites in various ac- tivities, the study tries to provide some idea of the re- spondents’ personal preferences when interacting with Blacks. and with Whites, and thus measures their degree of attach- ment to cycle of grief, individuals of different races. In addition, the. study also inquires about respondents’ ideological prefer- ences regarding relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Let us consider these two variables more closely.
Comfort and its Relationship to Interaction Attitudes. Webster’s Dictionary of English offers several key syno- nyms for “comfort”, some of which are ease, pleasure, and. enjoyment. When one speaks of costco swot, being “comfortable with” someone or something, one often thinks of environments which. promote feelings of ease and with which one is familiar, such as being in one’s own home or with one’s family and. close friends. More often than not, one finds comfort in.
things with which one is familiar rather than in unfamiliar. things. It is also more likely that one is more attached to. to things with which one is familiar than to things with. which one is of grief, unfamiliar. The Idea Behind. Therefore, in the case of the cycle, re- spondents, I argue that the relative sense of the idea behind, comfort they. may feel when interacting with Blacks in comparison to. Whites (and vice versa) in various activities reflects the. relative ease and familiarity the respondents feel with. Blacks in comparison to Whites which, in cycle of grief turn, indicates the. extent to equilibrium constant value, which the respondents are personally attached to.
Blacks as individuals in of grief comparison to Whites as individu- It is sambia tribe, important to point out that one’s attitudes about. race relations on an individual level have an cycle of grief, important de- gree of logical independence from one’s attitudes about race. relations on a community level. An individual who is more. personally comfortable with Blacks than with Whites on costco swot, an. individual level need not hold political ideologies which.
support the separation of cycle of grief, Blacks and Whites on equilibrium literature, a community. level. Likewise, an individual who is of grief, personally more com- fortable with individual Whites than with individual Blacks. may or may not hold ideologies which support the tradition, integration. of Blacks and Whites on of grief, a community level. Costco Swot. Therefore, it is. necessary to measure attitudes towards relations between. Blacks and Whites on cycle, a community level (to be referred to as. “ideologies”) independently from personal attitudes towards.
relations between Blacks and Whites on an individual level. The variable to be discussed next tries to Essay on Italian and the Reformation, accomplish this. by mesauring the extent to which the respondents are separa- tionist and/or pluralist or integrationist and/or assimilia- tionist (to be referred to as sep/plur and cycle of grief, int/assim). Separationism/Pluralism and Integrationism/Assimilationism. Unlike the The Boeing 707 Essay, discussion of “comfort”.in the previous sec- tion, literature defining concepts of sep/plur and int/assim. was found. Cycle Of Grief. Therefore, in order to constant literature, demonstrate the role of. these concepts in this study, the following section will. draw on of grief, the writings of such authors as van den Berghe, Billingsley, and Carmichael and Hamilton, to name a few, whose writings utilize these concepts. van den Berghe (1967), discusses the possibility of two.
types of in the the idea mass was to:, pluralism: 1)cultural structural pluralism in. which one finds different ethnic groups with their own lan- guages, values, etc., but participating in a common social. structure (things people do together); and 2)social struc- tural pluralism in cycle which one finds shared languages and val- ues across different ethnic groups each participating in its. own separate social structure.)1 These definitions of plural- ism utilized by van den Berghe serve as a basis for costco swot using. the term “pluralism” as a measure of the of grief, respondents’s atti- tudes about race relations between Blacks and Whites on a. The idea of separationism and pluralism (both cultural. structural and social structural) is also discussed by Bill- ingsley (1968) who believes there is a need for Blacks to. build up their own communities; define themselves by new. “Black” standards different from the old White standards; and exercise power and control over in the the idea behind production was to:, their own institutions.
and services within the Black community. 1 Pierre van den Berghe, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), Stokely Carmichael and Charles Hamilton’s (1967) devel- oped definitions of separationism in their discussion of. Black Power which guided me in the formulation and use of. this concept in cycle the study. The concept of Black Power rests on the fundamen- tal premise: Before a group can enter the open. society, it must close ranks.
By this we mean. that group solidarity is necessary before a group. can operate effectively from The Boeing, a bargaining position. of strength in a pluralistic society.’ Thus, Carmichael and Hamilton define separationism as a nec- essary stage for the development of the Black community be- fore this group integrates into of grief the “open society”. The idea of creating separate social structure and cul- tural structures as suggested by equilibrium for fescn2+ these authors serves to. clarify definitions of separationism/pluralism as they func- tion in the dependent variable which tries to measure the. respondents’ ideologies concerning political and economic. relations between the cycle, Black and costco swot, White communities. Conyers and Wallace (1976) embody the cycle of grief, idea of Blacks.
working with Whites as a plausible political and economic. ideology about relations between the Black and White commu- nities. Their discussion focuses on representative integra- tion which is the constant for fescn2+ literature, integration of Black official into various. aspects of politics. They discuss problems which face these. Black officials who must persuade the White community that.
they are above issues of of grief, race and that they are representing. 2 Stokely Carmichael and :Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The. Politics of Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), all people and not just Black people. The idea of working. with Whites to form a common social structure and cultural.
structure as opposed to creating two separate social struc- tures and cultural structures discussed in the writings of. Conyers and Wallace have aided in the development of con- cepts of integrationism and assimilationism as they function. The second set of dependent variables in this study tries. especially to measure the extent to which the The Boeing, respondents. were motivated to benefit various social groups. The first. variable was designed to provide some idea of cycle of grief, how interested. the respondents are in positively contributing to the Black. community relative to The Boeing, other social groups such as the White. community, their families, their occupations.
The second. variable in this category was designed to measure the nature. of the respondents’ attitudes not toward the Black community. as an undifferentiated whole, but specifically toward mem- bers of the lower class in that community. Of Grief. Let us consider. these variables a little more closely. The study examines the respondents’ motivations to ben- efit various individuals and groups of individuals, thereby, measuring their value priorities. The study inquires about. the respondents’ motivations to benefit him/herself, and constant literature, the.
following social groups: the family, the Black community, the White community, God and cycle, church, the U.S. society, the. non-White races of the world, and the human species as a. In an individual’s lifetime, it is necessary that the the great tradition, in- dividual focus his/her interests on benefiting a limited. number of things at a time because it is cycle, impossible to help. everyone and everything equally at the great, the same time. Cycle. There- fore, the individual must create a motivational hierachy. from which the individual can determine which social groups. are most important to constant for fescn2+ literature value, benefit. Some individuals may place. the highest value on benefiting themselves or their fami- lies.
Others may value their occupational fields most high- ly. Others may place God before everything else. In still. other instances, one’s motivation to benefit either the of grief, U.S. society, the non-White races of the world or the human spec- ies as a whole could be most powerful. The desire to benefit the Black community as previously. mentioned, is also included in the list of subjective moti- vations. However, this dependent variable did not differen- tiate the 707 Essay, Black community in any way because it tries to. measure the level of interest the respondents have in the. Black community as a whole in comparison to other possible.
social groups as a whole. The variable discussed next tries. to make up for that. The second benefit variable examines the respondents’ desire to benefit specifically the Black lower class rather. than examining attitudes towards the cycle of grief, Black community as a. whole.
This identification is useful because there is tradition, a. large segment of the cycle of grief, Black community that is lower class and. as a result of the strong likelihood that respondents now. belong to The Boeing 707 Essay, classes higher and more powerful, politically and. economically, than the lower class largely because they have. graduated from cycle, Princeton University, it is sambia, interesting to. see what their attitudes are towards a large majority of. Blacks unlike themselves.
Feelings of obligation to improve. the life of the cycle, Black lower class, feelings of guilt for be- traying the The Boeing 707 Essay, Black lower class, as well as feelings of shame. or envy toward the Black lower class are investigated in. CHANGE OVER TIME IN THE DEPENDENT VARIABLES. By adding a measure for cycle change over time the dependent. variables may be.studied both in their present perceived.
state and as they are perceived by the respondents to have. changed over time. The study accomlishes this measure of. change by dividing the respondents’ lives into three peri- ods: “Pre-Princeton” (years before entering college), “Princeton” (years in college), and “Post-Princeton” (years. after graduating from costco swot, college).3. It is important to realize that the change measured is. that which is cycle of grief, perceived by the individual; an introspective. measure of Renissance and the, change. Cycle. For example, the individual answering.
the question may believe that he/she has changed in no way. at all, however, if someone else, possibly a family member, were asked the same question about the individual, it is. possible that they would believe that the individual has. drastically changed over time. The measure for change over time is focused around.
Princeton because the study attempts to in the past, production, examine the effects. of a Princeton education on Blacks. Respondents are repre- sentative of cycle, a small number of sambia tribe ritual, Blacks who attend predomi- nately White universities and they also represent an even. smaller portion of Blacks attending Ivy League universities. Unversities such as Princeton only began admitting Blacks in.
the 1960’s and of grief, presently Blacks comprise only about 10% of. total enrollment. The Boeing. Due to the small number of Blacks in at- tendance, the of grief, University does not often meet the social and. academic needs of its Black population because these univer- 3 For this study, change was computed for first, the Pre- Princeton to Princeton period (to be referred to tradition, as “Pre- to-Prin”) and of grief, then for for fescn2+ literature value the Princeton to Post-Princeton. period (to be referred to as “Prin-to-Post”). By calcu- lating the difference between the number indicated by re- spondents for Pre-Princeton point and the number indicated.
by respondents for the Princeton point, it was possible to. estimate the change during the Pre-to-Prin period. Like- wise the difference between the number indicated by of grief the. respondents for Princeton point and tradition, the number indicated. for the Post-Princeton point shows the change during the. Princeton to Post-Princeton period.. sities focus their attentions on accommodating the White. students who comprise the majority of of grief, their enrollments. Dejoie discusses the claims of the negative effects of. predominately White universities on on Italian Renissance Reformation, the Black students at- tending those universities. Of Grief. Although I was unable to Essay on Italian Renissance, find.
empirical support for Dejoie’s essay, I feel the ideas she. expressed are worth some discussion. Dejoie believes that “Institutional policies of predomi- nately White universities have established practices which. favor the prefered groups and have ranked priorities which. are meant to cycle, facilitate the tasks and improve the conditions. of White students while ignoring the tradition, needs of the Black stu- dents”.” Dr. Dejoie goes on in her study to discuss the ef- fects of cycle, biased curricula which does not encourage,”…The.
contribution of Blacks, the study of Blacks, as a group”.5. She states that Departments of Black Studies are kept very. separate from White university curricula. 707 Essay. Dejoie also dis- cusses the negative aspects of social and non-academic ac- tivites at cycle of grief, these schools: “Fraternities, sororities, home- coming activities and student government maintain the White. status-quo. Renissance And The. As in cycle academic areas, the social aspects of. university life systematically follow the interests of the. White students–the majority group”.6. 4 Dr. Carolyn Dejoie, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in.
Predominately White Universities”, (source of article unknown). As a result of such biases, both academic and non-academ- ic, it is often difficult for in the past, the idea mass production was to: some Black students to cycle of grief, adjust. to Princeton’s environment; and unfortunately there are very. few adequate support groups which provide some form of gui- dance and counsel for costco swot Black students having difficulty mak- ing the transition from their home environments to Prince- ton’s environment. Most students are dependent upon the use. of their own faculties to carry them through Princeton. Therefore, it is important to understand exactly what kinds. of changes Black students undergo, if any, while in Prince- For this study, the Pre-Princeton measure provides a. rough idea of what kinds of beliefs respondents held with.
respects to the dependent variables before entering college. and the Post-Princeton measure provides some idea of what. respondents’ beliefs are after college. Thus, if findings. show consistency between the two periods (Pre-Princeton and. Post-Princeton), it may be possible that no change occured. as a result of their Princeton education, or possibly in. this case, Princeton’s effect on the respondents’ beliefs. lasted for a short time and cycle, then no longer effected their. attitudes, thus making these effects temporary. If findings.
show some change through the periods, it may be possible. that their Princeton education influenced these changes. By measuring a number of independent variables, this. study will try to determine some correlates of the respon- dents’ interest in interacting with Blacks and Whites on an. individual and a community level, as well as their interest. to benefit various social groups; the Black community in. particular. The independent variables of this study include. the following: the actual time the respondents spent inter- acting with Blacks and Whites (to be referred to as “time”); and the equilibrium literature, racial make-up of the individual’s primary and cycle, sec- ondary schools, in costco swot addition to the racial make-up of the in- dividual’s neighborhood; the race of the of grief, person whom the in- dividual most admired throughout his/her lifetime; the. individual’s image of God; the on Italian Renissance, number of books in the indi- vidual’s home while growing up and presently; and the age.
and sex of the cycle of grief, individual. Therefore, although this study. examines several independent variables, as will be shown in. a later chapter, only past, the idea production, a few independent variables were found. to have strong relationships to the dependent variables. This section will discuss the independent variables found to. have the strongest relationship to the dependent variables.
first, and cycle, will discuss the independent variables of costco swot, the. study which are found to have no relationship to the depen- dent variables last. As will be demonstrated, the of grief, independent variables which. measure the actual time the indivdual spent with Blacks in. comparison to Whites throughout Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and Post-Princeton years will be used as an independent. variable.
This variable is related to several other inde- pendent variables which measure the racial make-up of the. individual’s neighborhood in which he/she grew up as well as. the individual’s primary and secondary schools. The individual’s past and present socio-economic status. is measured by the independent variable which asks for the. economic class in The Boeing 707 Essay which the individual’s family belonged.
when growing up, in addition to of grief, the individual’s career mo- bility in comparison to The Boeing, the individual’s parents’ socio-eco- Another independent variable measured in this study is. the race of the cycle of grief, person whom the individual most admired. thoughout his/her lifetime. This variable enables one to.
examine the influence of the race of the tribe ritual, individual’s role. models on their attitudes with respect to the dependent. variables of the study. A rough measure of literateness (tendency for an individ- ual to include reading and writing as a major part of his/ her life) is of grief, attempted by the variable examining the number. of books in the individuals home while growing up and pres- ently; and in the behind mass production, finally, age and sex of the individual will also. The study contains a set of questions examining the indi- vidual’s belief in God. This measure has been used in place. of the traditional measure which asks simply, “Do you be- lieve in God? “requiring a “yes” or “no” response or “Which. bests describes your religious beliefs? Check one: Protes- tant, Catholic, Jewish, Athiest, none of the above, other.” Instead of examining whether or not the individual believes.
in God, Piazza and Glock (1979) demonstrated that examining. the specific content of the individual’s beliefs as opposed. to measuring whether or not the individual believes in God. provides greater insight into cycle the individual’s ideas about. God. The study found that when people answer “yes” or “no” to the traditional measure of Belief in God, they do not all. mean the same thing; their conception of The Boeing 707 Essay, God varies. Of Grief. “Most. Americans Believe in a God, but this does not necessarily. imply that they have the same thing in mind”.7.
In order to obtain a clearer idea of the content of the. individual’s religious beliefs, Piazza and Glock developed a. question that depends on three interrelated measures: the. extent to which the individual does or does not believe in a. God, the degree to which the individual believes God influ- ences the way society is The Boeing, organized, .and the degree to which. the individual believes God influences the cycle, individual’s own. 7 Piazza and Glock, “Images of tradition, God and Their Social Mean- ing”, Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, The diagram below represents the original hypothesized.
relationships between the of grief, independent and dependent vari- Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivations to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. It is my belief, as seen by the above causal model, that. the independent variable which measures the actual time the. respondents have spent throughout the 707 Essay, three periods of their. lifetime with Blacks and cycle of grief, with Whites will have a strong ef- fect on the dependent variables of the study because the.
more the individual spends time with a group of people, the. more the 707 Essay, individual will be familiar with that particular. group of people. For example, if the study shows that more. respondents spend time with Blacks than with Whites during. each period of his/her lifetime, the study is likely to cycle, show. more respondents tend to be comfortable with Blacks than.
with Whites when interacting in various activities. I also further hypothesize that this sense of comfort. with Blacks will be greatest in all the activities measured. by this dependent variable except intellectual activites. Intellectually, Blacks may be more comfortable with Whites.
as a result of a greater amount of exposure to Whites in an. academic setting while at Princeton. Attending Princeton. has probably forced the Essay on Italian and the Reformation, respondents to compete intellectual- ly with Whites more than with Blacks and, thus, they have. probably become more familiar with Whites intellectually, but in other activities they are not likely to of grief, have gained.
familiarity with Whites if they did not spend time with. Whites in other activities besides intellectual ones. As a result of this greater sense of comfort felt by The Boeing 707 Essay re- spondents with groups with whom they have spent more time, more respondents will be interested in benefiting these par- ticular groups in cycle of grief comparison to others. Thus, the variable. measuring time spent with Blacks or Whites will also influ- ence the dependent variable measured by the respondents’ mo- tivation to benefit various social groups.
For example, re- spondents who. have spent time with Blacks are likely to be. more comfortable with Blacks and will, therefore, take a. great interest in benefiting this group in the idea was to: comparison to. other social groups. Consequently, it is cycle, also likely that. these respondents are motivated to benefit self, their loved. ones (who are also likely to be Black) and the Black commu- nity in tribe ritual comparison to cycle, other social groups indicated by Essay Renissance and the this. variable. While Blacks who are more comfortable with Whites. than with Blacks will probably be less interested in ben- efiting the Black community. The more respondents spend time with Blacks, the more po- sitive and compassionate they will be in their attitudes to- wards lower class Black Americans, expressing strong feel- ings of cycle, obligation to take part in improving their lives. Feelings of obligation will also tend to be strong for.
Blacks who have spent more time with Whites because of a. general sense of compassion towards all underprivileged peo- ple. However, the feelings of pride in remaining apart from. their lives will be much stronger than their feelings of. pride in not remaining apart from 707 Essay, their lives because these. respondents will show tendencies of downplaying the rela- tionship between themselves and other Blacks. The socio-economic status of the respondents’ parents in.
addition to the individual’s career mobility are likely to. place these individual’s in social and economic arenas more. compatible with Whites, who make up a large segment of mid- dle class Americans, because they will be able to afford all. of the luxuries typical of the White middle class. Cycle. Thus, the higher the class and the more upward the career mobili- ty, the tradition, more comfortable these Blacks will be with Whites. than with lower class Blacks.
Class and upward mobility. will probably influence the dependent variables in of grief the same. way that time spent influenced the equilibrium constant value, independent variables. My overall hypotheses described in this section focuses. on the group with whom the respondents identify most. Cycle Of Grief. The. independent variables measure identification through such. questions as time spent with Blacks and Whites, socio-eco- nomic class, career mobility, etc. The individual’s degree.
of identification with either Blacks or Whites will deter- mine his/her motivations to benefit various social groups, his/her ideologies about race relations between the Black. and White communites, relative comfort felt by him/her when. interacting with Blacks and Whites, and his/her interest in. the Black lower class. The more the individual identifies. with the Black community the more his attitudes will sway. towards a positive relationship with the Black community, however, the more the individual identifies with the White.
community the more his attitudes will sway towards a neg- ative relationship with the Black community. This idea of. identification will be discussed further in the Summary and. Conclusions chapter of this study. The first part of the questionnaire, questions 1, 3, 4, and 5 measure the the great tradition, dependent variables, interaction and ben- efit attitudes. The second part of the cycle of grief, questionnaire, ques- tions 2 and 6 through 19, measure the independent variables. Measures of the costco swot, Dependent Variables.
Using a scale varying from feeling “much more comfortable. with Blacks” through feeling “about equally comfortable with. Blacks and Whites”, to of grief, feeling “much more comfortable with. Whites”, the first question of the the great, study asked respondents. to indicate the relative degree of comfort they felt while. interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activities. during the three life-periods. The activities referred to. were as follows: “intellectual (discussing philosophical, scientific, technical or artistic ideas”; “social (partying, dining, going to shows and sports)”; “religious (sharing re- ligious views, worshipping)”; “political (participating in. demonstrations, political campaigns and organizations)”; “business (working on a paying job, as ‘subordinate and/or.
superordinate)”; “dating (including all specifically sexual. activities)”; “sports and athletics (including keeping in. shape and competing)”; and “in general (considering all ac- Question 3 asked alumni to rate the contributions to. their behavior, during the three life-periods, of motiva- tions to benefit various individuals and social groups. The. scale used for this question varied from cycle, feeling the motiva- tion made “no” contribution to their behavior through feel- ing the motivation made a “moderate” contribution to their. behavior to feeling the motivation made a “very strong” con- tribution to their behavior. The individuals and social. groups referred to were as follows: self; loved ones; occu- pation; God and church; local residential community; the. Black American community; the USA as a society; the non-
White races of the world; and the human species as a whole. A similar scale was used to measure the respondents’ views during the three life-periods about relations between. the Black and White communities in the U.S. in question 4. In this scale, alternatives ranged from being “very strongly. separationist and/or pluralist” through being “undecided” to. being “very strongly integrationist and/or assimilationist. Question 5, the last measure of the dependent variables. asked respondents about their personal attitudes towards. lower class Black Americans. This question was broken into. a series of statements to which the respondents were asked.
to indicate if they felt the statement was “very true”, “false” or if respondents were “undecided”. In The Past, Behind Mass Was To:. Some of the. statements measured were as follows: “I feel proud that I. have been strong enough to avoid remaining in or falling. into, lower class life”; “I feel obligated to help improve. their life”; “I feel they must help themselves”.
Measures of the Independent Variables. The second part of the questionnaire consists of fourteen. questions aimed at measuring the independent variables of. the study (e.g., how much time spent with Blacks vs. Whites).
These questions are very straightforward and try. to provide a general description of the respondents. For. example, question 9 asks “Which of the following describes. your primary and secondary schools?” The choices are, all. or almost all Black, mostly Black, about equally Black and. White, mostly White, and all or almost all White. This.
question, in of grief addition to sambia tribe ritual, others like question 5 which asked. for the predominate racial make-up of the neighborhood in. which the respondents grew up, provide a general idea of the. types of racial associations the of grief, respondents had before en- tering Princeton. Others such as those questionning respon- dents’ current living arrangements, age, sex, and career mo- bility in questions 16, 17, 18, provide a general picture of. the respondents’ ,present lifestyle. Questions 6, 7, and 8. measure the content of the the idea behind mass production was to:, respondents’ belief in God. These. questions asked the cycle, following: the respondents’ belief in. “God”, the influence of “God” in The Boeing 707 Essay the respondents’ personal. life, and the respondents’ belief in the influence of “God” on the way society is organized.
These variables may be. combined to create new independent variables if desired. The sample of 400 Black Princeton alumni was obtained. from the Alumni Records Office at Princeton University. With the permission of Steve Dawson, the President of the. Association of cycle, Black Princeton Alumni (ABPA) and his office, the staff at the Alumni Records Office assisted the study by. selecting every fourth name on sambia tribe, a mailing list of of grief, approxi- mately 1200 names until 400 names were collected. The questionnaire was sent through U.S. mail along with a. letter from the President of the ABPA, encouraging subjects. to participate in Essay on Italian Renissance and the the study, and a stamped, self-addressed. envelope for the return of the questionnaire. The sample.
consists of Black Americans who graduated from Princeton’s. undergraduate program. The total number of returned ques- tionnaires was 89; thus, the response rate for this ques- tionnaire was approximately 22%. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION. DESCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE. The following section intends to provide an idea of how. the alumni responded to the questionnaire in general. Cycle Of Grief. In.
order to fully appreciate such a discussion one must keep in. mind the uniqueness of the individuals upon which this study. focuses. Not only are these respondents representative of. middle class Black Americans, but as some of the tradition, first. Blacks to be integrated into Princeton University(infamous. for being racially the most conservative of the Ivy League. With 73% of respondents indicating that they were between.
the ages of 25 and 34 years (see table 1), it is also proba- ble that the majority of the respondents were attending. Princeton during the 1970’s when affirmative action which. provided numerous opportunities for Blacks economically, ed- ucationally, and of grief, occupationally was put into effect. For. the first time since reconstruction Blacks were beginning to. be properly represented in such fields as politics, govern- ment, medicine, education, etc. Past, Mass Production. The Black Power Movement.
was also strong during this time and as I have mentioned. earlier in the study, such leaders as Stokely Carmichael. were stressing the need for Blacks to separate themselves. from White society in order to strengthen the Black communi- ty. Thus, it will be fascinating to find out what types of. Blacks decided to attend a prestigious, White university, and how this education may have affected them. General Attitudes of Respondents. In table 2, during the Pre-to-Prin period, the percentage. of respondents who reported spending more time interacting.
with Blacks than with Whites rose sharply from 43% to 61%. Yet, during the cycle, Prin-to-Post period, the percentage of re- spondents spending time with Blacks dropped back down from. Data in. The Boeing 707 Essay. Table 2 only show percentages of respondents. spending time with Blacks and cycle, Whites for what shall be re- garded, for the purposes of this study, as particular points. in time, i.e., Pre-Princeton, Princeton, and costco swot, Post-Princeton.
One cannot know from cycle, these data, how individual respondents. changed between these points. This type of The Boeing 707 Essay, information is. available,: however, by examining Table 2a which shows the. percentage of respondents that (1) changed in the direction. of spending more time with Blacks, (2) made no change in. this respect, and (3) changed in the direction of spending. more time with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin- to-Post periods.
Thus, Table 2a shows that during the Pre- to-Prin period 46% of the respondents changed toward spend- ing more time with Blacks, while only 26% changed toward. spending more time with Whites. Cycle. During the Prin-to-Post. period, however, the percentage of respondents who changed. toward spending more time with Blacks dropped drastically by.
Thus far in the findings, an interesting trend has al- ready appeared which shows that the past, the idea was to:, changes and differences. in the cycle, tables are related to something that happened to the. respondents while at Princeton. This belief will be dis- cussed further in the conclusion section of the study. Just as the percentage of respondents who spent more time. with Blacks than with Whites (and vice versa) appeared to. change during Princeton, the percentage of respondents who.
reported holding sep/plur ideologies regarding relations be- tween the Black and costco swot, White communities also changed during. Princeton. In Table 3, from the Pre-Princeton point to cycle of grief, the. Post-Princeton point the percentage of respondents who held. sep/plur ideologies greatly increased from 26% to sambia tribe, 40%. Yet, from the Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point this.
percentage of respondents declined from 40% to 31%. In Table 3a which shows the cycle, individual-level change in. ideologies over time, it is for fescn2+, clear that 45% of the respon- dents changed toward becoming more sep/plur in comparison to. only 16% who changed toward becoming more int/assim during. the Pre-to-Prin period. However, during the Prin-to-Post. period this 45% of respondents who changed toward becoming. more sep/plur dropped to 19%, while the cycle, 16% of costco swot, respondents.
who changed toward becoming more int/assim rose to cycle of grief, 32%. The data in tables 3 and 3a demonstrate that not only the great tradition, did. the percentage of cycle, respondents who spent more time with. Blacks than with Whites increase during Princeton, but there. was also an increase in the percentage of respondents who. held sep/plur ideologies. Interestingly enough, the percentage of respondents who.
were motivated to benefit the Black community increased from. 46% at ritual, the Pre-Princeton point to 63% at the Princeton. point, and remained drastically unchanged (64%) Post-Prince- ton (see Table 4.3). The change over time as seen in Table 4.3a shows that the. 35% of the respondents becoming more motivated to benefit. the Black community during the of grief, Pre-to-Prin period decreased.
to 13% during the Prin-to-Post period, and similarily, the. 10% of respondents becoming less motivated to benefit the. Black community increased to 20% during the same two peri- ods. Thus, even though Table 4.3 shows roughly the same. percentage of respondents were motivated to benefit the. Black community Post-Princeton as Princeton, Table 4.3a. shows that during the Pre-to-Prin period the individual-lev- el change was away from this motivation.
Findings in tables 4 and 4.1 are roughly similar to find- ings in Table 4.3 for. Costco Swot. respondents’ motivations to benefit. self and loved ones. Of Grief. However, for individual-level change. tables 4a and 707 Essay, 4.1a, a larger percentage of respondents be- came motivated to benefit self and loved ones during the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods than they become less. motivated to of grief, benefit themselves and their loved ones. Thus, becoming increasingly motivated to benefit self and and the, loved.
ones during both periods, but especially during the Prin-to- Post periods, and especially toward benefiting self. Occupational motivations, in table 4.2 show that during. Princeton, there was a larger percentage of cycle of grief, respondents who. were not motivated to benefit their occupations in compari- son to tradition, the percentages of respondents who are moderately mo- tivated and motivated to benefit occupation. Cycle Of Grief. During Post-
Princeton, however, the percentage of respondents who were. strongly motivated to benefit occupation increased greatly. Tables 4.4 and 4.4a which show the percentage of respon- dents who are motivated or were motivated to tribe, benefit God, and the individual-level change in this motivation respec- tively demonstrate an increase in the percentage of cycle of grief, respon- dents not motivated to benefit God; during the Pre-to-Prin. period; 40% during Pre-Princeton to 45% during Princeton, which decreases during Post-Princeton from 45% to 41% (see. table 4.4).
Table 4.4a shows that during Pre-to-Prin period. a larger percentage of respondents reported becoming unmoti- vated to tradition, benefit God, than they were becoming motivated to. benefit God, but during the Prin-to-Post period a larger. percentage of respondents reported becoming motivated to. benefit God than they were becoming not motivated to benefit. Tables 5 and 5.1 which show the percentage of respondents. feeling comfortable interacting with Blacks and Whites in. both intellectual and social activities provide data which. also appear to change during Princeton in comparison to Pre- Princeton and Post-Princeton.
Even though the change is not. drastic for intellectual activities, the 26% of the respon- dents who were comfortable with Blacks rose to 37% from Pre- Princeton to Princeton, and of grief, dropped back to 22% during the. Post-Princeton point. The pattern of group-level change for. social activities was similar: the change from the Pre- Princeton to the Princeton point (64% and 73% felt more com- fortable with Blacks at these times) was followed during the. Princeton point to the Post-Princeton point by an opposite. change (73%, and 62% felt comfortable with Blacks). In tables 5a we find that 36% of the respondents reported. becoming intellectually more comfortable with Blacks, in.
contrast to the 16% of the respondents who reported becoming. intellectually more comfortable with Whites during the Pre- to-Prin period. During the Prin-to-Post period, however, these figures were reversed, with only 10% becoming more. comfortable with Blacks while 31% became more comfortable. Similar individual-level changes in feelings of comfort.
in social activities appear in table 5.1a. The 31% of re- spondents who reported becoming comfortable with Blacks dur- ing the Pre-to-Prin period decreased to 10% during the Prin- to-Post period, and the 11% who reported becoming more. comfortable with Whites during the Pre-to-Prin period in- creased to 31% during the sambia, Prin-to-Post period. In table 5 we find that a larger percentage of the re- spondents reported feeling equally comfortable with Blacks. and Whites in intellectual activities during each of the.
three periods than reported feeling more comfortable with. Blacks or more comfortable with Whites. Indeed, comparing. intellectual comfort (table 5) with social comfort, dating. comfort, political comfort, and cycle of grief, general comfort respondents.
feel interacting with Blacks and Whites in 707 Essay tables 5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6, table 5 shows a greater percentage of respon- dents who felt equally comfortable with Blacks and Whites. than in any of these other tables (which is closer to feel- ing more comfort with Blacks) and also shows a smaller per- centage of cycle, respndents who felt comfortable with Blacks in. comparison to any of the other comfort tables. The latter. supports the hypothesis that the comfort respondents feel. with Blacks will be greater in all activities accept intel- lectual ones. However, it must be noted that for business. and sporting (see tables 5.3 and 5.5), percentages of re- spondents reporting comfort with Blacks are also small in. comparison to tables (5.1, 5.2, 5.4, and 5.6). Background of the Respondents.
There was a split between the tribe, sexes; 60% of the respon- dents were male and 40% were female (see table 6). Cycle. Fifty- one percent of the respondents were raised in homes which. were lower middle class; while 24% of the respondents were. raised in Essay Renissance Reformation lower or under class households, and of grief, 24% were. raised in upper to upper middle class households (see table.
Table 8 shows that reading and writing became more apart. of the respondents’ lives after they left Princeton. 707 Essay. The. seventy-four percent of respondents who indicated having 51. to over 100 books in their homes during the cycle of grief, time they were. growing up increased to 89%, while the 25% of respondents. indicating living in homes with less than 50 books while. growing up decreased to 11%. Sixty-five percent of respondents said they grew up in.
all or mostly Black neighborhoods, 20% said they grew up in. all or mostly White neighborhoods, and 15% of the respon- dents reported growing up in neighborhoods that were equally. Black and White. Fifty-one percent of the tribe ritual, respondents re- ported that they grew up in cities, 40% grew up in suburbs, and only of grief, 9% reported growing up on a farm or in ritual “open coun- Even though more respondents reported growing up in Black. neighborhoods many attended secondary schools whose popula- tion was becoming less Black than White in cycle of grief comparison to. their primary schools. For example, the percents for costco swot re- spondents who reported attending Black primary schools and. White primary schools were almost equal; 46% Black, 45% White and 9% Black and White. However, for the secondary.
schools, the percent of cycle of grief, respondents reporting that they at- tended White schools increased to 63%, while the percent of. respondents who reported they attended Black schools dropped. to 24%, and 13% attended schools that were equally Black and. Although the past, the idea mass production, schools the respondents attended during the. Pre-Princeton point became more White than Black, this trend.
did not appear with respect to cycle, their present living arrange- ments. Constant Literature. Fifty-four percent of cycle, respondents reported living. with one or more Blacks, only 5% reported living with one or. more Whites, 4% reported living with one or more Blacks and. Whites, and 38% lived alone. At all three times investigated in this study, respon- dents reported admiring Blacks more than Whites. Renissance And The Reformation. During the. Pre-Princeton point, 58% reported admiring a relative, while. 30% reported admiring a Black friend, or Black fictional or. non-fictional person; and only 11% reported admiring a White.
friend, or White fictional or non-fictional person. During. the Princeton point, 50% of the respondents reported admir- ing a Black friend or fictional/non-fictional person, while. 39% reported admiring a relative, and of grief, once again, only equilibrium for fescn2+ literature value, 10% reported admiring a White friend or fictional/non-fictional. person.
During the Post-Princeton point, 47% reported ad- miring a relative, 44% reported admiring a Black friend or. fictional/non-fictional person, and 9% reported admiring a. White friend or fictional/non-fictional friend (see table. Seventy-one percent of the respondents reported being in. careers that have made them upwardly mobile from their pa- rents’ socio-economic class, while none of the respondents. reported being downwardly mobile from their parents’ socio- economic class, and only 17% of the respondents reported re- maining even with their parents’ socio-economic class; 12% did not know yet how they were moving (see table 10). With respect to of grief, belief in God, it appears that their gen- eral belief in some kind of God was relatively high.
Sixty- two percent of the respondents said they definitely believe. in God, while only 6% reported that they do not believe in. God; .24% are uncomfortable with the word “God” but believe. in a.transcendent force; and 9% either do not know or are. uncertain.
Seventy-one percent of the respondents believe. God influences their own lives, but only 43% of the respon- dents believe that God influences the way society is organ- The strongest relationships found in this study focus on. two variables. The amount of time the respondents spent. with Blacks in comparison to Whites over the three periods. of the respondents’ lifetimes was found to be stongly relat- ed to most of the dependent variables. However, it was also. found that the ideologies held by the respondents about de- sirable race relations between the Black and White communi- ties was also strongly related to most of the dependent. variables. The Great. Thus, it was helpful to of grief, determine which of these.
variables was more closely related to the dependent vari- Time vs. Ideologies. In order to The Boeing 707 Essay, determine which came first, time or ideolo- gies, a new analysis was performed to obtain the relation- ships in tables 11-11.3. Tables 11 and 11.2 show how close- ly time is related to.ideologies, while tables 11.1 and 11.3. show how closely ideologies is related to time. Cycle. This analy- sis is done to costco swot, determine whether time is a better predictor. of ideologies or whether ideologies is a better predictor of. time.
The comparison of the relationships in these tables. demonstrate that there is no great difference between them. For example, the difference between the 62% of of grief, respondents. who reported spending time with Blacks and holding sep/plur. ideologies and the 48% of respondents who reported spending. time with Whites and tribe, holding sep/plur ideologies in cycle Table 11. was not much smaller than the difference between the 74% of. respondents who reported holding sep/plur ideologies and. spending time with Blacks and The Boeing, the 56% who reported holding.
int/assim ideologies and spending time with Blacks in Table. 11.1. Thus, it is not possible to cycle, determine which variable. is a better predictor of the costco swot, other. Although the of grief, data of costco swot, this study do not permit us to de- termine the primacy of time over ideologies or vice versa, I. have chosen to of grief, examine time as the on Italian Reformation, major controlling vari- able of the study as demonstrated by the causal model in di- agram 1. Of Grief. Thus, it is my hypothesis that the actual time the. respondents spent with Blacks and Whites throughout the. three periods of their lifetime will have a strong effect on. the dependent variables of the study. Time vs. General Comfort and Motivation to Black Community.
Support for the hypothesis discussed in the previous. paragraph may be found in the idea behind production was to: the relationships between change. in time and change in general comfort the cycle, respondents feel. when interacting with Blacks and Whites in various activ- ates. The Boeing. In Table 12, there is of grief, a strong relationship between. change in time from the costco swot, Pre-to-Prin period and change in. “general comfort” for the same period.
The more respondents. increased the time they spent with Blacks during this peri- od, the more comfortable respondents became, in general, with Blacks; and the more respondents increased the of grief, time. they spent with Whites during this period, the equilibrium constant for fescn2+ literature value, more comfor- table respondents became, in general, with Whites. Cycle Of Grief. This. same positive relationship is also shown in Table 12.1 for. the period Prin-to-Post. The motivation to benefit the Black community is also in- fluenced by time (see table 13).
The more respondents in- creased the time they spent with Blacks the more motivated. they became to benefit the Black community; and the more the. respondents spent time with Whites, the more unmotivated the. respondents became to benefit the Black community. The relationship between change in time and change in mo- tivation to benefit the Black community for Prin-to-Post. period in Table 13.1 is more ambiguous than the other rela- tionships for time. A strong relationship is indicated in. the top portion of the table which shows that the more re- spondents began spending time with Blacks, the more respon- dents became motivated to sambia ritual, benefit the of grief, Black community. Yet, the relationship in the bottom portion of the table shows no. relationship at on Italian Renissance and the Reformation, all.
It is possible that the disappearance of this relation- ship in the bottom portion of the table is correlated to of grief, the. inability to determine which of the variables, time or. ideologies, is more closely related to the dependent vari- ables. As opposed to Table 13.1, tables 19 and 19.1 demon- strate that the relationship between ideologies and motiva- tion to benefit the Black community provides a less ambigu- ous finding. In these tables, it is constant for fescn2+ literature value, clear that for of grief both the. Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post periods there is a strong posi- tive relationship which shows that the more respondents be- came sep/plur, the more respondents would become motivated. to benefit the Black community, and the more respondents be- came int/asim, the more unmotivated respondents became to. benefit the Black community.
Thus, for certain cases and. periods of costco swot, time, it is possible that ideologies is more in- fluential than time. Association Between Time and Ideologies. The relationship between change in cycle time and change in. ideologies is demonstrated by tables 11-14.1. For each time. period, it was found that the more respondents increased the. time they spent with Blacks, the more they became sep/plur; and the more the respondents increased time they spent with.
Whites, the more respondents became int/assim. Tribe. Thus, it may. be understood that the more respondents increased the time. they spent with Blacks or Whites greatly influenced their. sense of of grief, comfort with Blacks and Whites, in tribe ritual general, in ad- dition to influencing their desire to benefit the Black com- munity, and their ideologies. Before discussing the relationship between ideologies and. the other dependent variables of the study, let us examine.
the actual percentage of respondents spending time interact- ing with Blacks and Whites in the three periods in order to. gain an of grief, understanding of how these respondents’ attitudes. may have been affected by the change in time. Time and its Correlates. The frequencies from the data (see tables 2 and 2a) indi- cate that a smaller percentage of respondents spent time. with Blacks during Pre-Princeton, in comparison to Essay on Italian and the, Prince- ton.
During Princeton, this percentage increased greatly, but declined during Post-Princeton. The percentages in tables 2 and 2a, in of grief addition to the. relationships between change in constant for fescn2+ value time and the dependent vari- ables in tables 12-14.1 show interesting findings about the. respondents. It is clear that during Princeton, as a result. of the of grief, greatly increased percentage of respondents who spent. more time with Blacks than with Whites, it is very likely. that the percentage of respondents who’indicated that they.
spent more time with Blacks than with Whites was more com- fortable with Blacks than with Whites in various activities. while at equilibrium for fescn2+, Princeton in comparison to of grief, before entering Prince- ton and also in comparison to the percentage of respondents. who spent more time with Whites or equal time with Blacks. Tables 15-16.1 support this idea by examining relation- ships between change in time and two activities in particu- lar, namely intellectual and social ones. The tables demon- strate that for both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents increased the time they spent. with Blacks, the more comfortable respondents became while.
engaging in intellectual and social activities with Blacks. and the less comfortable they became with Whites. The more. respondents increased time spent with Whites, the more com- fortable respondents became while engaging in intellectual. and social activities with Whites and the less they became. comfortable with Blacks. Thus, the costco swot, respondents who spent.
more time with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period were un- comfortable when interacting with Whites in cycle social and inte- Tables 14 and constant, 14.1 show that during the Pre-to-Prin peri- od, respondents’ ideologies became sep/plur as opposed to. int/assim. Therefore, not only did respondents who began. spending time with Blacks prefer interacting with Blacks in.
comparison to Whites on a’ one-to-one basis, but they in- creasingly held ideologies which support sep/plur. Cycle Of Grief. This ob- servation indicates a likelihood that the costco swot, high percentage of. respondents who began spending time with Blacks during the. Pre-to-Prin period did so consciously as opposed to of grief, being. forced to do so as a result of discrimination on the part of. the University forcing Blacks and Whites apart.
Also, given relationships shown in tables 13 and 13.1, it. may be seen that the respondents who increased time spent. with Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin period also became more. motivated to and the, benefit the Black community than respondents. who increased the of grief, time they spent with Whites. As we have seen, the findings discussed in the previous. paragraphs seem to the great, support the hypothesis that respondents. who were increasing the time spent with Blacks were becoming. more attached to the Black community during the Pre-to-Prin.
period both in their individual interactions and in their. political ideologies about Black and White relations on of grief, a. community level. Respondents who were increasing time spent. with Blacks were also becoming interested in costco swot positively con- tributing to the Black community. As a result of the cycle, huge decline in the percentage of re- spondents who began increasing time spent with Blacks during. the Prin-to-Post period demonstrated earlier in Table 2, it. seems probable that as respondents became. attached to tradition, the. White community with respects to cycle of grief, their attitudes, they be- came detached from the Essay on Italian Renissance, Black community. Evidence to support the hypothesis previously discussed. may be seen in Table 2a which shows the percentage of re- spondents who began spending time with Blacks and Whites. During the Prin-to-Post period, as respondents reported.
spending time with Whites (an increased from 26% to 31%), respondents also began spending less time with Blacks (a de- crease from 61% to 39%). However, it must be noted that these findings could be. the result of the cycle, questionnaire design. Respondents were. asked to rate their attitudes by comparing Blacks and. Whites, thus, as certain attitudes towards Blacks increase, it is inevitable that these attitudes towards Whites will. decrease and vice versa.
Association Between Ideologies and Schools Attended. The study tries to examine ideologies as it relates to. the dependent variables. Table 17 demonstrates change in. ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin period is not only related. to change in time but also to another independent variable, namely, “schools attended”, which measures change in the ra- cial make-up of the primary and tradition, secondary schools attended. by the respondents before Princeton. The variable, schools attended, was created by cycle of grief calculat- ing the constant literature value, difference between the racial make-ups of each re- spondents’ primary school and his/her secondary school. “Schools attended” was crosstabulated with ideologies only.
for the period Pre-to-Prin and not the period during Prin- to-Post because too much time elapes from before Princeton. and after Princeton to cycle of grief, consider any relationship between. these two variables. The Great. Table 17 shows the more the respon- dents went to cycle, secondary schools whose populations were be- coming more Black than that of in the production was to:, their primary schools, the. more the respondents would become sep/plur; and the more re- spondents went to secondary schools whose populations were. becoming more White than that of their primary schools, the.
more the respondents would become int/assim. Thus, ideolo- gies during Princeton are not only related to time during. Pre-Princeton, but to a combination of time and schools at- Associations between Ideologies and of grief, the Dependent Variables. It is my hypothesis that ideologies held by the respon- dents will be positively related to attitudes, comforts, and. motivations of respondents.
However, tables 18 and costco swot, 18.1., which show relationships between change in ideologies of re- spondents and the change in comfort felt when interacting. with Blacks and Whites in general on an individual level for. the periods Pre-to-Prin and Prin-to-Post, indicate an unex- pected finding. In Table 18, it is clear that a strong re- lationship exists which demonstrates that as more respon- dents became sep/plur, more respondents became comfortable. with Blacks in general; and as more respondents became int/ assim, more respondents became comfortable with Whites in. general. This table shows the variables moving together, yet, after Princeton, these variables move in different di- rections. Table 18.1 shows that the previous relationship. In order to of grief, explain this disappearance it would be help- ful to find some third variable having the same relationship. to ideologies and to general comfort during the Pre-to-Prin. period but would have different relationships to 707 Essay, these vari- ables in the Prin-to-Post period.
Unfortunately, I have. been unable to find such a variable in cycle this study. Ideolo- gies and “general comfort” were crosstabulated with every. variable in this study and no such relationship occurred to. explain the The Boeing 707 Essay, disappearance.
Thus, in this instance, I will. not venture to cycle of grief, speculate beyond the limits of constant literature value, my data. Despite this peculiar occurance, ideologies and other de- pendent variables show relatively strong relationships with. few inconsistencies. For example, tables 19 and cycle, 19.1 demon- strate that the more respondents became sep/plur, during the. Pre-to-Prin period, the on Italian Renissance and the, more respondents became motivated to. benefit the Black community; and of grief, the more int/assim they be- came, the more unmotivated they became to benefit the Black. One possible explanation for this occurance may be that. both integrationist and separationist strive to The Boeing, benefit the.
Black community because supporters of these ideologies may. believe that their ideologies best serve to benefit the. Black community. However, it is possible that while a Black. separationist may be solely concerned with the particular. community he/she chooses to work within, a Black integra- tionist may be equally concerned with the Black and of grief, White. communities, thus must divide his/her motivations between. these communities. In essense, a Black integrationist who. is dividing motivations between two groups is less concerned. with benefiting the Renissance and the, Black community specifically than a.
Black separationist who is cycle, placing his/her energies into the. Black community only. Such reasoning could account for the. findings which show separationists becoming more motivated. to benefit the Black community in comparison to integration- With respect to their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class, during both the Pre-to-Prin and the Prin-to-Post. periods, the more respondents became sep/plur, the tradition, more re- spondents became obligated to of grief, help improve the lives of the. Black lower class (see tables 20 and 20.1). However, the. relationship between the change in ideologies during the. Prin-to-Post period and the change in feeling of obligation. to the Black lower class in table 20.1 is much weaker than.
the relationship during the Pre-to-Prin period. Relationships in the great the previous tables could be the cycle, result. of the respondents’ increased occupational motivation during. the Prin-to-Post period as discussed earlier. This table. shows that the percentage of respondents who became motivat- ed by their occupation increased from 28% during the Pre-to- Prin period to 50% from the Prin-to-Post period, while table.
4.3a shows that more respondents lost their motivation to. benefit the Black community during the Prin-to-Post period. These findings make it possible to speculate that at the. Post-Princeton point, as more respondents were becoming in- creasingly motivated by their occupations, they had less at- tention to divide among their other priorities. Tradition. As a re- sult, some of their motivations to the Black community may. have become withdrawn in order to place more emphasis on cycle of grief, oc- cupational attainments. Consequently, their feelings of ob- ligation to sambia ritual, the Black lower class were decreased as well. Tables 21 and 21.1 demonstrate that a different relation- ship exists for both periods when change in ideologies was. crosstabulated with the feeling of pride the respondents. have in avoiding remaining in or falling into of grief the life of. the Black lower class.
It was found that the more respon- dents became int/assim, the more proud they were of this. fact; and costco swot, the more sep/plur they became, the less proud they. were. But, it should be noted that the of grief, relationship during. the Pre-to-Prin period, in equilibrium constant for fescn2+ literature value this case, is cycle of grief, a little weaker.
than the Prin-to-Post period relationship. With some speculation, these findings may be attributed. to the idea that in order for an individual to be int/assim, that individual may hold the belief that Blacks, as a whole, should strive to become integrated into , as opposed to seg- regated away from the costco swot, White community, while a Black who is. sep/plur may believe in striving for the opposite goal. Therefore, an int/assim may not be achieving his/her goals. by falling into a life with other Blacks, and thus, be more. proud of avoiding their life. A sep/plur, however, may feel. that falling into cycle a life led by mass was to: other Blacks is a step to- wards achieving his/her goal and, thus, be less proud of.
avoiding the life of the Black lower class. When the relationship between change in ideologies and. guilt of betraying the Black lower class is analyzed in ta- bles 22 and 22.1, it is evident that respondents who became. sep/plur, felt more guilt of betrayal and those who became. more int/assim, felt less guilt. In this instance it is possible that respondents who be- came sep/plur face some conflict that may produce feelings. of guilt for betraying the Black community. This conflict. may result from actively integrating in a predominately. White environment by attending Princeton.
If separtist. ideologies are based on total separation from the White com- munity, a certain level of guilt is’ more likely to of grief, be felt. by a respondent who became sep/plur than by those who became. int/assim. An integrationist is not opposing any of his/her. ideologies by attending Princeton. Equilibrium Constant. On the other hand, the. respondent is acting in the best interest of integrationist.
ideologies and, thus, is cycle of grief, faced with no conflict to cause. feelings of guilt. Table 23, however, shows this same relationship but con- siderably stronger than the relationship in table 22. Past, The Idea Mass Production Was To:. For. the Pre-to-Prin period, when respondents were asked if they.
felt that the Black lower class must help themselves, a very. weak relationship showing that the more sep/plur the respon- dents became, the more the respondents felt that the Black. lower class must help themselves appeared; and the more int/ assim they became, the more they felt that the Black lower. class must not help themselves. This same relationship was. present for the Prin-to-Post period in Table 23.1, but it. has become stronger. Integrationist and separationist ideologies both encour- age the active participation of the cycle of grief, Black community in Essay Renissance and the Reformation work- ing towards self-help. Integrationism and separtionism may. both be ways for the Black lower class to help themselves. Thus, it is not surprising that the of grief, idea of self-help by the.
lower class continued to increase through the life periods. of the respondents. Finally, tables 24 and 24.1 demonstate a strong relation- ship for the change in ideologies during the Pre-to-Prin. period and the feeling that the situation of the Black lower. class is hopeless, such that the more respondents became.
sep/plur, the costco swot, more respondents felt hopeless; and the more. respondents became int/assim, the less hopeless they felt., However, once again, this relationship was very weak for the. same relationship in the Prin-to-Post Table 24.1. My speculation for this finding is based on cycle, the possibil- ity that a separationist is more likely to have a realistic. impression of the plight of the past, the idea behind mass production was to:, Black lower class because of. the likelihood that a separationist is of grief, more closely associ- ated with the Black lower class than are integrationist.
By. actually working with the Black lower class or within their. communities as a result of their ideologies, a separationist. may better understand the desparation of the great, their situation and. feel more hopeless about cycle of grief a resolution as opposed to an inte- grationist who is ignorant to 707 Essay, their plight. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. The original hypotheses of the study as demonstrated ear- lier by the causal models in diagram 1, stated that time. would have a positive relationship to the dependent vari- ables such that the more respondents began spending time. with Blacks, the cycle of grief, more they would become attached to Black. individuals and the Black community in several respects; and. the more respondents began spending time with Whites, the.
more they would be attached to Whites in several respects. The findings as demonstrated by the revised causal models. below in diagrams 2 and tribe, 3, were not far off from these orig- REVISED CAUSAL MODEL. Comfort interacting with Blacks. Motivation to benefit the Black community. Attitudes towards the Black lower class. The causal model in cycle diagram 2 demonstrates that there is. still a positive relationship between time and the dependent.
variables. The Boeing 707 Essay. Ideologies, however, was found to have the cycle, same. relationship to for fescn2+ value, the dependent variables. Unfortunately, the. data do not provide a way of determining whether time or. ideologies is more closely related to of grief, the dependent vari- ables for the great reasons discussed earlier.
However, I have chosen. to examine the time respondents spent with Blacks and Whites. as it determines later ideologies and attitudes because I am. more interested in this relationship as opposed to examining. how ideologies determines time. The causal model in diagram 3 demonstrates that the study. examines the respondents who spent time interacting with.
Blacks and Whites on an individual level as the major causal. variable of the study. Of Grief. As discussed earlier, the time spent. has a positive relationship to all the dependent variables. of the study which show that the more respondents began. spending time with Blacks, the more respondents became sep/ plur and.the more respondents became attached and interested. in the the great, Black community. However, the more respondents began. spending time with Whites, the more they became attached to. and interested in the White community. The causal model goes on to argue that the relationships.
between ideologies and the variables which measure attit- dues, i.e., towards the Black lower class, comfort felt on. an individual level with Blacks and cycle, Whites , and the desire. to benefit the Black community is as follows: the more re- spondent became sep/plur, the more respondents became com- fortable with Blacks, the more respondents became motivated. to benefit the Black community, and 707 Essay, held more positive atti- tudes towards the Black lower class in general. The more. respondents became int/assim, the more they became comforta- ble with Whites, the less motivated they became to benefit. the Black community, and the less positive their attitudes. became towards the Black lower class in general. The major conclusion to be drawn from the findings of the. study is cycle, as follows: despite the respondents’ sense of com- fort with Blacks and Whites, their motivation to equilibrium constant value, benefit the. Black community, or their attitudes towards the Black lower.
class before Princeton, more respondents tended to cycle, identify. with Blacks during Princeton in and the Reformation every measured respect. However, after Princeton this identification decreased dras- tically. Before discussing this finding in more detail, I. feel it is necessary to clarify this idea of identification. as it is used in this study. When I first set out to examine the attitudes of the. respondents towards Blacks and Whites, I believed that the. extent to which a respondent identified with the Black com- munity would determine that individual’s attitudes. In de- fining the concept of identification or the ability to. identify with the cycle of grief, Black community, I based my definition on.
the premise that there is tribe ritual, a distinctive Black culture very. different from White culture. Elements of of grief, Black culture. which make it unique from equilibrium constant for fescn2+ literature value, White culture such as its music, its language, the struggles and a “consciousness” shared by. its people may be attributed to the injustices and oppres- sions suffered by cycle this race of people which are not compara- ble to the experiences of any other race of past, the idea mass, people through. this country’s history. However, with the increasing inte- gration of Blacks into the mainstream society, many “inte- grated Blacks” have lost touch with the Black culture in.
their attempts to become adjusted and comfortable in their. new culture–the White culture. Some of cycle, these Blacks are no. longer able to for fescn2+ literature value, enjoy the qualities which make Black culture. so unique or are unable to openly share their culture with. other Blacks because they have become so far removed from. these experiences and, in some instances, ashamed of them. as a result of cycle, their integration. There are other Blacks who, in being integrated have not. lost touch. They have maintained an awareness and the idea behind, a sincere.
appreciation for the uniqueness of the Black culture. Un- like those who have lost touch, these Blacks have not become. ashamed of Black culture. It is with these ideas that I formulated my conception of. identifying with the Black community. Thus, I believe that.
a respondent who did not identify with the Black community. would be less likely to spend time with Blacks and be less. motivated to benefit the Black community. However I encoun- tered several problems following this line of cycle of grief, reasoning. I now believe it is sambia ritual, incorrect to assume that just because. a Black individual does not enjoy or choose to participate. in the culture of his people, that that individual is not. interested in benefiting that group of people. For example, a Black may not enjoy the music, or language of the Black.
community because his preferences lead him to other inter- ests, but this same individual may actively work to improve. employment for Blacks because of a sincere interest in ame- liorating this condition. Therefore, the inability to. identify with one aspect of the Black culture does not nec- essarily cause apathy towards Blacks in cycle of grief general. Also, a Black individual may be unable to equilibrium constant literature, understand or. appreciate the Black culture because that individual was not. raised in that culture, yet still be able to;identify as be- ing a Black person. For example, a Black person may have. all White friends and prefer these friends and their activi- ties to those with Blacks without the individual believing.
that he/she is cycle, White. It is The Boeing 707 Essay, possible that the individual. identifies with being a Black person and chooses to benefit. the Black community because he/she is a Black person, but. does not necessarily identify with the culture. Thus, defining identification as an cycle of grief, appreciation and an. enjoyment found in the Black culture is The Boeing, not complete enough. for the of grief, purposes of the 707 Essay, study. However, through my study I. was able to redefine the concept of identification. Earlier in the discussion of “comfort” in the Hypothesis.
Chapter, the concept of familiarity was introduced. Until. this point familiarity only served to explain the role of. comfort in this study. However, after completion of my. study, it is clear to cycle, me that familiarity or the 707 Essay, extent to. which respondents are familiar with the Black community is. helpful in cycle redefining the sambia tribe, concept of identification. It is.
my belief that a respondent’s sense of familiarity with the. Black community or with the White community will result in. the respondent’s inclination to become attached to Blacks or. Whites on an individual and on a community level. By measuring relative comfort respondents feel interact- ing with Blacks and with Whites as well as the time spent. actually interacting with Blacks and Whites, the respondents.
ideologies, motivations, and ‘ attitudes towards the Black. lower class, the study is providing an idea of the respon- dents’ familiarity with Blacks and cycle, Whites, which will influ- ence the extent to which respondents are attached to in the mass production, Blacks. or Whites, thereby indicating the extent to cycle of grief, which the indi- vidual identifies with Blacks or Whites. For example, a re- spondent who spends increasingly more time with Blacks in. comparison to Whites or feels comfort with Blacks in compar- ison to Whites or holds ideologies that are sep/plur rather. than int/assim, or is more motivated to constant literature, benefit the Black. community as opposed to being unmotivated, or is cycle, more obli- gated to the Black lower class, is more likely to be famil- iar with Blacks as opposed to the great, Whites, be more inclined to. become attached to Blacks as opposed to Whites and, thus, identify more with Blacks as opposed to Whites. Many questions arise from these findings. Of Grief. For instance, why did some respondents tend to become more attached and.
interested in the Black community during Princeton? What. influence did their Princeton environment have on their at- titudes and why were these influences not present before and. after Princeton? The findings provided by this study leave. these questions unanswered because the questionnaire was not. designed to investigate these surprising occurances. How- ever, it is possible to develop new hypotheses which might. explain these findings and suggest methods for testing them.
One possible hypothesis explaining why some respondents. become attached to Blacks during Princeton was derived from. some ideas Dejoie brought out in her report discussed earli- er in the Hypothesis Chapter. Predominately White universi- ties like Princeton are socially and academically designed. to cater to the needs of the White students comprising the. bulk of their enrollments. At Princeton, for the great tradition example, pres- ently their are only five Black tenured professsors on its. faculty; and the program of Afro-American studies is cycle of grief, one of. the smallest and most understaffed departments in the Uni- versity only offering four courses during the spring semes- ter of costco swot, 1985; and cycle of grief, there is only one major University recog- nized organization on campus designed specifically for costco swot the. intellectual and social interests of Blacks and other Third.
Activities organized by University groups such as Student. Government rarely, if ever, take into account the diverse. interests which exist at cycle of grief, a University that is not 100% White. If Black students want to have certain speakers or. programs, catering to equilibrium value, their interests, they must form sepa- rate groups within the University, i.e., the Organization of.
Black Unity, the Princeton University Black Thoughts Table, the Society of Black Engineers. Several Black students. within the past four years, have even organized a Food Co- operative which provides these students with an cycle of grief, inexpensive. alternative to past, behind, University eating facilities and Eating Clubs. which are very expensive by cycle comparison. Thus, it is not.
surprising that, in their attempts to satisfy their own in- tellectual, social, and also economic needs, some respon- dents became attached to costco swot, Blacks during the Pre-to-Prin peri- In order to study this hypothesis which, in essence, is. saying that the more respondents became attached to Blacks. during the Pre-to-Prin period, the cycle, more respondents became. dissatisfied with the social and academic environment at.
Princeton, one might measure the degree of Reformation, satisfaction re- spondents felt in their experiences at of grief, Princeton. The Boeing. By creat- ing a scale from being “very satisfied” to of grief, being “not satis- fied at all”, respondents could be asked to rate numerous. Princeton experiences, i.e., social life, academic diversi- ty, eating options, and in the great general on this scale. Cycle Of Grief. From such. a question, one could discover how satisfied Blacks were at.
Princeton and what satisfied them most and least. Another possible hypothesis created from this study’s. findings explaining why respondents became attached to. Blacks at costco swot, Princeton is that the mood of Black students at. Princeton during the time that most of the respondents were. attending Princeton was more separationist. Cycle Of Grief. As discussed.
earlier, most respondents were attending Princeton during. the 70’s, at a time when the Black Power Movement was still. influencing the attitudes of many Blacks. It is Essay on Italian, possible that Black individuals either chose to or. felt pressured to come together with other Blacks on campus. because of the belief that Blacks must join in cycle of grief solidarity to. combat a White oppressor. Constant For Fescn2+ Literature Value. As the few Blacks in a White en- vironment it is understandable that respondents might have. felt a need to look out for one another.
One can contrast the mood of the campus years ago and the. level of attachment to Blacks to that of the present mood of. the campus, which is of grief, more pro-integrationist, and the level. of attachment to Blacks. Presently, with the Black Power. Movement behind us and with the implementation of Essay Reformation, CURL. (College Undergraduate Residential Life), the mood of the. campus has been shifted in such a way that Black students. are discouraged from forming separate groups because of a. fear that they are segregating themselves from mainstream.
campus life by doing so. Thus, if a survey were to be made. today of the level of Black involvement in minority organi- zations and their involvement in campus organizations, there. would be a larger percentage of Blacks involved in cycle of grief main- stream life in comparison to the years when these respon- dents were at Princeton. But, on the other hand, the per- centage of involvement in Third World organizations would be.
much lower now than then. It appears, that the present mood. of the campus is one that encourages the integration and as- similation of Blacks, whereas the mood of the campus and. even society in general several years ago encouraged the. separation of Blacks. Thus, the mood of the time may have. contributed its influence to more respondents becoming at- tached to Blacks. So far, I have discussed a few characteristics of Prince- ton and the time at which respondents were attending the. University which may account for some of the main findings. of this study. However, it is still necessary to discuss.
why the respondents’ Princeton experiences were different. from their Pre and Post-Princeton experiences. Tribe. It is impor- tant to of grief, remember that before Princeton, a large percentage. of the on Italian and the Reformation, respondents were attending secondary schools whose. population was more heavily White in comparison to cycle of grief, their. After Princeton, one may speculate that respondents were. also in predominately White work environments or attending. graduate or professional schools that were also predominate- ly White.
Thus, a discussion of the differences between. these experiences in predominately White environments and. Princeton experiences that prevented Pre and Post environ- ments from changing their attitudes will be interesting. What I believe distinguishes Pre-Princeton from Princeton. experiences accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to.
identify more with Blacks during Princeton, is the the great, presence. of a support group, i.e., family or home, during Pre-Prince- ton that was absent during Princeton. During Pre-Princeton. if respondents became frustrated or discouraged as a result. of their experiences in cycle a predominately White academic envi- ronment the respondents could always escape from these frus- trations when they left these environments to go home. Thus, respondents’ families and homelives provide relief. from any problems or tensions encountered in predominately. White environments. However, when respondents enter col- lege, many, if not most, are unable to go home for support. from families readily when they are frustrated or discour- aged by 707 Essay their Princeton environment usually because their. familiies are far from them and telephoning home may be re- stricted because of the expense.
Thus, in their attempts to. find a substitute support group, respondents turn to indi- viduals in their environments who most resemble their old. support groups; individuals who share the same problems as. themselves and understand their complaints. Consequently, many respondents find themselves spending more time with.
other Blacks while at of grief, Princeton because it is likely that. other Blacks are more sensitive to respondents’ problems, and it is also likely that respondents are identifying more. What distinguishes Post-Princeton from Essay and the, Princeton experi- ences, accounting for the respondents’ tendencies to identi- fy more with Blacks during Princeton are the respondents’ increased motivations to benefit their occupations. Of Grief. Assum- ing that most of these respondents are working or attending. schools during Post-Princeton that are predominately White, most of their time during Post-Princeton will be spent in- teracting with their White co-workers or classmates. Thus, the increasing amount of time spent with Whites resulting.
from the respondents’ occupational pursuits can account for. the increased attachment to on Italian Reformation, Whites during Post-Princeton. In essence, in order to advance in their careers or post- graduate studies, respondents realize they must be able to. get along with their co-workers or classmates who are likely. to be White, thereby identifying more with Whites. I began this study questionning my own attitudes as a fu- ture alumnus. I wondered whether or not my education at. Princeton would affect my identification with the Black com- munity.
I hoped that these findings would help me conclude. that despite the high degree of of grief, identification with Whites. as a result of the educational and occupational path that. Black Princeton alumni follow, the literature, alumni would still main- tain a certain level of identification with the Black commu- nity. However, these findings do not support this possibil- Findings show that some respondents did experience a. change in their attitudes over the periods of time indicated. in this study. Cycle Of Grief. By studying respondents who did change, it. was shown that respondents’ experiences while attending. Princeton caused their identification with Blacks and the. Black community to increase as their’ identification with.
Whites and the White community decreased. However, after. Princeton, respondents’ experienced the opposite change in. attitude; their identification with Blacks and the Black. community decreased as their identification with Whites and. the White community increased. Thus, these findings suggest. that respondents who experience change as a result of their.
Princeton experiences are likely to identify less with. Blacks and past,, the Black community in comparison to of grief, Whites and. the Whites community. It is important to note that it is impossible for sambia tribe me to. generalize these findings for all Black Princeton alumni be- cause the sample for this study was much too small to cycle of grief, make. any kind of ritual, generalizations. Cycle Of Grief. Therefore, I am only tradition, able to.
draw conclusions from these findings for the respondents to. What is left to be done now is a further examination of. this issue to determine if a Princeton education has unique. effects on Blacks or if the effects are common for all col- lege-educated Blacks in general. It is my belief that such. a study should be undertaken by developing a new question- naire to of grief, be distributed to Black alumni of several different. types of universities. Such a study could prove to be inva- luable to bettering the tradition, educational environments for cycle Blacks. who are able to attend college, thereby improving the over- all quality of a college education for Essay on Italian Renissance Blacks. Billingsley, Andrew, Black Families in White America, (New.
Jersey: Prentice-Hall), 1968. Carmichael, S. Hamilton, C., Black Power: The Politics of. Liberation in America, (New York: Vintage Books), 1967. Conyers, J. Wallace W., Black Elected Officials, (New. York: Russell Sage Foundation), 1976. Dejoie, Carolyn, “Low Morale in Higher Education: Blacks in. Predominately Whites Universities”, (source of article. Havemann, E. West, P., They Went to of grief, College: The College. Graduate in America Today, (New York: Harcourt, Brace Piazza Glock, “Images of God and Their Social Meaning”,
Religious Dimensions, (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.), Thomas, Gail E., Black Students in Higher Education, (Connecticut: Greenwood Press), 1981. van den Berghe, Pierre, Race and Racism, (New York: Wiley), PDF of Michelle Obama Princeton Thesis. A Politico post by Jeffrey Ressner on Michelle Obama’s 1985 Princeton thesis, entitled “Princeton-Educated Blacks and equilibrium constant for fescn2+, the Black Community,” can be found here.
Politico is currently hosting it in of grief a 4-part PDF. A complete PDF of the thesis can be downloaded here. The next post will be a word-searchable version, from a quick optical scan, minus the statistical data near the 707 Essay, end of the thesis.
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Kbler-Ross model - Wikipedia
Air Pollution in Mexico City Essay Sample. General information about the problem: As the of grief vehicle population reached more than 700 million, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution. Some of them reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. Introduction of the problem: One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, Mexican capital is one of the five dirtiest cities of the world. Industrial growth of the city, population boom, which grew from past, the idea behind mass production was to:, 3 million in 1950 to 20 million today, and the proliferation of vehicles in the city contributed to the Mexico City’s current air quality. Narrowing down the problem: However, with the transportation proliferation contributing to cycle about half of the city#8217;s total emissions, several solutions have to be considered in order to reduce the air pollution in on Italian Renissance Reformation, the city. Thesis statement: The government should practice legal regulations and favor the of grief evolvement of environmentally friendly technology and fuel in the idea behind mass was to:, order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City. II. Background.
A. Identify the problem/ show that the problem exists: People suffer from various diseases and the environment is being damaged (research). B. What caused the problem: Air pollution is mainly caused by vehicles. C. The effects of the problem: Air pollution can have serious consequences for the human health as well as severely damage the ecosystem. III. Of Grief! Solution 1. In The Past, Mass Was To:! Topic sentence: One of the possible solutions is to continue to cycle of grief enforce legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The air pollution has been noticeably decreased due to legal regulations and governmental programs like PIICA, PROAIRE and PORAIRE III Describe your solution: Diminish taxis. • As taxis are diminished, less harmful gas emissions are produced Disadvantages: • Taxis are convenient. • Taxi driver as a job. Value! Topic sentence: Another possible solution is to pass a law on telecommuting. Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): Less gas emissions on telecommuting days (research) Describe your solution: Pass a law on telecommuting. • Can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; • Is relatively inexpensive to implement; • Expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in cycle of grief, work and lifestyle. Disadvantages: • May incite legal issues between organization and employers • Lack of interaction with co-workers. • Not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting. Topic sentence: The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel.
Give grounds to the proposed solution (e.g. this problem has been solved somewhere else; experts suggest this solution…): The research indicates that usage of The Boeing 707 Essay hydrogen fuel will definitely decrease the air pollution level. Describe your solution: Hydrogen should replace gasoline. Advantages: • Reduction in air pollution due to zero emissions. • Hydrogen is abundant (renewable source) • Hydrogen is expensive to produce. • Hydrogen refueling stations construction require big amounts of of grief money VI. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and global air quality levels as well. Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to Reformation reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on cycle, telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and we know that they will work for Essay Renissance and the Reformation the environment. Therefore, the government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City.
Air pollution in Mexico City. As the vehicle population reached more than 700 million worldwide, numerous cities experiencing rapid industrialization started to suffer from air pollution (Walsh, 1999). Of Grief! The level of air pollution in any city is a global concern. The reason is that air can travel freely from place to place; consequently, the polluted air from one city can travel to another. The polluted air has numerous negative consequences for the great human health and cycle of grief also severely damages the ecosystem. Some of the cities reduced the air pollution level; however there are still some that are considered to be the most polluted cities in the world. One of them is Mexico City. According to Forbes, the Mexican capital is equilibrium for fescn2+ literature value one of the five dirtiest cities of the world (Luck, 2008). The government and people have take measures in order to reduce the air pollution in Mexico City before it is too late. The government should practice legal regulations and favor the usage of cycle hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline in order to reduce the air pollution level in Mexico City.
Mexico City is the great one of the world’s largest metropolitan areas, containing more than 20 million inhabitants, 3.5 million vehicles, and 35,000 industries (McKinley et al., 2005). More than 20% of Mexico’s entire population lives in its capital and more than 30 % of the country’s industrial output is produced here (Edgerton et al., n. d.). Although Mexico City is considered one of the cycle of grief world’s largest cities, it is still growing at a rate exceeding 3% annually. The Boeing! Moreover, the number of vehicles daily traveling on its streets makes up more than three million (Edgerton, et al., n. d). All the factors listed above contribute to Mexico City’s poor air quality. Mexico City is a perfect example of one of the of grief burgeoning cities that experience severe air pollution. The ozone concentration in Mexico City is one of the highest in the world, being more than four times higher than the accepted norms. Particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and some other harmful gases also exceed the Mexican health advisory level (Walsh, 1999). Nevertheless, comprehensive air quality management programs since 1990 have contributed to major reductions in the concentrations of some pollutants such as lead, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide (Molina Molina, n. d.).
Sulfur in diesel fuel has been reduced from 0.5% to 0.05%. Many old buses and costco swot trucks of Mexico City were replaced by newer ones powered by more modern and cleaner engines. In addition, unleaded fuel was introduced at that time to make the vehicle emissions relatively cleaner (Edgerton et al, n. d.). Although the cycle of grief above measures contributed to a slight positive change in Mexico City’s air quality, serious air pollution problems still persist. Costco Swot! The poor quality of air is the result of of grief several factors: emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels in motor vehicles and for industrial processes, energy production, high dust levels due to Essay and the local constructions, population growth (Molina Molina, n. d.). Those human demands on the ecosystem are changing the landscape with important atmospheric consequences as well as causing threat to human health. People suffer from various diseases starting from insignificant ones like headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions to more serious ones like chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys (“How can air pollution hurt my health?”, n. d.). Of Grief! Although it is not possible to determine the total impact of Mexico City’s poor air quality on costco swot, public health, McKinley et al. (2005) calculated that only a 10% reduction of particulate matter in the air would save 3,000 lives and 10,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis each year, and that reduction of ozone would save 300 lives. As approximately 80% of particulate matter and nitrogen oxide, 45% of volatile organic compounds, and 30% of sulfur dioxide come from mobile sources, their emissions’ level should be reduced (McKinley et al., 2005). One of the possible solutions to reduce air pollution from vehicles is to continue enforcing legal regulations concerning air pollution prevention.
As mentioned above, Mexico City’s government has taken several measures and cycle of grief attempted various programs in order to decrease the level of air pollution in the city. The first plan Programa Integral para el Control de la Contaminacio?n Atmosfe?rica (PICCA) was started in 1990 and had major attainments, including the introduction of two-way catalytic converters, the phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the establishment of vehicle emissions standards (McKinley et al., 2005). The second program, PROAIRE 1995-2000 (Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire en el Valle de Me?xico Program to Improve Air Quality in costco swot, the Valley of Mexico) had other major accomplishments, such as the introduction of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline to cycle of grief improve combustion efficiency, and equilibrium carried out restrictions on the aromatic content of fuels and on the sulfur content in industrial fuel (McKinley et al., 2005). These programs have had significant impact on reduction of air pollution in the city. That is why more of these kinds of programs should be implemented in Mexico City, so the city can finally reduce the levels of air pollution to acceptable norms. For instance, the cycle government should implement policies concerning taxis. According to equilibrium constant for fescn2+ value Connolly (1999), taxis and individual cars that replaced traditional buses are the most polluting of all forms of cycle of grief transport. Approximately 110,000 taxis “circulate the streets of Mexico City” (McKinley et al., 2005, p.1955).
Because of the equilibrium for fescn2+ value large number of kilometers traveled each day by taxis, their emissions are quite high. Even though taxis account for only 3.4% of Mexico City’s vehicle fleet, the their emissions make 3.6% of particulate matter, 11.5% of sulfur dioxide, 10.7% of cycle carbon monoxide, 10.2% of nitrogen oxide and 14% of volatile organic compounds of all transportation related emissions (McKinley et al., 2005). Thus, all the taxis around the city have to be diminished. Instead of taxis, the 707 Essay government should provide the residents with more buses and minibuses. Cycle! The advantage of this policy is obvious: if there would be no taxis traveling in mass production, the city, less harmful gases would be emitted. Moreover, the cycle of grief analysis made by McKinley et al. (2005) suggests that a turnover of the taxi fleet due to its size and age would benefit from over $70 million US in in the past, the idea, reduced health impacts from cycle, air pollution, and would also benefit from fuel savings, whose costs summed up together, is greater than this measure’s investment cost.
However, there are several drawbacks to this solution. Firstly, taxis are very convenient for people who do not have their own car to travel around more efficiently or to The Boeing 707 Essay travel to places, which locations are not known to of grief you. For instance, taxis are very beneficial for the tourists who do not know the city. Moreover, most people earn money by working as a taxi driver and tradition total ban of taxis would deprive them of their way of cycle earning money. Therefore, most people might disagree with this policy and equilibrium constant for fescn2+ solution generally. Another possible solution is to pass the of grief law on telecommuting. Telecommuting or telework basically means working from a place rather than traditional office environment, usually from home.
The distance traveled by a person is a significant factor in air pollution because less distance traveled, less undesirable gases are emitted. As telecommuters work from home, they tend to travel less often. The Boeing 707 Essay! The research indicates that on the telecommuting days, the cycle distance traveled by vehicles is The Boeing decreased by 76%. Consequently, there are fewer gas emissions; to be more precise, there is a reduction by 64% of total organic gases, 63% of carbon monoxide and 73% of oxides of nitrogen (Sampath, Saxena Mokhtarian, 1991). Other advantages of telecommuting are that it can be implemented now, as it does not require any expanded planning, design and construction; it is relatively inexpensive to implement; it expands personal choices rather than restricting them, by offering them more flexibility in work and cycle lifestyle (Sampath et al., 1991). However, some employers and employees would disagree with this solution because there are some disadvantages. Firstly, telecommuting may incite legal issues between organization and employers. Some of the issues they may face are workplace safety and The Boeing 707 Essay compensation issues (Mills, Wong-Ellison, Werner Clay, 2001). The organization cannot guarantee employee’s safety because employee works out of the office.
And if any accident happened to cycle the employee, the organization would not want to compensate employee’s medical expenses because the The Boeing employee cannot prove that the cycle of grief accident occurred in the scope of employment. Secondly, lack of interaction with co-workers and isolation from tribe ritual, society due to telecommuting, can have negative affects on individuals’ behavior and attitudes as well as can lead to of grief negative consequences, like anxiety, depression, and even physical ailments (Gainey, Kelley Hill, 1999). Moreover, not all jobs are suitable for telecommuting and some employers dislike supervising employees they cannot see (Mills, et al., 2001). Nevertheless, telecommuting should be considered as one of the costco swot possible solution, because it is a perfect way to reduce vehicle traveling during the day, consequently reducing air pollution levels. Of Grief! The last, but not the least possible solution is to replace gasoline usage in the city with hydrogen fuel. The transportation sector is currently consuming gasoline and diesel at high rates.
More than half of the globally used oil is used for costco swot transportation (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). The harmful emissions to the environment are due to of grief its usage. Therefore, alternative fuels should be used more. Some types of alternative fuels are bioalcahol (methanol, ethanol), biodiesel and hydrogen. Kouroussis and Karimi (2006) compared the fuels listed above and came to conclusion that the use of hydrogen as a fuel would be the most beneficial one. A transition from the great, fossil fuels to hydrogen would decrease the air pollution level because almost zero emissions occur, with water being the only by-product. In addition, hydrogen is the most abundant element on the Earth, so there should not be concerns about of grief running out of its stocks. Constant For Fescn2+ Value! Moreover, car industries should produce more automobiles with a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.
Currently, BMW is the only one. BMW also made the cycle of grief automobile to be powered either by hydrogen or gasoline, as the availability of hydrogen refueling stations is low (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). However, there are several disadvantages to this solution. Firstly, hydrogen made from Essay on Italian Renissance, electrolysis of water is very expensive. At 25 °C, 65 watt-hours are needed to cycle electrolyze one mole of water, which is 4.8kWh of electricity to generate one cubic meter of hydrogen. This electricity comes from the alternator which of costco swot course is powered by cycle, the engine, which uses energy (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). So, fuel economy is decreased by Essay on Italian, the same means you are trying to improve fuel economy. But there is an alternative way to produce hydrogen, which is to split the water molecules through the cycle of grief use of wind or solar energy, what is less expensive (Kouroussis Karimi, 2006). Another disadvantage is equilibrium literature that the number of hydrogen refueling stations is very low. So, if individual runs out of the gas, it will be difficult to find a station to refuel the automobile immediately. To construct new hydrogen gas stations will require the cycle government to allocate huge amounts of money.
Weinert (2006) estimated a hydrogen station construction to cost from $500,000 to over $5 million, depending on station size (30 kg/day 1,000 kg/day). This amount includes the capital costs, installation costs, feedstock costs and the great fixed operating costs. Despite the disadvantages, producing and using hydrogen instead of gasoline holds the promise of cycle of grief pollution reduction in tradition, Mexico City. Mexico City is often said to be the most polluted city in the world. It certainly does pose serious environmental threats to cycle of grief its own survival as a city, but it affects regional and costco swot global air quality levels as well.
Therefore, specific measures have to be taken in order to reduce the air pollution level. There are some basic solutions that could be used, like continue enforcing legal regulations, pass a low on cycle of grief, telecommuting and use hydrogen fuel instead of gasoline. All of these have already been implemented and sambia tribe ritual we know that they will work for cycle of grief the environment. Therefore, the in the behind government should enforce these solutions and stop the air pollution in Mexico City. Of Grief! Connolly, P. (1999). Mexico City: our common future? Environment and Urbanization, 11(1), 53-78. Edgerton, S.A., Arriaga, J.L., Archuleta, J., Bian, X., Bossert, J.E., Chow, J.C.,… Zhong, S. (n.d.).
Particulate air pollution in Mexico City. A Collaborative Research Project. Retrieved from behind mass was to:, http://www.narsto.org/sites/narsto.org/files/MexAWMA.pdf Gainey, T. W., Kelley, D. E. and Hill, J. A. (1999). Telecommuting#8217;s impact on corporate culture and individual workers: Examining the effect of employee isolation. Of Grief! Society for the Advancement of Management, 64(4). How can air pollution hurt my health? (n. d.). Retrieved from http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/Frames/pollution-health-effects-f.html Kouroussis, D. and Karimi, S. (2006). Alternative fuels in transportation. Bulletin of Science, Technology Society, 26(4), 346-355. Luck, T. M. 707 Essay! (2008). The world#8217;s dirtiest cities.
Retrieved from cycle, http://www.forbes.com/2008/02/26/pollution-baku-oil-biz-logistics-cx_tl_0226dirtycities.html McKinley, G., Zuk, M., Hojer, M., Avalos, M., Gonzalez, I., Iniestra, R., … Martinez, J. (2005). Quantification of costco swot local and global benefits from air pollution control in Mexico City. Environmental Science and technology, 39(7), 1954-1961. Mills, J. E., Wong-Ellison, C., Werner, W. and Clay, J. M. (2001). Employer liability for telecommuting employees. Cornel Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly,42, 48-59. Molina, M. J. and Molina, L.T. (n.d.). Improving air quality In megacities: Mexico City case study. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US.
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Five Stages Of Grief - Understanding the Kubler-Ross Model
Case Study – Purchasing Management. As a Privileged Fly I have been allowed to cycle of grief be on the wall of a corporate boardroom to past, behind production was to: observe the proceedings during the high-powered discussions. Cycle Of Grief? The case study is about a manufacturing and engineering firm that has been doing very well in terms sales but has a serious challenge of escalating freight costs. The case study reveals that the root cause of the problem is insufficient inventories and lack of planning and fragmented purchasing process. The case study will provide a detailed analysis of the basic inventory problems confronting the firm.
The case study will also highlight management of forecasting, purchasing, inventories and Production with a view of indicating that the firm’s management in these areas is inefficient. Furthermore, the case study will look at inventory management, inventory control and whether the Purchasing Manager should build up her inventory. Need essay sample on Case Study – Purchasing Management ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. It will reflect the in the past, the idea mass was to:, need to cycle of grief hold inventory as well as dangers and consequences for poor inventory control. The case study will reflect on materials management as a concept that is applied nowadays in order to tradition streamline process and ensure system efficiency, its advantages and whether the firm must adopted the materials management approach. Finally, the case study will provide other recommendations that can be used to cycle resolve this problem. 1. WHAT ARE THE BASIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS CONFRONTING THIS FIRM? In every organization the purchasing department forms an Essay and the Reformation, integral part of the success of the department in meeting the sales, production and of grief distribution demand and has a critical role to play in order to ensure that the organization meets and sambia possibly exceed the expectations of the customers. It is therefore imperative for communication to flow between the cycle of grief, Purchasing Manager and the idea other Managers around the orders received and the status of the production department with regards to materials/parts required for a particular order. The basic inventory problems confronting this firm have been identified as ollows: – The lack of communication between the Production Manager and other Managers creates a problem in terms of of grief, establishing whether materials/parts are available as well as to enable the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and well in advance to meet the requirements of the Production Manager in terms of materials/parts or spares. The Purchasing Manager seems to be listening to the words of the Managing Director around cost-saving on limited inventory and unilaterally reduces stock on inventory without proper consultation with other Line Managers.
The Purchasing Manager does not seem to understand the role/responsibility of the purchasing department within the firm. According to Hugo, Badenhorst-Weiss van Rooyen, (2002) purchasing and tradition supply management is responsible for the continuous supply of all kinds of materials needed by production – in the right quantity, at the right time and at a competitive price. Of Grief? It is therefore clear that the purchasing department is the main player in equilibrium for fescn2+ value, ensuring customer satisfaction while enhancing the image and reputation of the firm. It is clear that the Purchasing Manager is only focusing on cost-cutting measures by reducing inventory and at the same time ignoring the fact that such process must implemented with great care and consideration. As much as the firm wants to cut down on inventory it is of grief, important that the exercise is not implemented to the detriment of the firm.
In this regard the Distribution Manager has mentioned that the Purchasing Manager never has anything in stock and this is compounded by the small orders that she places. Obviously the Purchasing Manager should have taken note that the freight costs are going up and impact that her cutting down on inventory has had to sambia tribe the firm. Insufficient stock on inventory reflects lack of proper inventory management and also taking into account the manner in which orders/parts/stock are ordered. There is cycle of grief, no indication whether a policy exist where consultation will be entered into between the 707 Essay, Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers in order to ensure that orders are consolidated which would result in a saving on freight costs. As the of grief, firm is manufacturing company it is therefore necessary to reflect on reasons for equilibrium constant for fescn2+ literature value holding inventory. Sufficient inventory ensures that production is continuous and at an economic level, contributing to a lower manufacturing cost per product through efficient use of cycle of grief, equipment and labour (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It therefore means that sufficient inventory and production of orders timeously will result in the organization getting more orders/customers because the 707 Essay, reputation of the firm will grow. The firm runs a risk of losing a lot of money if inventory management is cycle of grief, not exercised and applied properly. This can result in large inventories being carried and kept in stock thus increasing inventory costs which cause the Managing Director to raise a concern regarding the need to carry inventory, considering the costs. However, with proper consultation and communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Line Managers a decision can be taken with regards to materials that must be carried on inventory as well as the acceptable quantities to on Italian be carried on of grief inventory.
The aim of inventory is to hold inventories at the lowest possible cost, given the The Boeing, objective to ensure uninterrupted supplies for ongoing operations (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). It is clear that consideration must be taken into account when a decision is taken on inventory, i. e. the materials that must be kept on inventory as well as drawing a comparison between the costs involved to of grief hold inventory and the loss resulting from non-availability of materials. For inventory management to be efficient and effective it is important and necessary for the Purchasing Manager to have an understanding of all elements and costs that are involved in The Boeing, inventory-holding. According to of grief Hugo, et al. (2002) the elements of inventory-holding are inventory-holding costs, ordering costs, costs of shortages and set-up costs. From this statement it is clear that the Purchasing Manager is not familiar with these elements as there is nowhere during the meeting that she displayed her understanding of inventory management and control. It appears that the Purchasing Manager has never conducted an analysis and/or compared the savings of operating on on Italian Renissance and the Reformation low inventories against the freight costs as there is no argument during the meeting justifying that. It is also clear that the cycle, Purchasing Manager has never bothered to reflect on the cause of high freight costs and maybe consider that the following might be the cause of the escalating costs: low/insufficient inventories, split orders in small quantities and short lead times. The good example is reflected by the argument of the Managing Director to the effect that the freight bill is R955 whereas the cost of the part itself is less than R955. It therefore goes without saying that the The Boeing, firm could have saved more money in freight costs has extra care been taken when orders were placed in that consolidated orders result in saving in freight costs.
It is of grief, also clear that there is lack of communication between the Purchasing Manager and other Managers with regards to forecasting. Forecasting of the expected inventory consumption is an important aid for effectively anticipating the influences of uncertainties about the future inventory requirements (Hugo, et al. ; 2002). Forecasting of inventory consumption should begin from the tradition, time the order has been concluded by the Marketing Manager, with the latter providing relevant information regarding lead times for the order, to the Production Manager giving an indication materials and turn around time required for production, to the Purchasing and Distribution Managers. In this regard this does not seem to happen as the Purchasing Manager is pointing a finger at the Production Manager, and the lack of communication might be a deliberate act by the Production Manager who wants to cycle capitalize on the situation and seize control of both Purchasing and Distribution in the process. The Great Tradition? It is therefore clear that the power games that are being played by cycle the Production Manager are affecting the firm as some of the shipment deadlines are not met and customers have began to complain which also poses a serious reputational risk. . WHAT ARE THE FACTORS THAT HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SITUATION? DOES THIS COMPANY REFLECT EFFICIENT OR INEFFICIENT ON MANAGEMENT OF FORECASTING, PURCHASING, INVENTORIES, AND PRODUCTION? There are various factors that have contributed to the growing of freight firms both in constant literature, numbers and rand value of freight transported.
INBOUND FREIGHT The increase in inbound freights is cycle, caused by insufficient materials on inventories which have forced the Purchasing Manager to Renissance Reformation place orders whenever materials are required by cycle of grief production component. The other contributing factor is the the idea mass was to:, lack of planning and proper buying approach in that the Purchasing Manager has no ordering process in place as orders are placed in cycle, smaller quantities which is compounded by lack of early communication between the Purchasing Manager and the Production Manager regarding required production materials. Constant For Fescn2+? This failure to communicate creates a problem for the entire Management team as shipment deadlines are not met if materials are not in received in time, a situation that forces the use of freight firms frequently thus resulting in the increase in inbound freights. In short the more the use of freight the increase in freight costs. OUTBOUND FREIGHT In this regard the increase in cycle of grief, outbound costs can be attributed to an effort by the distribution component to meet shipment deadlines.
The shortage of materials in inventory and in the past, the idea behind mass production late deliveries of materials due to late ordering result to the production component having to work long hours in order to complete orders as well as having to use the fastest possible freight available in order to meet deliveries or to make up for the already passed deadlines. It also means that the firm is faced with a situation where there is no systematic approach to the handling of orders which can result in orders being delivered within the stipulated deadlines. The more the late deliveries/shipment that need to be made as and when they are ready, the more the use of freight and the increase in freight costs. The efficient or inefficient management of Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and of grief Production can be described as follows: – FORECASTING The firm does not reflect effective and efficient management when it comes to forecasting. Sound and efficient forecasting involves sharing of information between Managers in order meet the customer demand, which does not seem to be happening in this regard. The firm is faced with a situation where there is massive communication breakdown between Line Managers which has resulted by in costs escalating, customers complaining and a possibility of losing orders. An effective communication structure enables the firm to operate in an organized manner as communication flow from end to end and the shortcomings and/problems are detected and resolved at any early stage with minimum disruptions to production. Participative meetings of the management team assist the firm in ensuring that all activities are discussed properly where each Manager provides an indication of their requirements in order to enable the Purchasing Manager to have sufficient time to identify all required materials/parts that need to be ordered and to agree with the Production Manager on production materials that must be kept on inventory before orders are placed. PURCHASING. From my analysis I have concluded that the Purchasing Manager is not in total control of the purchasing process as there is no indication that any interaction exist with regards to the requirements of the marketing/production teams. It is also clear that there are no policies/procedure manuals clearly defining the purchasing process that must be followed.
According to van Weele (2005) a lack of a well defined purchasing policy and a lack of structure in the purchasing (decision-making) process and the resulting lack of control on purchasing costs may lead to an unforeseen financial loss. Purchasing policies are fundamental and they contribute to business in various ways in that they can significantly improve sales margins through realizing substantial cost savings. It therefore clear that the purchasing department plays a vital role in the success of the organization provided there are clear and well purchasing policies/manuals in place. Costco Swot? In this particular case there has to be an improvement in the manner in which the cycle of grief, management team communicate and the great purchasing policy must be developed in order to assist the Purchasing Manager to cycle maintain and manage a buying process that is both efficient and The Boeing ffective. INVENTORIES The management of inventories in this firm is very poor and very much inefficient. Cycle Of Grief? The shortage of materials is caused by the fact that the Essay on Italian Reformation, firm has cut down on inventory which has resulted in materials/parts not available when required thus leading to of grief downtime which is costing the firm dearly as production department must work overtime and for fescn2+ literature value fastest modes of freight (which are mostly expensive) must be utilized in order to meet production and cycle of grief shipment deadlines. The Purchasing Manager does not understand and is not worried by the cost implication the the great, reduced inventories and of grief small orders has on the freight budget.
It appears that the instructions of the Managing Director regarding operating on low or no-inventory are implemented without careful consideration of the implications and/consequences. Past, The Idea Behind? The Purchasing Manager must develop an Inventory Management policy that will reflect sound control measures with regards to acceptable quantities that must be carried on stock as well as the turn around times required for the supply of requested materials. PRODUCTION Production management within the cycle, firm seems to sambia be inefficient. However, failure to communicate production materials requirement reflects a lack of cycle, effective communication between the Production Manager, Marketing Manager and Purchasing Manager which is also compounded by constant for fescn2+ literature the Production Manager’s personal view to having purchasing and distribution components, a view which seems to have contributed to problem the firm is faced with. For effective management of production there is a need to hold inventory of critical materials at minimal level in cycle, order to ensure uninterrupted supply of production, and production forecasting must be communicated to the Purchasing Manager in order to ensure that sufficient materials are on the great hand for the duration of the operation. The Production Manager must establish a working relationship with other Managers and communicate in cycle of grief, good faith with the interests of the firm at heart. . WHAT SHOULD JOAN GLASS DO? The important aspect is for Joan Glass to acknowledge the importance of inventory management and inventory control. In order for inventory management to be a success it is tradition, important to cycle conduct and analysis in order to determine materials that must be classified as inventory items.
This process involves planning and there are planning aids available to assist the Purchasing Manager during this process. According to Hugo et al. (2002) the aims and uses of the The Boeing 707 Essay, planning aids may be expressed as follows: – • To arrange, classify and cycle of grief interrelate the in the past, behind mass production was to:, full range of stock items (the inventory) • To carry out an estimate of the real demand for different stock items • To obtain an estimate of the expected inventory requirements of the enterprise • To make an objective calculation of the quantities required, while considering inventory costs and inventory consumption. From the above it is clear that the required information for estimates must be obtained from other Managers and it is therefore necessary to develop a policy that is going to specifically address the issue of providing information to the Joan Glass. Cycle? The policy must also address the issue of past, the idea mass production was to:, production forecasting by the Production Manager based on the orders issued in order to ensure the uninterrupted supply of materials. The re has to cycle be an improvement in interaction between Managers and the policy must define the roles and responsibilities of each component and Essay and the Reformation encourage co-operation. . SHOULD JOAN GLASS SUGGEST A MATERIALS MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION? Materials management can be defined as a concept that is aimed at ensuring that systems are efficient. It acknowledges the fact that supply activities are dependant on each other and that the problem with one activity has an of grief, influence on other activities linked to it. Materials management consolidates all activities under the control of a single Manager and aligns the processes (purchasing, inventory management, distribution and transport). An organization, which has adopted materials management organizational concept, will have a single Manager responsible for planning, organizing, motivating and controlling of all activities principally concerned with the flow of materials into an organization (Leenders Fearon, 1997). From the above it is clear that the firm in this case will have one Manager, as opposed to four Managers the firm currently has, responsible for all activities with the Essay Renissance, exception of production if the concept is adopted. It is of grief, also clear that the adoption of materials management approach will require the firm to equilibrium literature undergo a restructuring process and organizational review, a process that will include review of business/supply processes.
As much as materials management has its advantages it is important for the firm to conduct an analysis and research in order to cycle determine whether such approach will reduce costs and costco swot increase profit margins as opposed to of grief the total costs for organizational restructuring. I do not think that Joan Glass should suggest a materials management organization. The Great? The firm has a challenge to ensure that there is flow of communication and information sharing between Managers in order to cut down on freight costs. The approach in handling production and materials supply needs to be re-aligned and improved. 5. Of Grief? SHOULD GLASS BUILD UP HER INVENTORY? The decision to hold inventory should not be taken lightly as that might have a huge financial implication if the approach is fragmented. Inventory management cannot succeed if necessary controls are not in place as the costs for past, mass was to: holding inventory might rise, shortage of space for inventory, obsolete inventory due to cycle bulk buying. In this case there is a need to hold inventory considering the fact that the company is faced with a challenge in terms of ensuring uninterrupted supply of material to production and also meet shipment deadlines; which is contrary to Essay on Italian Reformation the current situation. Joan Glass should not just build up her inventory without any basis, such decision must be supported by the result of an analysis conducted as well as the cycle, forecast of the Production Manager. The ABC analysis, also known as the Pareto analysis, will assist Joan Glass to determine the items that must be kept on stock.
According to sambia tribe Hugo et al. Of Grief? (2002) the Essay Renissance Reformation, ABC analysis is primarily aimed at cycle of grief, providing management with information on the importance of the different inventory items in terms of money value. The ABC analysis can only be attempted after a thorough investigation has been carried out on aspects such as price, demand for different inventory items, delivery times and the particular problems related to the purchasing of different inventory items (Burt and Dobler, 1996). In The Past,? The carrying of inventory at a minimal level coupled with sound forecasting will reduce freight costs and also keep inventory costs as low as possible, which means that there has to be a balance between inventory carrying costs and ordering costs. 6. WHAT OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS COULD YOU MAKE TO RESOLVE THIS ISSUE? The case study shows that there is a communication breakdown between the management team and of grief communication forms an integral part of the success of the organization. The communication model stipulates that communication goes both ways and past, was to: there has to be feed back. There has to cycle of grief be frequent communication between marketing, purchasing and distribution departments in order to ensure that the required materials for orders do not fall short before the final production of an sambia tribe ritual, order. This will also assist the Purchasing Manager to plan properly and place consolidated orders which will minimize the freight costs.
There is also no indication that there is a purchasing/distribution policy in place in order to cycle of grief ensure that relevant processes are clearly spelt out. There is a need to be up to date with what is happening in the industry in equilibrium for fescn2+, order to ensure that the organization keeps up with the changes that takes place all the time and to make a meaningful contribution of the company. In this regard Joan Glass has to be aware of what is going on of grief within the firm, there has to be structured communication between Managers in order to ensure that production and supply is not hindered because of materials shortage. Implementing decisions or suggestions made by constant value management without consideration can have reaching consequences as it is the case here with the cutting down on inventory because of the suggestion by the Managing Director. Whenever changes have to be implemented an analysis and research needs to be conducted and justified by statistics/facts including costs that the of grief, organization will save. However, in this case no analysis was made except that Joan Glass decided to costco swot cut down on cycle of grief inventory without considering the impact the non-availability of sambia tribe ritual, inventory will have to production, distribution and marketing. Inventory management goes hand in hand with sound inventory control. The organization can also look at having contracts for certain materials in order to ensure that materials are delivered timeously. The organization must also look at formulating the purchasing policy in order to eliminate the fragment ordering approach that result in cycle, small orders being placed thus building up freight costs. The entire management team has to acknowledge the fact that planning is crucial in every successful organization and that organizational interest is more than individual interest as that can impact negatively on the success and growth of the organization. The case study has also highlighted the need to explore other options aimed at addressing the problem the organization is faced in order to provide the management team with valuable information coupled with well researched facts so that an informed decision can be taken.
CONCLUSION The case study has reflected on the problems and the importance of inventory management and sambia ritual sound inventory control. It also highlights the importance of good and efficient management of of grief, Forecasting, Purchasing, Inventories and Production. The case study has highlighted the importance of planning and communication between the management team and the consequences of the idea behind was to:, poor planning. REFERENCES Van Weele, A. J. 2005. Cycle Of Grief? Purchasing Supply Chain Management: Analysis, Strategy, Planning and Practice. Costco Swot? 4th Ed. London: Thomson Learning. Hugo W. M. J. , Badenhorst-Weiss J. A. van Rooyen D. C. 2002. Of Grief? Purchasing and Supply Management.
4th Ed. Pretoria, South Africa: Van Schaik Publishers. Costco Swot? Burt D. Of Grief? N. , Dobler D. W. Costco Swot? Starling S. L. 2003. Cycle? World Class Supply Management: The Key to Supply Chain Management. 7th Ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Five Stages of Grief by Elisabeth Kubler Ross & David Kessler
Free High School Student Resume Templates for Teens. If you’ve never made a resume before, it can seem more difficult than the job search itself. Fortunately, making a resume is cycle as simple as following a format. Past,! With some key information in the right order, anyone can create one. Your First Job Resume: What It Is and Why You Need It. A resume is a one-page document that summarizes your experience, skills, and other information . Cycle! The purpose is to show you’re a perfect candidate for costco swot the position you are applying for. It should be formal, professional, and relevant. Resumes give potential employers a way to cycle of grief, learn about in the past, behind mass applicants quickly and easily, and they are your first step toward new job opportunities. An interview might also be needed to land the job, but a resume is necessary to start the process. Resumes let employers quickly screen out job seekers who don’t have the right experience and qualifications. A well-crafted resume that highlights your experience will set you apart from the competition.
Even if you have little or no work experience yet, these guidelines will get you on track to having a great entry-level resume and cycle, all the opportunities that come with it. There are three basic resume formats to choose from: chronological, functional, and sambia tribe ritual, combination. It helps to cycle of grief, familiarize yourself with these options before deciding on the right resume template for you. This is one of the The Boeing most common resume formats. It lists your work history in reverse chronological order, starting with the cycle of grief most recent position. It is often headed with a “Career Objective” section.
We will talk about these sections in more detail later in this post. On a chronological resume you’ll also want to list your education in reverse chronological order, starting with the the great most recent school you attended or relevant course you’ve taken. This is a common resume format. It’s easy for of grief employers to scan a chronological resume quickly and get an idea of your experience. This kind of resume highlights your work history, so it’s great if you’ve had impressive employment opportunities. If you don’t have much work history, or your work history isn’t relevant to the job you want, this type of resume may not be best for you. Prospective employers will throw your resume in the idea behind mass production was to:, the “No” pile if all they see is cycle work that’s not related to the job they are looking to fill, or if your resume looks empty because you didn’t have much experience to list. A functional resume format highlights other sections, like skills and activities, over work experience. This type of resume focuses on what you know or what you can do, rather than what you’ve done at specific jobs.
It will probably still have some sort of work history section, but it will be placed at the bottom rather than at the top of the page. Essay! Your work history might not be listed in of grief, chronological order on this type of costco swot, resume. Cycle Of Grief! In fact, it might not have dates at all, but be listed in order of 707 Essay, relevance instead. This type of resume can be great if you have little or no conventional work experience. It can hide long gaps in between jobs, and can draw attention to cycle of grief, your other skills or activities.
Most employers will be accustomed to tradition, the chronological resume format. Cycle! They will likely know that the reason you chose this format is Essay and the because you have less work experience or less consistent job history than other job seekers. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you’re a less desirable candidate. Like a functional resume, a combination resume puts your skills and activities first and foremost. However, this type of resume also lists your work experience in of grief, reverse chronological order. It just doesn’t put it near the top like a chronological resume does. This hybrid style gives a balance between promoting your skills and your work history. For teens with work experience that’s impressive but short, this kind of costco swot, resume is ideal. You can show off your work history, but also fill in more space by talking about cycle your skills and tradition, other knowledge you have. It’s also useful if the work history you have doesn’t quite fit with the cycle job you’re looking for. With a combination resume, you can put the skills that are relevant to your ideal job first, but still give details about your past work experience.
Making a combination resume can feel overwhelming, since it uses so much information. The Boeing! Be careful to use only the most relevant information so it doesn’t become cluttered or too wordy. How to Create a Good High School Student Resume. Your resume always needs to of grief, include your name and contact information. List your name, phone number, email address, and tribe ritual, city at the top of your resume. You don’t need to cycle, include your full street address, but you can if you’d like. Everything else can be adjusted to fit your unique experience.
For example, your resume could include any of the following: Work Experience or Work History Education Career Objective or Summary Professional Skills or Other Skills Activities Hobbies and Interests Achievements, Awards, and Honors References. Each of and the, these sections will consist of a heading in bold or slightly larger font, followed by details about cycle of grief that section. For example, under the “Education” heading, you might list the schools you’ve attended and the subjects you focused on. Remember, you probably won’t use all of Essay on Italian and the, these headings. Just pick the ones that are most relevant to you and the job you’re seeking. Every section requires a slightly different approach. Let’s break it down and cycle, see how it works. This can be a difficult section to tackle on a teen resume, since you might not have any work experience yet.
Don’t worry though. Everyone was in the same situation when they were looking for literature their first job! If you have no work experience, you can leave this section out and focus on the other sections. If you do have official work experience, it’s important to cycle, mention it in Essay on Italian Renissance, this section, especially if it is a job similar to the one you are applying for. Even if you weren’t officially employed, you probably have more work experience to put on your resume than you think.
Part-time work like babysitting, lawn mowing, tutoring, and of grief, even volunteer experience or community service all count as good examples of behind mass was to:, work experience on a teen resume. Under the of grief “Work Experience” heading, list the name of the company you worked for, your job title, and dates of employment. You should also list your responsibilities, duties, and The Boeing, accomplishments. That way, it’s clear what kind of of grief, experience you gained. Use two or three bullet points to list your responsibilities and Essay on Italian Renissance and the Reformation, duties for each job. See our sample high school student resume templates below for cycle of grief real-world examples of tradition, work experience sections. In the “Education” section, state the cycle of grief high school you attended or presently attend and the years you were there or the date you expect to graduate. In The Past, Behind! For example: Crescent High School – Arlington, Virginia. Expected graduation date: May 2017.
If there are classes you’ve taken that are relevant to the job you want, you can list that relevant coursework here. You can mention your future education plans too. For example: I have been accepted to Chicago State University, and cycle of grief, I am planning to major in business law I will be taking my AP classes next month to constant value, prepare for college I will begin attending Chicago State University this fall. The “Career Objective” section shows what kind of cycle of grief, job you’re looking for. It consists of Essay on Italian and the Reformation, one or two sentences near the cycle top of value, your resume that describe your desired job. Of Grief! For example: Offer excellent hostess service in a busy local restaurant Apply my computer skills to tradition, practical work Provide quality delivery for local food business.
You can also extend your objective statement into of grief a summary. A summary is 707 Essay a short paragraph that summarizes your experience and key skills. Cycle Of Grief! For example: I am an ritual energetic, enthusiastic, and cycle of grief, active individual with a strong knowledge of grocery items and their use by people from different economic and Essay Reformation, social backgrounds. I have a business mindset and am willing to apply these skills as a grocery store employee. This section might seem unnecessary, but it can actually be very helpful to potential employers.
It gives you a chance to describe yourself and your goals in your own words. Cycle! It can also be useful when you don’t have much concrete work experience, but do have skills that potential employers should know about. Make sure the costco swot objective or summary is short, clear, and professional. Professional Skills or Other Skills. You likely have skills that could be relevant to a particular position you are applying for.
These can be listed under “Professional Skills.” Make sure the skills are relevant to the job you want. If you are applying for a gardener job, no need to mention “Ability to handle cash register”, since that skill doesn’t apply to that job. Cycle! But you might mention, “Ability to use lawn mower and gardening tools safely.” If you have no work experience, this section can help demonstrate whether you are a good fit for the position. You can also list skills that come from sambia tribe, your school or hobbies under “Other Skills.” Make sure they’re still related in some way to what potential employers are looking for. What are some key skills you might list? Creativity Leadership Adaptability Flexibility Positivity Problem-solving Communication Independence Self-motivation Ability to work under pressure. This section gives an employer insight into your character and interests. Of Grief! It might even tie into the “Skills” section. Think of on Italian Renissance Reformation, extracurricular activities, sports, and clubs you have participated in.
Taking a lead role in a school play? You are probably creative. Playing football? You might be a good team player. These are qualities that employers are looking for. Some examples of school activities that could look good on of grief a resume include: Sports : playing sports in a association or for fun, outdoor activities, fitness training, taking sport lessons, coaching. The Idea Mass Production Was To:! Culture : creating art works, shows, plays, films, games, singing or dancing, DIY projects, creative workshops. Community : raising donations for various organizations or humanitarian causes, organizing events, helping kids, seniors, animals, or the cycle of grief environment, promoting community enhancements. Just like with skills, only list relevant activities here.
Write down the activity, dates, and costco swot, your role/position. For example: West River Hospital, volunteer, summer 2012 Crescent High School Soccer Team, captain, 2005 – 2013 Stage Drama Festival, lead role, summer 2011. If your resume is short on of grief work experience, you can list more details about 707 Essay your activities to cycle of grief, show what you gained from costco swot, them. Cycle! You might use bullet points to write what your responsibilities were or what skills you used in these activities. This section is similar to activities, as it tells an employer more about your character.
Simply make a list of hobbies that might be of the great tradition, interest to potential employers. Cycle! For example: Reading books Playing tennis Painting and sculpture. It’s great to mention major achievements and awards you’ve earned at the great tradition, school or in your activities. Prospective employers like to see accomplishments that show commitment and hard work. Cycle! For example: Student of the Essay on Italian Renissance and the Month, March 2013 Perfect Attendance Award, September 2012 Honor Roll, fall 2012. A reference should be someone who can vouch for your knowledge and skills, or who can confirm your work experience. Your teachers, coaches, or former employers can be good references. Listing your friends or family as references is not recommended, but can be acceptable if you worked for them. Remember that you must ask a person to serve as a reference before you can list them as one.
Many people simply write “References Available on Request” at the bottom of their resumes. If you do this, make sure you actually have those references available in case a prospective employer requests them. However, if you have limited experience to put on your resume, you might want to list the names and contact information of cycle of grief, your references on The Boeing your resume. Free High School Student Resume Examples. These teen resume samples will make getting started easy. Of Grief! There are general purpose high school student resume templates, as well as resumes for specific work experience. These samples will guide you with a professional resume format and a basic idea of costco swot, what to write.
We also have High School Graduate Resumes and cycle of grief, other professional resume templates. Creative babysitter resume sample with a summary, education, related and tribe, personal skills, hobbies, and references examples. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6267 Filename: babysitter-cv-template-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:21:00 / 3136. Generic design with sample content (skills, knowledge) for a position in a fast food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7435 Filename: fast-food-employee-cv.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:34:00 / 3138. Basic design and cycle, common content for any type of the great, position.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 27336 Filename: geneal-purpose-high-school-resume.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:36:00 / 3140. Another multi-purpose sample, with blue header theme. Includes customer work and volunteer experience. Size: 183 B Downloads: 18024 Filename: teenager-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:38:00 / 3142. Sample for position in gardening or landscape. Creative design theme to attract attention. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3046 Filename: lawn-care-gardening-job-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:39:00 / 3144.
Resume sample for students who would like to promote tutoring services to other students or student#039;s parents. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4214 Filename: student-tutor-cv-sample.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:41:00 / 3146. Generic resume sample for part-time grocery store job. Of Grief! Can be easily modified for and the Reformation similar positions in different stores. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6589 Filename: grocery-store-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:42:00 / 3148. Elegant resume for server or host position in cycle of grief, a restaurant. On Italian And The! Can also be used for kitchen help, cook help, busser, etc. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4308 Filename: waitress-or-hostess-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:44:00 / 3150. Sample teen resume for full-time or part-time volunteer job for a candidate with previous volunteer work. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4673 Filename: volunteer-position-application.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:45:00 / 3152.
Sample resume for part-time position in warehouse. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5313 Filename: warehouse-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:47:00 / 3154. Sample resume for cycle of grief an apprentice welder and in the the idea was to:, assisting in different welding projects. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3777 Filename: welder-helper-job.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:48:00 / 3156. Professional sample for a food delivery position.
Can be easily modified for of grief a different position in the food industry. Size: 183 B Downloads: 26440 Filename: food-industry-position.docx Uploaded: 2013-07-04 06:17:00 / 3134. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.
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