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In the Skin of a Lion Summary | GradeSaver
Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. To be an effective teacher is to in the skin lion michael ondaatje invest yourself into making a difference in the lives of the the IGEHO students you teach. An effective teacher inspires his/her students with the in the skin ondaatje importance of developmental level learning and in the of a lion ondaatje the freedom of creativity. They provide opportunities for learning by managing information in a way that allows students to on Improving Exhibition attain knowledge and to intellectually, socially, physically, emotionally and spiritually develop to their full potential (Barry and King, 1998:6). In The Skin Of A Lion. Teachers however are not superhuman, though some may think they should be. Developmental. Teaching is a vocation that requires constant updating of knowledge content and teaching skills (pedagogy); constantly re-evaluating and striving for better methods to accommodate student learning. Teaching does not predetermine learning: teacher effectiveness is therefore dependent upon the symbiotic relationship which exists between content knowledge and pedagogical ability; one can not exist in isolation of the other.
We can write a custom essay on Learning for you! A teacher can have all the knowledge in the world but if they can not teach it they will be ineffective teachers, conversely, a teacher may have great teaching skills, but limited content knowledge and therefore will also be an ineffective teacher. Consequently “[…] effective teaching requires at its baseline individuals who are academically able, who have command of the subject they are required to teach [and] who can produce results, mainly those of student academic achievement and social learning.” (Killen, 1995:18) The effective teacher draws from this notion that teaching is an art and a science. In The Skin Of A Lion Michael. By combining the science of steppenwolf education with the art of intuition effective teachers endeavour to understand and consider how the construction of skin lion michael ondaatje knowledge, classroom management, relationship with the Essay Exhibition students and lastly the role of reflection, are central to a student’s ability to process and make meaning from the of a ondaatje learning experience. Malcolm (1995, June:3) asserts “Generally the way we teach is consistent with our deeply embedded beliefs about learning.” Munroe reinforces this in his predictions “[that] exposure to a systematic exploration of the learning process by teachers increases the display of effective teaching behaviours and attitudes to learning” (Munro,10, 2:152,1999). Erikson Developmental. Therefore central to effective teaching is an understanding of the construction of in the lion ondaatje knowledge. Recent cognitive research recognises that the learner must engage and actively construct their own meaning; this asserts that a students ability to learn is influenced by their existing knowledge, and is therefore achieved by connecting new units of information to his/her own existing beliefs (Barry and online King, 1998:28). In The Of A Michael Ondaatje. Learning however often requires more than just making connections of old ideas to new ones; it sometimes requires the student to restructure their thinking radically. That is, to incorporate the new idea the learner must change the connections amongst the thing they already know.
In some instances in order to erikson level assimilate the information some learners will distort the information to fit what they already know or reject the in the michael ondaatje information altogether. This research has a number of implications for the effective teacher, especially in everything rises theme light of Munro’s assertion that the impact upon existing knowledge of the learner depends upon skin of a lion michael ondaatje, the extent to which the teacher is able to activate certain ‘learning functions’; Munro identifies key ‘learning functions’ that impact on the existing knowledge of the learner as: “[…]having a reason or purpose for learning, being in a state of ‘cognitive conflict’ having an impression of the outcome or goal of the Mesoamerica Essay learning [and] reviewing what has been learnt.” (Munro,10. 2:152,1999). This has explicit implications for the effective teacher: • Give students plenty of opportunity for in the michael ondaatje, guided and independent practice with new concepts and skills. • Use techniques such as advanced organiser, key questions and prediction to prepare students for learning. • Use content that supports all types of learners, such as text, video, audio or multimedia. Steppenwolf. • Provide clear and of a lion focused instruction, emphasise key points and check student understanding that avoids digression. Essay The IGEHO. • Provide feedback and reinforcement regarding their learning progress. • Ask higher order questions and in the michael give students time to answer. • Provide regular and focused reviews of key concepts and skills throughout the year to check on and strengthen student understanding. • Encourage both action and reflection on the part of the learner. • Provide real-world scenarios that arouse student’s interest and curiosity. (Curriculum Frameworks Document, 1998:33-39. Mesoamerica Essay. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Learning topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at PapersMart.net? Would you like to get a free quote?
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Anne Enright on Michael Ondaatje s In the Skin of a Lion | Books | The
Mona Lisa – the most intriguing painting. Posted by on Sep 9, 2009 in Art Essays. Mona Lisa, 1 the in the lion ondaatje, portrait of a beautiful Florentine woman is probably one of the most known feminine images in the world, painted by the greatest artist of american evangelicalism, The Italian Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci. In The Skin Ondaatje? Since 500 years its magnifying power has been inspiring unsolved mysteries and on Improving Exhibition multitudes theories, concerning the origins of the characteristics deeply psychological expressions on her face: her dual smile and profoundly enigmatic regard of her eyes, but also her mysterious identity, as well as her personal connections to the artist. In The Of A Ondaatje? It is surprising how much attention is driven constantly to online, this particular artwork not only by scholars, but also by people of different professions digging literally Mona Lisa’s face for in the of a, answers to their imaginary questions concerning this master chef of art.
Regarding to the IGEHO Exhibition, the above statement, I would like to expose few of many circulating suppositions as well as generally accepted facts, concluding with my personal opinion about it. First I would like to introduce some generally recognized and accepted by scholars evidences: Leonardo da Vinci was born 15 of April 1452 in Anchiano , near Vinci in Republic of Florence. 2 He was a child of unmarried couple, Caterina3 and Ser Piero.4 He grew up in his father family, receiving basic education appropriated to his social status.5 According to michael ondaatje, Vasari,6 his teachers were tired of his constant questions and his overwhelming curiosity about everything must converge, everything. In 1466 as 14 years old boy he moved to Florence where he started to learn painting in Andrea del Verrocchio’s7 atelier, where he was working with other famous artists like Botticelli, Perugino and Lorenzo di Credi. In June 1472 he was accepted to the Guild of painters in Florence.8 The quality of in the lion michael ondaatje, his work, innovatory techniques in painting,9 composition, and his extremely elaborated style, brought him fast to the top of artistic and social circles of Florence , giving him distinctive recognition, inspiring other great artists of everything that must converge theme, Italian Renaissance , as Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, Corregio, Giorgione, but mostly Raphael.10 Painting wasn’t the only subject he was interested in. With his multitalented mind he was exploring with scientific approach wide range of interests.11. Referring to the commonly accepted information coming from in the of a lion ondaatje, Vasari’s book,12 Leonardo was commissioned to paint the portrait of Mona Lisa 13 in 1503, and she was posing for hermann steppenwolf, him sometimes between 1503 and 1504. As stated by Vasari, Mona Lisa was a beautiful woman,14 and skin during the long hours of posing, he was entertaining her with buffoons, musicians, humoristic conversations, and online readings, probably in in the lion ondaatje, order to keep the particular smile on her face.
From 1505 until 1506, he was mostly working on the portrait from his memory, as he used to do with other paintings as well. When he was leaving Florence in 1507, after working on it four years, the painting wasn’t finished yet. Hermann Hesse? Leonardo never handed over the portrait,15 maybe because it wasn’t ready to in the of a lion, him or for erikson level, personal reason. He wanted to keep it for himself. Sometimes around 1510 and 1513 he finished it to some degree. Whenever da Vinci went, he always had the portrait with him, and never parted with, adjusting time to time some details on it, looks like he never finished it according to his standards. Mona Lisa was painted in precursory technique developed to the perfection by skin of a michael ondaatje da Vinci, the Sfumato style.9 Leonardo’s composition of Mona Lisa, the half turned pose, was probably influenced by Societies early Flemish portraiture. The Mona Lisa’s recent size is skin lion ondaatje 77cm by 53cm, however originally it was larger when Leonardo painted.
It had extra two columns on both sides, which were cut out probably to fit in an expensive frame or assign place. That’s why we don’t see that Mona Lisa is actually sitting on a terrace. Everything Rises Theme? To paint the skin of a ondaatje, portrait, Leonardo used the large piece of poplar-wood. The Mona Lisa’s particular composition of hermann steppenwolf, her eyes and her lips is imposing to in the of a michael, a viewer the impression of melancholic mystery. Once we look at that, her eyes, they always fallows us with her regard, it doesn’t matter from which side we are looking at in the skin michael, her. Her indecisive smile16 is rather philosophic and steppenwolf not too evident. It looks as she is in the way to stop her intention to in the skin lion, smile. One thing is certain, whoever had seen the portrait was deeply amazed by the quality he depicted the that rises converge, human face.
Her extremely elaborated futures perfectly shadowed, with perfectly balanced light were appreciated then as well as now. Looking at in the of a lion, the painting stunned Raphael, who visited Leonardo in his atelier many times. We can see very well how deeply he was influenced by da Vinci’s work, looking at the portrait of Dame a La Licorne. 17. The fantasist background behind Mona Lisa is as mysterious as the emanated futures of her face. The undisclosed place of rocky mountains emerging from a thin mist of hidden natural paradise is not as any other landscapes painted by that must converge him before.
In the light of scholars’ interpretation, it might suggest the lion ondaatje, symbolic unity of mountains with water and mph malaysia all living things connected to the reality of passing time. Leonardo used in this portrait as one of the first a technique known as aerial perspective. Da Vinci’s painting represents a prototype of the of a lion michael, Renaissance portraiture, executed in precursory manner, which served as an example of perfection to many. Leonardo’s portrait of everything converge theme, Mona Lisa is the most ever copied artwork by many artists.18. In 1516 Leonardo moved to Chateau de Cloux 19 in France , invited by the King Francis I,20 where he spent the rest of his life. In The Of A Lion Michael? He sold the Mona Lisa portrait to the King for 4000 golden crowns.21 Since then the painting stayed in France at Fontainbleau ,22 from where it was traveling from one place to another,23 to be finally settled down in Societies Essay, The Louvre Museum . The mystic power of Mona Lisa attracted also thieves and mentally unstable individuals. Leonardo’s masterpiece got to the news in 1911, when it was stolen24 from Louvre , and disappeared for two years from the skin michael, surface, founded later in Italy in 1913 , returned to Louvre again in January 1914. American Evangelicalism? However the troubles didn’t finish than, in 1956, Leonardo’s Mona Lisa had been assaulted two times. First, the paining was heavily damaged by acid, and then on the 30th of skin of a lion ondaatje, December a tourist25 threw a stone at the portrait. Level? Mona Lisa was exposed outside of the France few times in different countries,26 then by international agreement it was decided that the painting would stay permanently in Louvre , Paris , where it will be properly protected behind the triplex glass.27.
Mona Lisa’s mysterious magnetic power transfers to the viewer with personal interpretation of skin lion michael, this extraordinary in many ways artwork. Developmental Level? Leonardo’s desire to keep the skin, painting always with him, created a mystic atmosphere around it, which reflected in posing unlimited quota of questions, concerning the evangelicalism, identity of the portrayed person as well as it’s symbolic meaning. The lack of information concerning Da Vinci’s personal life stimulated the world of mystery believers. Leonardo’s protective attitude towards his private life, led to all kinds of suppositions. He was cautious in each aspect of his activities, which in the light of his particular interests in human anatomy and mysterious inventions,28 was a necessary must.29 He wrote his notes in michael, reverse, so nobody could read his writings.30 After an Mesoamerica Societies Essay, anonymous accusation for skin lion michael, his homosexual affairs on the 8th of April 1476, from which he was acquitted, he became rather protective, solitary, concentrated on his individual work.31. The Mona Lisa , considered as the hesse, most mysterious among all Da Vinci’s paintings, over lion michael ondaatje passing all his other achievements in widely spread of interests in american, her uniqueness, as ideal artwork with something to hide. The sensationalism around her was created by curiosity to identify who is in the michael ondaatje behind the enigmatic face.
The identity of portrayed woman as Mona Lisa32 is coming from Vasari’s writings, questioned by many as not always corresponded with reality. Leonardo didn’t left any written information about this particular commission, that’s why some skeptics think that there wasn’t any commission at all, and Leonardo painted an imaginary woman created by himself to american evangelicalism, serve his purposes to skin of a lion, study his innovatory aspects of Mesoamerica Societies, portraiture. Some scientifics tried to prove, that Leonardo painted himself as a woman. This theory supported by comparison of the sculls, one of Mona Lisa and Leonardo’s self-portrait. According to the outcome, they fit quite well and referring to Leonardo’s presumed homosexuality that might make some sense. He could make a joke wandering if anybody would recognize him in such camouflage or just from in the skin, simple curiosity wanted to Mesoamerica Societies Essay, see how he would look as a woman. Sigmund Freud in his book Leonardo da Vinci and Memories of his Childhood 33 stated his own interpretation on the origins of the Mona Lisa’s particular smile, based on the artist’s psychoanalytic portrait. According to him Leonardo in Mona Lisa’s portrait wanted to impersonate the love of his mother and his admiration to in the skin of a lion, her as a woman. He tried to recreate her smile as he remembered.
Such argumentation could be possible. When Leonardo was three years old, he was taken from his mother to erikson developmental, his father’s house.34 It could’ve created some dramatic psychological trauma in in the of a lion ondaatje, his personality. Another possibility could be that when he met Mona Lisa , her particular smile reminded him of mph malaysia, his mother’s smile. It could bring back the memories of his childhood, what could inspired in him the desire to produce a masterpiece in in the skin lion michael ondaatje, order to immortalize his mother’s smile. The possibilities of level, his theories are however questioned by many. Andre de Havesky, in his essay published in 1952 in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts , suggested another probability. Lisa Gherardini, alias Mona Lisa , didn’t came from rich family, so as it was very common at michael ondaatje, those times, family was trying to get her married for somebody older but in better financial shape than their own. Online? Francesco Giocondo just lost his second wife and was willing to marry again, as fathers of both families were friendly to each other, they come to an agreement and the couple got married in 1495.
Because of significant age differences, Lisa was 19 years younger than her husband. Havesky35 let’s go his fantasy and suggests a possibility of close relationship between Leonardo and his painted model. Lisa’s marriage was arranged, her husband busy with the work, so she was young and probably most of the time alone. Leonardo in his 50’s, solitary artist, who knew, maybe two solitaries attracted each other. Da Vinci discovered a beautiful young soul, which gave him strength and desire to realize something extraordinary. Of A Michael Ondaatje? He found perfect model to do it. That’s comfortable possibility and it might explain the reason of hesse, keeping the painting with him, or he maid a copy for her husband,36 and kept the original with him as a memory of in the of a lion michael, his last vital arising. There are more than one circulating theories questioning Mona Lisa’s identity.
Some scholars propose as logical explanation Isabella of online, Aragon,37 Duches of Milan . They suggest as principal evidence of theirs claim is the widow’s veil, and the repetition of embroidered the Sforza emblems on her sweetheart neckline. Skin Of A Ondaatje? Leonardo da Vinci was the Sforza’s court painter for american evangelicalism, almost 17 years. Then he knew certainly Isabella of in the lion michael ondaatje, Aragon, his patroness. Some sources went even further, disclosing their clandestine marriage in 1497. As long as there are very little reliable written sources to contest such possibility, this matter is just another possible supposition. Level? However in skin lion michael, 2004, historian Maike Vogt-Luerssen38 from Adelaide , after 11 years of studies announced officially her theory concerning Mona Lisa’s identity. According to her research the mph malaysia, woman painted by Leonardo da Vinci is Isabella of Aragon, to whom he was something more than just a dear friend. Because of the differences in social status, they couldn’t go public with their romance. She accuses the Louvre authorities for wrong doing and misleading the public about the identity of Mona Lisa , as they decided to in the skin ondaatje, follow the Vasri’s fantasist story. In order to promote her theory, she intends to come to Paris and and Complex Essay distribute her book for free around Louvre . Little less popular among scholars speculation concerning Mona Lisa is the idea that she is a mistress of Giuliano de Medici, who asked Leonardo to paint her for him in discreet way.
Among other presumptions referring this time to in the skin of a lion, Mona Lisa’s particular smile is a statement of Italian physician Filippo Surano, saying that Lisa suffered from bruxism . Online? Probably triggered by in the skin of a lion michael ondaatje long hours of posing making her unconsciously gtound her teeth, The Department of theme, Otolaryngology in Oakland ,39 proposed another reason for Mona Lisa’s smile. The facial nerve has undergone partial wallerian degeneration. Further more, Borkowski JE. from Operative Dentistry Georgetown University School of Dentistry assumed that Mona Lisa is not smiling. Her enigmatic expression is in the skin michael current to the individuals who have lost their front teeth. By exploring little more the aspect of Mona Lisa’s mystic expression, group of researchers40 decided to find out what make’s her smile, eyes or lips. They did a survey using twelve observers showing them images of different parts of her lips and eyes applying noise on them.
The results of the survey revealed that the particularity of Mona Lisa’s expression is due to the way the lips shaped the smile. Slobodan Prvanovic, in Institute of Physics in everything that rises must converge theme, Belgrade , did interesting research. Using the skin of a michael, principals of quantum mechanics, he collected the impressions of different moods caused by Exhibition watching the painting with interruptions. He concluded his observations stating that the lion, smile is an overlying composition of two forms of lips, happy and unhappy. By using the soft shadowing, Leonardo was able to joint those two different shapes together, creating the distinct smile.
Professor Margaret Livingstone41 of Harvard University, studied the erikson, Mona Lisa’s smile and came to in the skin lion ondaatje, the conclusion, that by american looking at in the skin lion ondaatje, the smile directly we don’t see her smiling. However, the smile become evident when we look at other parts of her face. Human eye is using two different types of Essay on Improving the IGEHO, vision, foveal 42 and peripheral. Mona Lisa’s smile is in very low spatial frequencies that are why we see better the smile when looking not directly at of a ondaatje, her lips. Evangelicalism? Leonardo was studying the aspects of human vision; therefore he probably knew how to build this kind of disappearing, when looked directly, at the smile. In the age of in the of a, computerization our possibilities to decoy any mysteries will consequently grow. The Mona Lisa’s enigma might be solved one day using computer technology. Hesse? The Scientists from Universities of Amsterdam and of a lion michael Illinois were using specially created software, which examines the facial futures, to study the Mona Lisa’s mood when she was painted. That Must? Their conclusion was that she was 83% happy, 9% disgusted, 6% fearful, and 2% angry.
Another group of scientists from Japan recreated Leonardo’s and Mona Lisa’s voices using theirs futures from paintings, recreating first the skulls, and than other parts of the body necessary to produce a sound. We know now the height of in the skin lion michael, Mona Lisa . Hermann Steppenwolf? She was 5 feet and 6 inches tall. In The Of A Ondaatje? The reproduced voices are available on Microsoft Japan’s web site. X-rays scanning of Mona Lisa shows another three faces under the original surface. Hermann Hesse? It may be possible; that Leonardo could change few times the face until he got what he wanted: the in the of a lion michael, perfect harmony of elaborated forms of light and shadows.
Mona Lisa culminated somehow his scientific approach to mph malaysia, the art of painting. In conclusion based on in the skin michael, all information I was able to obtain and scrutinized, I would like to believe in a romantic story of hermann steppenwolf, love and passion between Leonardo and his Muse , whoever it was. Taking such approach to this beautiful picture we see the artist’s intelligent reasoning in depicting the transfer of sentiments towards each other trough the in the skin lion michael ondaatje, eyes filled up with enigmatic poesy of the american, moment. The eyes are speaking to the lover in in the of a michael, admiration of the instance. The painted Muse is connecting two similar and different worlds, unclear to them, appearing from the mist of incertitude. The landscape on the right side of the woman looks more solid, somehow much better organized: the bridge symbolizes the connection and stability. Hermann Steppenwolf? On the left side the landscape is evidently divided by water on two parts. In The Of A Lion Michael Ondaatje? In the lower part, the Mesoamerica and Complex Societies, road is in the skin of a michael not straight divided by Mesoamerica Societies a large river symbolizing the passing time, and the higher part symbolizes unknown future. Artists sensibility might feel that at the end of this road he has to pass to the other time, the less fortunate one. The bridge on the right side might symbolize a possible connection to the road on the left, but the possibility is just suggestive.
We know that this painting he had always with him since it was created, and Leonardo many times reworked it in some details. If this was for skin, him somebody he loved that’s understandable that he never gave it away. Mesoamerica And Complex Societies? Every time he did some corrections or adjustment, he was caressing his memories of beautiful moments he enjoyed in her company. However the logical conclusion will be quite different. Skin Of A Ondaatje? It doesn’t really matter who the portrayed person is. It doesn’t change anything in this artwork; it wouldn’t be better than it is. I think that for everything converge, Leonardo as a progressive artist, Mona Lisa was his laboratory of scientific research on painting mediums, compositions, visual effects, etc. He might decide to have one, when he started to paint the portrait of the model in front of him. He probably realized that he discovered his psychoanalytic power in depicting the human psychological portraiture and wanted to explore it more than ever. Mona Lisa became a practical Bible of his researches. We know that after this painting he wasn’t painting much.
He decides to explore his scientific innovations in many subjects. In The Lion? Mona Lisa was probably an important element of his scientific explorations. Despite the commercialization of Mona Lisa’s portrait in Mesoamerica Societies Essay, unlimited use, not always appropriate to lion, the respectful level of civility, there will be always scholars, scientists, researchers, willing to impose on public their own personal sensational theories about Mona Lisa . I believe that’s what Leonardo da Vinci wanted. Online? To create an artwork which constantly provokes the viewer. In The Skin Ondaatje? To create an enigmatic mystery which embraces provocatively the viewer’s senses. He would’ve been happy to mph malaysia, know that he finally got it. Leonardo da Vinci was well-advanced individual leaving and thinking ahead of his contemporaries.
Andre de Havesky, L’histoire veridique de la Joconde, Vasari l’imposteur, La Joconde en France, Gazette des Beaux-Arts , 6th Periode, Tome XL, 94th annee, 1952, p. 5-26. Bradley I. Collins, Jr., Psychoanalytic Biography and in the skin of a Art History: Critical Study of Psycho-biographical, Approaches to Leonardo da Vinci , Columbia University, UMI Company, 1995. David Piper, The Illustrtated Library of Art, The History of Painting and Sculpture, Parts 1,2,3,4, Portland House, Mitchel Beazley Publishers, 1981,1985. Frank Zollner, Leonard de Vinci, Tout l’ouvre peint , Taschen GmbH, 2005. George Boas, The Mona Lisa in the History of online, Taste , Journal of the History of Ideas , Published by University of Pennsylvania Press, Vol. 1, No. Skin Of A? 2, 1940, p. 207-224.
Leonard de Vinci, Le Carnets , introduction H.Anna Suh, Black Dog and Leventhal Publishers, Inc.,2005. French edition Parragon Books Ltd, 2006. Leonid L. Mph Malaysia? Kontsevich, Christopher W.Tyler, What makes Mona Lisa smile?, Vission Research, No. In The Skin Of A Lion? 44, 2004, p. 1493-1498, www.sciencedirect.com. Meyer Schapiro, Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study, Journal of the History of Ideas , Published by hermann University of Pennsylvania Press, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1956, p. 147-178.
Molly Thomson ,produced and in the of a michael ondaatje directed movie “Leonardo da Vinci – Renaissance master” produced by History Television Networks, H-TV ©1996. Paul Barolsky, Why Mona Lisa smiles and other tales by erikson developmental Vasari , The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991, p. 62-65. Slobodan Prvanovic, Mona Lisa – ineffable smile of skin of a lion michael ondaatje, quantum mechanics , Institute of Physics, Belgrad, Serbia, 25 Febrary 2003. Z.Zareba Filipczak, New Light on Mona Lisa: Leonardo’s Optical Knowledge and His Choice of Lighting, The Art Bulletin , Published by american evangelicalism College Art Association, Vol. In The Skin Of A Lion Michael Ondaatje? 59, No.
4, Dec. 1997, p. 518- 523. 1 Known also as Gioconda or Joconda ( French ). 4 Florentine notary and landlord. 5 Reading, writing, calculating, geometry, and Latin. 6 Art historian, painter, architect, author of “Lives of 70 the most Eminent painters, sculptors, and Mesoamerica and Complex architects”, of the Renaissance , first published in 1550. 7 Verrocchio, painter, sculptor ( David ) and metalworker. He had the most important studio in Florence of XV century. According to the biographical information in a movie “Leonardo da Vinci – Renaissance master” produced by in the michael ondaatje History Television Networks, H-TV ©1996, produced and directed by Molly Thomson, Verrocchio used Leonardo’s beautiful young body as a model for his famous sculpture of David . 8 Campagnia de Pittori.
9 Sfumato, charoscuro – modeling trough light and evangelicalism shadows. 10 Painter and architect (1483-1520), one of the greatest followers of lion michael ondaatje, Leonardo da Vinci’s sfumato technique and composition during the Italian Renaissance. 11 Architecture, philosophy, engineering, armory and fortifications, science and astronomy, geography, biology and landscaping, anatomy, perspective and mph malaysia online visual perception, sculpture and metal work, inventions (flying machines and others), aphorisms and writings. 12 Mentioned earlier on the first page note, he wrote his first book 30 years after Leonardo’s death, as he was almost his contemporary, most scholars recognized his information as scientifically reliable. 13 According to Vasari, it was Lisa Gherardini (1479-1551?), wife of Francesco del Giocondo (1460-1539), silk merchant. They were married on 5th of March1495. Leonardo got this commission trough his father’s connections. Skin Of A Michael? According to the Renaissance custom, couples used to american, order two separate portraits. In regard to the statement of in the of a, Anonimo Gaddiano, Leonardo maid only portrait of Francesco del Giocondo, and Mesoamerica Societies Essay Mona Lisa was never delivered. 14 According to different sources, she wasn’t considered as beautiful in references to the standards of that epoque, however Leonardo found probably something particular to work on for the rest of his life.
15 Some suggested that Leonardo handed over a copy to Francesco del Giocondo, and skin ondaatje kept the original with him. 16 Leonardo was using this kind of smile in mph malaysia, the majority of his paintings, however in Mona Lisa’s it’s more pronounced than in others. 17 Lady with Unicorn , painted by Raphael in 1504, is composed in the same way as Mona Lisa . This half turn composition became very common during the Renaissance period, as well as others who followed later. 18 62 copies of Mona Lisa exist, including some representing her naked. The most known are in museums of Rome , Madrid, London, Innsbruck, Monaco, Baltimore, Bourg-en-Bresse and in privet collections, mostly in England . In Portland Museum of Art is on display a painting, which resembles Mona Lisa , the pigment analyses shows that it was done before 1510, looks as it is from the lion michael, same period as da Vinci’s. Many copies of Mona Lisa exist, but none of them from the hesse, same period.
The controversial copy of Mona Lisa is in Vermont collection, where the lion, sided columns are visible (as it was in the Leonardo’s original before it was cut out); the owners consider the painting as original and value it for $2.5 millions. 19 Later called Clos-Luce. 20 According to the legend, Leonardo died in King’s Francis I arms the 2 of May 1519 in Amboise . It might be just legend, because King Francis I was on level, the 1st of May 1519 in St-Germain en Laye , so he couldn’t come to Amboise on the 2nd of May 1519. 21 King Francis I required the painting either from Leonardo himself or after his death from the executor of his will, Melzi. 22 According to Vasari (1550), Lomazzo (1590), and Cassiano del Pozzo (1625). On the inventory list of King Louis XIII, it was the in the of a lion, first time named as Mona Lisa . 23 Moved to Versailles by Louis XIV. After the French revolution at the end of XVIII century it was placed in Louvre. from there to the Napoleon’s bedroom, and then again to Louvre, where the painting had been exposed without intermission until 1911. 24 Vincenzo Peruggia, house painter, stole the painting and transported to the Italy, where he was apprehended trying to sell the erikson, artwork in skin, Florence. 25 Tourist from Bolivia named Ugo Ungaza Villegaz.
26 The painting was exhibited in New York, Tokyo , and two times in Moscow . 27 The triplex glass was given as a gift after exposition of the painting in 1974, in Japan . It was a last time when the artwork was moved from Louvre . 28 Projects of flying machines, helicopters, hydroplanes, etc. 29 For his studies of human anatomy he was using the death corps, which he dissected studying different organs. Online? He needed to be very cautious about it, because it wasn’t common practice at those times. He was accused for charlatanry and in 1514 Vatican forbid him to continue his studies on human bodies. Once when he saw in hospital 100 years old man, he spend with him the last moments in order to skin of a lion, make an autopsy in order to find out the cause of his death.
That’s when the everything that rises converge theme, first time the case of arthrosclerosis was documented. Leonardo also was dissecting animals, insects, and birds for his scientific studies. 30 Which could be read only with the help of a mirror. 31 He is generally recognized as a homosexual or bisexual artist. There is no evidence proving this theory, however his particular interest in studying of man’s bodies, which to him was an ideal structure, as well as living with two male assistants, Andrea Salai (from1490), and Francesco Melzi (from 1506), according to biographers might be truth. Both were living and in the lion ondaatje traveling with Leonardo until his death. That Rises Theme? There are suppositions that he might have very closer relations with King Francis I. 32 Lisa Gherardini del Gioconda . 33 Freud analyzed Leonardo’s psychoanalytic portrait of his personality based on his famous artworks.
He published his theories on eighty-seven pages in 1910. Since that moment the psychoanalytic polemics started. Many psychoanalysts (Kurt Eissler, Andre Green, Jean-Pierre Maidani-Gerard) and art historians (Meyer Shapiro, Bradley I.Collins, Jr.) published their own commentaries referring to Freud’s arguments. 34 In 1452, the ondaatje, year of and Complex, Leonardo’s birth, his father Ser Piero married his first wife Albiera. They didn’t have any children, so Ser Piero adopted Leonardo as his own child. His father didn’t marry his mother because she was a countrywoman, considered as a low class and not appropriate to him. 35 Meyer Sschapiro suggests similar possibility in his essay Leonardo and Freud: An Art-Historical Study , from 1956. Published in the Journal of the History of Ideas . Also George Boas in The Mona Lisa in the History of Test published in the Journal of the History of Ideas in 1940. 36 Leonardo was paid full amount before starting the portrait. 37 Da Vinci used to mark symbolically the identity of portrayed persons, by in the skin michael ondaatje painting objects in reference to their families emblems, other words, the Coat of Arms. 38 Maike Voght-Luerssen published her theories in mph malaysia online, the book titled: Who is Mona Lisa?
39Adour KK. In The Skin Of A Ondaatje? -Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, CA. 40 Leonid L.Kontsevich and Christopher W.Tyler- Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, San Francisco , 2002. 41 This theory was presented in 2003 at The American Association for The Advancement of Science, Denver, Colorado. 42 Foveal -direct vision depicting details. Peripheral- exterior vision depicting shadows in low spatial frequencies. 3901 Bannantyne Avenue, Studio 203.
Verdun, Quebec, QC, H4G 1C2. Yet another day at evangelicalism, the museum sketching passing by. excellent training. for visual memory.
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In the Skin of a Lion Summary - eNotes com
An A to Z of Theory | Roland Barthes: Death of the Author. Many of Barthes#8217;s works focus on literature. In The Of A? However, Barthes denied being a literary critic, because he did not assess and provide verdicts on hesse steppenwolf works. Skin Lion? Instead, he interpreted their semiotic significance. Barthes#8217;s structuralist style of literary analysis has influenced cultural studies, to mph malaysia online, the chagrin of adherents of in the of a lion ondaatje traditional literary approaches. One notable point of controversy is Barthes#8217;s proclamation of the #8216;death of the author#8217;. This #8216;death#8217; is mph malaysia directed, not at the idea of writing, but at the specifically French image of the auteur as a creative genius expressing an inner vision.
He is in the of a lion opposing a view of texts as expressing a distinct personality of the author. Barthes vehemently opposes the view that authors consciously create masterpieces. He maintains that authors such as Racine and Balzac often reproduce emotional patterns about which they have no conscious knowledge. He opposes the view that authors should be interpreted in terms of what they think they#8217;re doing. Their biographies have no more relevance to what they write than do those of scientists. In #8216;The Death of the Author#8217;, Barthes argues that writing destroys every voice and point of origin. This is because it occurs within a functional process which is the practice of signification itself. Its real origin is language. Mesoamerica Societies? A writer, therefore, does not have a special genius expressed in the text, but rather, is a kind of craftsman who is skilled in using a particular code.
All writers are like copywriters or scribes, inscribing a particular zone of language. In The? The real origin of a text is not the author, but language. If the writer expresses something #8216;inner#8217;, it is only the dictionary s/he holds ready-formed. There is a special art of the storyteller to translate linguistic structures or codes into particular narratives or messages. Each text is composed of multiple writings brought into dialogue, with each code it refers to being extracted from a previous culture. Barthes#8217;s argument is directed against schools of literary criticism that seek to uncover the author#8217;s meaning as a hidden referent which is the final meaning of the text. By refusing the #8216;author#8217; (in the american evangelicalism, sense of a great writer expressing an inner brilliance), one refuses to assign an lion michael ultimate meaning to the text, and american evangelicalism, hence, one refuses to fix its meaning. Skin Lion Michael Ondaatje? It becomes open to different readings. According to everything rises must, Barthes, the unity of a text lies in its destination not its origin.
Its multiplicity is focused on the reader, as an absent point within the text, to whom it speaks. The writer and reader are linguistic persons, not psychological persons. Their role in the story is defined by their coded place in discourse, not their specific traits. A text cannot have a single meaning, but rather, is composed of multiple systems through which it is constructed. In Barthes#8217;s case, this means reading texts through the signs they use, both in in the lion michael ondaatje their structure in the text, and in their wider meanings. Literature does not represent something real, since what it refers to is not really there. For Barthes, it works by hermann steppenwolf, playing on the multiple systems of language-use and their infinite transcribability – their ability to be written in different ways. The death of the author creates freedom for the reader to interpret the text. The reader can recreate the text through connecting to lion michael ondaatje, its meanings as they appear in different contexts. Societies Essay? In practice, Barthes#8217;s literary works emphasise the practice of the craft of ondaatje writing. For instance, Barthes#8217;s structuralist analysis of online Sade, Fourier and Loyola emphasises the skin of a lion ondaatje, structural characteristics of their work, such as their emphasis on counting and their locations in american self-contained worlds.
He views the three authors as founders of michael ondaatje languages (logothetes). The Structure of Narrative. In #8216;Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives#8217;, Barthes explores the structure of narrative, or storytelling, from a structuralist perspective. Narrative consists of a wide variety of genres applied to a wide variety of substances – for example, theatre, film, novels, news stories, mimes, and even some paintings. We can see what Barthes terms #8216;narrative#8217; whenever something is used to tell a story. People using this theory will often refer to the way people live their lives as narratives, and some will talk about Mesoamerica and Complex Essay a right to tell our own story. Narrative is taken to of a lion michael, be humanly universal – every social group has its own narratives. Barthes models the analysis of narrative on structuralist linguistics.
The structure or organisation is what is most essential in any system of meaning. The construction of a narrative from different statements is similar to online, the construction of a sentence from phonemes. Barthes argues that there are three levels of narrative: functions, actions, and narration. Each has meaning only in relation to the next level. Functions refer to statements in narratives. Every statement or sentence in a novel, for example, has at least one function. Barthes gives examples like: #8216;James Bond saw a man of about fifty#8217; and #8216;Bond picked up one of the four receivers#8217;. For Barthes, every statement has a particular role in the narrative – there are no useless statements, no #8216;noise#8217; in the information-theory sense. But statements vary in their importance to the narrative, in how closely or loosely it is tied to the story. Some are functions in skin michael the full sense, playing a direct role in the story.
For instance, a character buys a gun so s/he can use it later in the story. The phone rings, and Mesoamerica Societies, Bond picks it up – this will give him information or orders which will move the action forward. Others are #8216;indices#8217; – they index something which establishes the context of the story. In The Skin Michael Ondaatje? They might, for instance, convey a certain atmosphere. Or they might say something about the psychology or #8216;character#8217; of an actor in the story. The #8216;four receivers#8217; show that Bond is in a big, bureaucratic organisation, which shows that he is on the side of order. The #8216;man of about fifty#8217; indicates an atmosphere of suspicion: Bond needs to establish who he is and which side he is on. Among the former – the true functions – these can be central aspects of the narrative, on on Improving Exhibition which it hinges (#8216;cardinal points#8217; or #8216;nuclei#8217;), or they can be complementary (catalysers). To be cardinal, a function needs to open or close a choice on which the development of the story depends. The phone ringing and Bond answering are cardinal, because the story would go differently if the phone didn#8217;t ring or Bond didn#8217;t answer. But if Bond #8216;moved towards the desk and answered the phone#8217;, the phrase #8216;moved towards the desk#8217; is a catalyser, because it does not affect the in the skin lion, story whether he did this or not.
Stories often contain catalysers to provide moments of rest from the risky decision-points. Barthes sees true functions as forming pairs: one initiates a choice and the other closes it. These pairs can be close together, or spread out across a story. The choice is opened by the phone ringing, and closed by Bond answering it. Indices are also divided into mph malaysia, true indices, which index things like an actor#8217;s character or an atmosphere, and informants, which simply identify something or situate it in time and space. A character#8217;s age is an example of an informant. True indices are more important to the story than informants. All moments of a narrative are functional, but some more so than others. Functions and indices are functional in in the skin lion michael different ways. Cardinal functions and true indices have greater functionality than catalysers and informants. At root, however, a narrative is structured through its nuclei.
The other functional elements are always expansions on the nuclei. It is possible, as in folk-tales, to create a narrative consisting almost entirely of nuclei. Functions are arranged into narratives by american evangelicalism, being attached to agents – characters in the story who engage in actions. Every narrative necessarily has agents. The actions of an agent connect the nuclei of the narrative to particular #8216;articulations of praxis#8217; – desire, communication and struggle. The third level, narration, occurs between the narrator (or writer) and the reader.
The narrator compiles the narrative in a way which is addressed to the reader, and #8216;produces#8217; the reader as a particular position in the narrative. The positions of narrator and reader are clearest when a writer addresses a factual statement directly to in the skin of a lion, the reader: #8216;Leo was the owner of the joint#8217;. Narrator and reader are largely empty positions within the evangelicalism, narrative. Narratives also have a kind of logical time which is in the skin of a lion michael ondaatje interior to them and is barely connected to rises converge, real time. This logical time is constructed by the series of nuclei (which open and close choices), and their separation by other nuclei and by subsidiary elements. It is held together by the integration of the pairs of nuclei. Narratives implicitly receive their meaning, however, from a wider social world. Barthes maintains that narratives obtain their meaning from the world beyond them – from social, economic and in the skin of a lion michael, ideological systems.
Barthes criticises the narratives of his day for american, trying to disguise the process of coding involved in constructing a narrative. As in Mythologies, he again argues that this naturalisation of signs, and in the of a lion ondaatje, denial of the process of social construction of erikson developmental level meaning, is specifically bourgeois. Both bourgeois society and its mass culture #8216;demand signs which do not look like signs#8217;. They are reluctant to declare their codes. Narrative also contains other potentials. Like dreaming, it alters the familiar in ways which show different possibilities. Although what is #8216;known#8217; or #8216;experienced#8217; is constantly re-run through narratives, the narratives do not simply repeat what is of a re-run through them. They open a #8216;process of becoming#8217;. In other words, things can run differently when run through narrative. Narrative shows that other meanings are possible. Familiar things can be given different meanings.
What happens in narrative has no referent. It doesn#8217;t refer to something in the real world. Rather, what happens in hermann hesse narrative is language itself – the celebration of its many possibilities. However, it is also closely connected to monologue (which follows in personal development from dialogue). In The Skin Of A? Barthes is highly critical of realist and naturalist views of writing. For Barthes, literature is the IGEHO Exhibition built on emptiness: it represents something which is not really there. All the arts of fiction, including theatre, cinema and literature, are constructed based on signs. They function by the suspension of skin lion michael ondaatje disbelief.
They function by online, calling certain desires or structures into play, causing people to feel various emotions. In The Of A Lion Michael? They are not representations of reality, but rather, a way to induce feelings in the audience. The attempt to convince the audience that the story is Essay Exhibition real is a way of of a lion reproducing the naturalisation of signs. A supposedly realistic or naturalistic art or literature never really #8216;tells it like it is#8217;. It represents through a set of conventional signs which stand for #8216;reality#8217;.
Barthes criticises those who believe authors imitate an existing reality (a practice known as mimesis). He is in favour of an developmental level emphasis on the creation of a discursive world (semiosis) rather than mimesis. Hence his interest in Sade, Fourier and Loyola. Instead of in the skin michael ondaatje conventional views of the world, alternative presentations can denaturalise the present and erikson developmental, provide utopian alternatives. Barthes also criticises the idea of clarity in literature, for similar reasons.
Clarity is simply conventional. It is relative to a particular regime of signs. It amounts to a criterion of familiarity. Therefore, it has conservative effects. Barthes views clarity as a class attribute of the bourgeoisie, used to signify membership of this class (this contrasts sharply with the more common claim in in the of a lion activist circles that speech should be clear so as to hermann hesse, be working-class or inclusive). However, this is not strictly an expressive view either. The actor or author doesn#8217;t necessarily induce sympathy for their own feelings. Such an effect can amount to confusing art with reality. Instead, the in the michael ondaatje, actor, author and audience all know it#8217;s fiction.
In some contexts, such as theatre, wrestling, and (in Barthes#8217;s view) Japanese culture, performance or artifice is recognised for what it is. It is not taken to be natural or real. In these contexts, signs have no content. Their operation serves to show the existence and functioning of signs. It also allows an expressive use of signs, to stand for particular emotions. In #8216;Rhetoric of the Image#8217;, Barthes discusses the different levels of erikson level meaning in a Panzani advert.
Firstly, there#8217;s a linguistic message, which has the michael, usual denoted and mph malaysia, connoted levels. Secondly, there#8217;s a connotation, established by juxtaposition, associating the brand with freshness and home cooking. Thirdly, there#8217;s the use of colours and fruits to signify #8216;Italianicity#8217;, the mythical essence of Italy. Fourthly, the processed product is presented as if equivalent to the surrounding unprocessed items. These signifiers carry #8216;euphoric values#8217; connected to in the of a lion, particular myths. According to Barthes, at least the third of these meanings is quasi-tautological. The language of images is constructed in erikson developmental particular zones or #8216;lexicons#8217;. Each of the connoted meanings refers to of a ondaatje, a specific body of social practice which certain readers will receive, and others may not. For instance, it mobilises ideas from tourism (Italianicity) and that, art (the imitation of the style of a still life painting). Often the same signifieds are carried by text, images, acting and skin lion michael ondaatje, so on.
These signifieds carry a particular dominant ideology. A rhetoric of the image deploys a number of connotative images to carry messages. All images are #8216;polysemous#8217; – they can be read in a number of ways. Everything That Must? In an image such as this, language is used both explicitly and implicitly to in the skin lion ondaatje, guide the selection of meanings. The text directs the reader as to which meanings of the image to receive. Barthes thus suggests that texts have a repressive value relative to images: they limit what can be seen. It is in this limitation that ideology and morality function. Ideology chooses among multiple meanings which ones can be seen, and limits the evangelicalism, shifting flow of signification which would otherwise happen. Euphoria has both positive and negative meanings in Barthes#8217;s work. As a negative term, it refers to the enjoyment of a closed system or familiar meaning which is induced by mythical signifiers. For instance, the fashion system is euphoric because its persistence as a system defies death.
People can partake in a system of meanings which seems eternal, and thereby experience some of its illusory universality as euphoria. Myth provides euphoria because it provides a sense that something is in the skin absolutely clear. It aims for a euphoric security which comes with enclosing everything in a closed system. Tautology, for instance, gives someone the minor satisfaction of opting for a truth-claim without the risk of being wrong (because nothing substantive has been said). This can be compared to Negri#8217;s argument in Time for Revolution that systemic closure yields a certain type of enjoyment. On the other hand, it can also signify an experience of fullness arising from hermann hesse actually escaping the regime of myths. In #8216;The Third Meaning#8217;, Barthes analyses Sergei Eisenstein#8217;s films, suggesting the skin lion michael ondaatje, presence of what he terms an #8216;obtuse#8217; meaning alongside the explicit denotative and hermann hesse, connotative meanings. Of A Michael? These images simply designate an emotion or disposition, setting in motion a drift in meaning. Mph Malaysia? They don#8217;t represent anything.
They are momentary, without development or variants. They have a signifier without a signified. They thus escape the euphoria of closed systems, pointing to something beyond. Indeed, an obtuse meaning is in the skin of a lion michael not necessarily visible to Essay the IGEHO Exhibition, all readers. Its appearance is subjective. It is permanently empty or depleted (it remains unclear how this positive #8217;empty signifier#8217; relates either to the #8216;mana-words#8217; of Mythologies, or to Laclau#8217;s rather different use of the same term). It can also serve as part of mythical schemes. For instance, ,moral indignation can function as a pleasant emotion.
The obtuse meaning is not present in the system of language, though it is present in speech. It almost sneaks into speech, on the back of language. It appears as a rare and new practice counterposed to the majority practice of signification. It seems like a luxury: expenditure without exchange. And it seems to belong, not to today#8217;s politics, but to tomorrow#8217;s. Barthes sees such facets as undermining the skin of a lion, integration of characters, turning them into nubs of facets. In other words, the #8216;molar self#8217; of the character (who, in online Mythologies, is connected to in the skin of a michael ondaatje, social decomposition and rises, misrepresentation) is replaced by a different kind of connection which is, perhaps, directly lived and connected to the world, rather than projecting a literary figure onto it. It has been read in terms of a moment of skin of a emotion prior to thought. I think it might be better linked to Deleuze#8217;s idea of the american, #8216;time-image#8217;: the obtuse image is a momentary image which expresses the contingency of becoming.
Barthes suggests that the obtuse image is in the skin lion ondaatje carnivalesque, and that it turns the film into a #8216;permutational unfolding#8217;, a flow of becoming in the system of signs. In S/Z, a text devoted primarily to the study of Balzac#8217;s short story Sarrasine , Barthes proposes a distinction between two types of texts. Essay? A text is in the of a lion michael ondaatje #8216;writerly#8217; if it can be written or rewritten today. Mesoamerica And Complex Societies? A #8216;writerly#8217; text is constructed in such a way as to encourage readers to reuse and reapply it, bringing it into new combinations with their own meanings. It is in the skin lion celebrated because it makes the hermann steppenwolf, reader a producer, not a consumer, of a text. The #8216;writerly#8217; value restores to each person the #8216;magic of the in the michael, signifier#8217;. The writerly text is inseparable from the process of writing, as an open-ended flow which has not yet been stopped by any system (such as ideology or criticism). And Complex Societies Essay? It is necessarily plural. This is a kind of plurality distinguished from liberalism: it does not acknowledge partial truths in different positions, but insists on difference as such.
Difference constantly returns through texts, which re-open the network of in the lion language at a different point. Barthes counterposes this view to an essentialist or Platonic view in which all texts approximate a model. For Barthes, texts instead offer entrances into and Complex Societies, the network of michael language. They do not offer a norm or law. Evangelicalism? Rather, it offers a particular perspective constructed of particular voices, fragments of texts, and semiotic codes. Texts have only in the of a michael, a contingent unity which is constantly rewritten through its composition in terms of codes. A writerly text should have many networks which interact without any of them dominating the hermann hesse steppenwolf, others. The #8216;readerly#8217;, in of a michael ondaatje contrast, reduces a text to something serious, without pleasure, which can only be accepted or rejected.
A #8216;readerly#8217; text is so heavily attached to a particular system of meanings as to Societies Essay, render the reader passive. In The Of A Lion? It is a reactive distortion of the #8216;writerly#8217; through its ideological closure. Readerly texts must, however, contain a #8216;limited#8217; or #8216;modest plural#8217; in order to online, function. This limited plurality of the text is created through its connotations. There are also writerly and readerly styles of reading texts, depending whether one seeks predetermined meanings in it, or seeks instead to inscribe it in new ways. Instead of treating a text as a single phenomenon which represents something, Barthes proposes to examine a text through the plural signs it brings together. Instead of giving a unified image of a text, it decomposes it into component parts. Such a reading uses digressions to show that the in the lion michael ondaatje, structures of which the text is Mesoamerica and Complex woven can be reversed and in the lion ondaatje, rearranged. Barthes calls this style of reading #8216;starring#8217; of a text. It cuts the text up into blocks of signification, breaching its smooth surface and especially its appearance of naturalness. It interrupts the flow of the text so as to release the Essay Exhibition, perspectives within it.
Each block is in the treated as a zone, in which the movement of meanings can be traced. The goal of this exercise is to hear one of the voices of the text. Readers should reconstitute texts as plural. Among other things, this means that forgetting meanings is a necessary part of developmental reading. It ensures that multiple readings remain possible, and therefore, that signifiers are allowed to shift or move.
One can#8217;t reduce all stories to a single structure, because each text carries a particular difference. This kind of difference is not an irreducible quality, but the in the of a lion michael, constant flow of hesse language into in the skin of a michael ondaatje, new combinations. Everything Rises Converge? Analysing the function of each text restores it to this flow of difference. In The Skin Of A Ondaatje? He also calls for re-reading, as a means to avoid repetition and to remove texts from linear time (before or after) and place them in rises mythical time. Re-reading is #8216;no longer consumption, but play#8217;, directed against both the disposability of texts and their distanced analysis, and towards the return of difference. Of A Lion Michael Ondaatje? It helps create an experience of plural texts. In this text, Barthes criticises many of his earlier views. He now claims that connotation is erikson developmental ever-present in #8216;readerly#8217; texts (though not in some modern texts). There is lion michael ondaatje no underlying denotative layer. Denotation is simply the most naturalised layer of connotation. Further, connotation carries voice into the text, weaving a particular voice into the code.
The writer, here, has more of a role than Barthes previously allowed. Writing brings in historical context through connotation. The text as expression for the reader is also criticised. Readers are also products of prior texts, which compose subjectivity as subject-positions in level narratives. Reading is itself a #8216;form of work#8217;. The content of this work is to move, to shift between different systems or flows which have no ending-point. The work is shown to exist only by skin lion ondaatje, its functioning: it has no definite outcome. To read is to find meanings within the endless flow of language. We might think of it as creating particular, temporary points or territories by finding resonances within a field which is on Improving Exhibition like an ocean or a desert.
May 30, 2013 8:55. In The Skin Of A Ondaatje? [#8230;] research, which was still taboo thirty years after Roland Barthes famously declared #8220;the death of the author,#8221; the ALA#8217;s focus was pugnaciously loyal to everything that rises, the special role of in the skin of a lion michael authorship. The [#8230;] Jun 15, 2013 2:57. [#8230;] In the fourth essay in his series on the French thinker, political theorist Andrew Robinson takes on one of Barthes#039; most famous (and controversial) proclamations: the death of the author. [#8230;] Oct 24, 2013 5:23. Feb 4, 2016 10:52. [#8230;] Robinson, “Roland Barthes: Death of the Author,” Ceasefire Magazine, Oct. 14, [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017.
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Nov 1998 - Current. Mar 1997 #150; Dec 1998. Jun 1994 #150; Mar 1997. Butler Technology Solutions, Inc. Data Mart Architect/Oracle DBA. Nov 1993 #150; May 1994.
Analysts International Corporation. Jul 1992 #150; Mar 1993. Lead Application Developer. Jun 1991 #150; Aug 1991. Orange County Information Services. Jun 1989 #150; Aug 1989. Orange County Information Services. IBM 4381, 3090, AS/400, SUN, IBM Compatible. UNIX(Solaris 2.7), Windows 95/NT/2000/XP, OS/2 2.11, VMS, IDS/MVS, OS/400,
Created and managed $450K annual budget, purchased hardware, and software. Ensured all essential maintenance CTB projects were delivered on time and within budget; oversaw CTB delivery that is regulatory mandated to ensure regulatory deadlines were met. Served as the ETL Architect/Senior ODI Developer in the development of a custom built Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW)/Cognos initiative that support the company’s Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) and investment services at Brown Brother Harriman Corporation; the newly built ETF EDW eliminated extensive use of Excel macros and improved efficiency, productivity and everything must converge theme, most of ondaatje, all reduced risk. Evangelicalism? Thus, enhancing the current workflow/process and in the skin of a lion michael ondaatje, increasing the number of funds, baskets, and that must converge, clients. In The Skin Lion? Developed ETL processes using Oracle Data Integrator (ODI) 11g to extract, transform, and load the operation data (i.e., Authorized Participant, Basket Fund, Basket Market Value, Securities, Sponsor, Trader) from the transactional business systems, Eagle Star, into the Data Warehouse repository. Developmental? Set up and in the lion, configured the Oracle Data Integrator (ODI) 11g with multiple Master Repositories in a three-tier environment and performed periodic upgrades when required. And Complex Essay? Performed detail data analysis of michael ondaatje, both data elements requested by the business and data sources; documented data source definition, source-to-target mapping, and Essay, logical structures to support the ETL batch process. Created Oracle database objects such as tables, views, indexes, triggers, procedures, and skin michael, functions to support the Oracle Data Integrator Solutions and american evangelicalism, Cognos Reporting system. Provided additional support, guidance, and training in the deployment of the Oracle Data Integrator solution in various environments such as integration, QA, and production which included automation of production release of ODI Scenarios and in the of a lion, database objects. Helped estimating ETL project tasks and the IGEHO Exhibition, defining project scope. Served as one of the ETL Architect/Informatica Developer in the deployment of a custom built ETL strategy in supporting the implementation of an Enterprise Data Warehousing/OBIEE initiative that collected, cleansed, and integrated the company’s data (i.e., membership, inventory, allocation, owner/customer, reservations) from a newly developed transactional business systems.
Worked closely with other team members and business users in understanding the business requirements and the source operational systems. Performed detail data analysis of in the ondaatje, both data elements requested by the business and transactional source systems. On Improving The IGEHO Exhibition? Estimated ETL project tasks and helped project manager defining scope. Documented data source definition and ETL specification (a.k.a., logical source-to-target mapping) for each environment (i.e., staging, central repository, data mart). In The Skin Of A Lion Michael? Managed a small offshore team in the development of the ETL processes using Informatica PowerCenter V9.1 in a Linux/Oracle11g environment, which included weekly code reviews to ensure standards and american, best development and design practices. Created, executed, and maintained QA test plans for each environment (i.e., staging, central repository, data mart). Served as a Lead ETL Developer/DB2 Developer in the enhancement of an existing custom ETL framework that collected, cleansed, And integrated the company’s performance data (i.e., cash-flows, liquidity positions) from skin of a lion michael ondaatje, various operational source systems.
The enhancements were part of an must converge theme, overall initiative in improving an internal custom built Liquidity Risk Management System (LRSMS) that supported and provided Bank of America Corporate Treasury executives, senior managers, and business analyst with analytical reporting capability on the company’s liquidity position, sources and of a michael, uses of cash, forecasting of cash flows and stress test modeling, funding counterparties, and developing funding plan as needed. Hermann Hesse? Major contributions and/or accomplishments included: designing and developing an ETL component that dynamically constructed in real time the in the of a lion michael SQL to load over 100 source feeds into the Liquidity Position fact table using a Meta Data strategy; designing and hermann, developing an ETL process that mapped custom products and/or services hierarchical relationship with the company’s general ledger products for reporting purposes; developing DB2 objects such as tables, views, indexes, triggers, procedures, and in the skin of a michael, functions to Essay support the ETL Meta Data Rule component; providing support, guidance, and training in the deployment of the solution in various environments such as integration, QA, and production; and creating database objects to skin of a michael ondaatje support the development of that rises must converge, Spotfire reports to allow users access to source reference data; The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development and of a michael ondaatje, deployment of the solution: DB2 V9.7, DB2 V9.7 SQL Procedure, Windows, Linux, LRM Studio, Toad For DB2 V4.7, and Spotfire Client and Server. Served as a Lead ETL Developer/Data Architect in the deployment of the agency Auction Securities Data Warehouse in order to make easier access of steppenwolf, auction securities data, provide analytics, trending and comparisons, reporting and exporting capabilities that support the skin lion michael business needs, but most of all increase data utilization, and improve customer services and productivity. Primary responsibilities included but not limited to american performing source-to-target mapping, installing and creating Oracle11g database objects (i.e., views, tables, functions), architecting and developing of a custom ETL framework that consisted of over 144 processes using Oracle native language (PL/SQL). In The Of A Lion? The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development and deployment of the developmental solution: Oracle11g, Oracle PL/SQL, and Business Objects 3.1 (i.e., Universe, Webi).
Served as a Senior Oracle Data Integrator (ODI) Developer in the development of the company's budget, forecast, and capital planning reporting system in order to improve the skin of a lion ondaatje cycle time of the current planning process, reduce the dependency on Excel and other proprietary tools for data entry and developmental level, reporting, and provide property and department level budgeting/forecasting so as to produce a consolidated budget and forecast. Primary responsibility include but not limited to in the skin of a ondaatje installing and configuring the american evangelicalism Oracle Data Integrator software tool in a three-tier environment and in the skin of a michael, performing periodic upgrades, performing source-to-target mappings, storage capacity planning, developing ETL processes using the Oracle Data Integrator 10g (formerly called Sunopsis) to update the Hyperion Planning and several Hyperion Essbase 11g applications including updates to meta data for Essay the IGEHO, various dimensions and loading of raw data; Other tasks include creating scripts such as load rules, calc, and Maxl to in the skin lion michael clear the Hyperion Essbase applications in order to everything must theme facilitate the ETL processes, creating MS SQL Server 2008 SQL scripts and database objects in order to establish various environments such as development, test, and in the of a michael ondaatje, production, and developmental, creating Smart Views in order to test and skin michael ondaatje, validate the loading of developmental, raw data into the Hyperion Essbase application. Served as a Senior Business Intelligence Solution Architect in defining, developing, and in the lion, enhancing of two separate custom DW/BI systems for the corporate loans and investment business units. Primary responsibility include but not limited to coordinating, planning, and conducting interviews with various business users in Mesoamerica Societies identifying and capturing business requirements, defining and developing project scope/plan, creating and developing two separate multi-dimensional data models using the lion michael Ralph Kimball methodology, performing source-to-target mapping, building database schemas in an Oracle8i environment which included creating scripts and procedures for production migration, and Essay on Improving, building two separate ETL batch processes (over 120 packages) using MS SQL Server 2008 Integration Services (SSIS) . Note: the ETL processes were originally developed in MS SQL Server 2000 DTS and later migrated to the new platform. Additional tasks include the creation of a custom analytical application using MS SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services for the investment services in order to track primary and secondary commission by region and in the skin of a lion michael ondaatje, salesperson, the migration of the original reporting solution to american Business Objects Enterprise (BOE) XI R2, the creation of the migration procedures for installing and configuring BOE in a production environment, performing BOE software upgrade and patch installation in the development environment, creating and developing of in the skin of a michael ondaatje, BOE Web Intelligence reports, training business users in how to american evangelicalism navigate through BOE Info View and creating and accessing reports. Served as a Data Warehouse Architect/Consultant in the enhancement and lion, development of a SAP Business Warehouse application at Pitney Bowes Corporation. Responsibilities included but not limited to conducting intereviews with executives, senior managers, SME's, business analysts, and technical staff in capturing and understanding business requirements, and defining project scope; performed detail data analysis of both data elements requested by the business and everything, data source (IMS and of a lion michael ondaatje, SAP R/3), and documenting data source definition, source-to-target mapping, and logical structures for the data warehouse/data mart; translated business requirements into dimensional data model to support the billing/invoice data mart using Erwin; communicated and/or provided knowledge transfer to consultant (SAP BW Developers), both on and offshore, in the development and support of the project (SAP BW). The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, SAP BW, Erwin, and Qualiware. Served as a Data Warehouse Specialist/Consultant in hesse the enhancement and development of an in the skin of a ondaatje, enterprise data warehouse/business intelligence application for the automotive services at Automotive Finance Corporation.
Primary focus and/or development efforts were in mph malaysia the reengineering of the ETL processes using the lion michael ondaatje Oracle Data Integrator (formerly known as Sunopsis) tool. And Complex Societies Essay? Additional tasks included the creation of of a, schema objects (tables, views, indexes, packages, triggers, etc.) in an Oracle8i environment, the expansion of a single dimensional data model (star schema) into multiple star schemas, source to target mapping, storage capacity planning and the support and maintenance of the erikson Cognos EP Series 7 reporting environment. In The Skin Of A Lion Michael Ondaatje? The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000 Server, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, Sunopsis, PL/SQL, Cognos EP Series 7, Erwin, and Oracle Enterprise Manager. Served as a Senior Data Warehouse Specialist/Consultant in the enhancement and development of a custom analytical application for trading and risk management in the energy/commodity marketplace. Rises Must Converge? The development efforts of the analytical application consisted of in the lion michael, integrating various subject matter data (Profit Loss, MTM, Exposure, Cash Flows, Impact, Counterparties, etc.) from the Endur application. In addition to the development role, helped build the data warehousing services of the company and trained and mentored internal staff on data warehousing. Tasks included conducting requirement analysis; the design and development of a dimensional data model (star schema); the creation of a database, in both Oracle8i and steppenwolf, SQL Server 2000; the development of in the skin of a lion michael, ETL processes (PL/SQL, DTS Packages); the creation of several multidimensional cubes; the development of a web reporting application; client training and american, documentations. The following tools and/or technologies were used in the development: MS Windows 2000 Server, Sun Solaris, Oracle8i, SQL Server 2000 (DTS and Analysis Services), PL/SQL, MS Office Web Components, Erwin, FrontPage 2000, Oracle Enterprise Manager. Served as a Lead Data Warehouse Architect in of a lion the development of rises theme, a web-based Enterprise Customer Relationship Management (eCRM) reporting application for of a lion, the eCommerce department at american J.Crew. The development efforts of the reporting application consisted of integrated customer data from various enterprise channels (web clickstream, catalog, retail, etc.), thus providing a consistent view of the customer.
Most importantly, the planning, execution, and measurement of the effectiveness of marketing campaign and website navigation. Tasks included conducting requirement analysis, designing and developing of a data model (star schema), the creation a Oracle8i database, coding of ETL procedures (PL/SQL, Perl and skin lion, Informatica), designing of Cognos Impromptu and PowerPlay reports, software installation, and the automation of production jobs. The following tools and/or technologies were used in erikson the development: MS Windows NT, Sun Solaris, Oracle8I, PL/SQL, Perl, Unix, Essbase, Cognos, Erwin, IIS, and shell scripts. Served as a Lead Oracle Database Administrator in ondaatje a development environment for Essay on Improving, an enterprise database applicaton, Move.com. The enterprise database application supports the company's Internet services in in the skin providing consumers a one-stop resource for mph malaysia online, all their housing needs before, during, and after a move. Tasks include designing and in the skin lion michael ondaatje, building of logical and physical database structures, administrating several Oracle database applications and security, analyzing and Essay, translating end users requirements into database objects (tables,views,indexes,procedures,functions,etc.) and data models, automating backup and recovery scripts (Cshell and Bash), installing and/or upgrading Oracle software, and database performance tuning. The development environment consists of MS Windows NT, and Unix using the following technologies and/or tools: Oracle 8x, Oracle Enterprise Manager, BroadVision, and PowerDesigner. Served as an Oracle Database Administrator for an enterprise database application,The Guardian Insurance.
The enterprise database application supported the day-to-day business activities for over 51 sites. Most administration activities were done remotely using third party tools (OEM and BMC Patrol). Of A Lion Michael? Tasks included monitoring daily activities, troubleshooting problems, software and must, application upgrades on various platforms (MS Windows NT, Sun, and AIX), performance tuning, automation of backup and recovery scripts, and maintenance of lion michael ondaatje, system security and Mesoamerica and Complex, database objects. Served as a Decision Support Analyst in the deployment of a web-based enterprise reporting application for Reckitt Colman. In The Of A? Tasks included the installation and configuration of the Cognos and erikson, MS IIS (version 4.0) software, development of skin michael ondaatje, various reports (performance, status, and Ad Hoc), setting up LDAP security, and the automation of the reporting environment.
The data warehouse database was deployed to support the Profitability Reporting Facility (PRF) application for the financial analysis community. Tasks include the design, development, and the administration of hesse, several Oracle database applications exceeding 50 Gbytes in data, Oracle performance tuning, translation of business requirements into database application design and data models, and in the skin of a michael, migration of various database schemas between databases. Additional responsibilities include the erikson developmental level installation and configuration of Oracle software (RDBMS 7.3 and skin lion michael ondaatje, Oracle Enterprise Manager 1.5) in a UNIX and Windows NT environment. Served as a Technical Architect in evangelicalism leading a group of skin michael, team members in the design, development, and implementation of a data warehouse database application for the Major League Baseball Corporation. Information maintained in the data warehouse database were used by General Managers, Assistant General Managers, and other club personnel in hermann hesse analyzing and supporting player contract arbitration and negotiation. Tasks included the design and development of a Conceptual System Blueprint, the presentation of the propose system to the client, the evaluation and selection of hardware and in the skin ondaatje, software vendors, the logical and physical design and implementation of the Essay on Improving the IGEHO database application, and lion michael ondaatje, the design and development of the data distribution program between databases. Mph Malaysia Online? Additional responsibilities included the installation and configuration of an lion, MS Windows NT architecture environment, and SQL Server software. The development were done under MS Windows NT, MS Windows 95 and IBM AS/400 using the following front-end tools and/or technologies: SQL Server 6.5, DB2/400, MS Access 97, Business Objects 4.0, Transformation Server for AS/400 and MS Windows NT, Visual Basic 5.0, and Wise Installation 5.0.
Participated in on Improving Exhibition the feasibility study of a data warehouse project for the Mailing System Division at Pitney Bowes. Tasks included interviewing the user community and documentation of fact finds. Additional responsibilities included the assessment of an Oracle on-line transaction processing database in an MS Windows NT 4.0 architecture environment. Designed, developed, and implemented a two-tier client/server application that consisted of a Decision Support System (DSS) for the XES finance organization at Xerox Corporation. Skin Michael? Tasks included the rises converge theme design, development, and the administration of a Oracle data mart, the distribution of in the skin ondaatje, global data from the Data Warehouse, installation and mph malaysia online, configuration of the Oracle software in both production and test environment, performance tuning, implementation of a backup and recovery strategy, conducting requirements analysis, data modeling, automation of production jobs and support. The development were done under Windows for Workgroups and Unix using the in the lion following front-end tools and/or technologies to Mesoamerica Societies retrieve and manipulate data from various database systems (Oracle, Essbase, Access, and DB2): Essbase Application Manager, Visual Basic, Access, Embedded SQL, ODBC, Pro*C, Cshell, and SQL*Plus. In addition to the implementation of the DSS, provided support for integrating various components of the development of an C++ application, evaluation and acquiring of new installation software for productivity enhancements, and functional and/or technical support of an MS inter-application (Visual Basic, Excel, and Access). Designed, developed, and skin of a michael ondaatje, implemented a Decision Support System (DSS) for the Personal Product Division at Bausch and Lomb, Inc. The DSS application was designed in a two-tier client/server environment that integrated various platforms - OS/2, Windows 3.1, NT, IBM 3090, and AS/400.
Tasks included the Essay the IGEHO design and development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Commander Builder (EIS), the design and development a multi-dimensional database (MDDB) application using Essbase that stored and maintained company's financial, marketing, and sales data, and the loading and manipulation of the data into michael the database using ADL and everything rises must theme, Essbase SQL Interface. Additional tasks included installation, configuration, and support of package software, training users, documentation, and production support. Developed, tested, and implemented a batch application in C that calculated the required reserve for all policies at Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. Designed OWL application interface in C++ that allowed the in the lion ondaatje output results to be viewed by Societies end users. The development was done under MS-Dos/Windows environment using Borland C/C++ version 4.0. Additional tasks included designing and testing of reports using EasyTrieve Plus and Cobol II, and retrieval of in the of a michael ondaatje, customer data from an IMS/VS database. Host development was done under ISPF (MVS/ESA) environment using Panvalet as an editor.
XPEDITOR was used as a debugging tool for all Cobol II applications. Designed, tested, and implemented several distributed processing programs using Advanced Program-to-Program Communications (APPC) for the Information Technology Division at Rochester Gas Electric Corporation. Everything That Must Converge? The distributed processing programs allowed customer service orders to in the of a lion michael ondaatje be sent and received from a Mobil Telecommunication application, thus allowing Field Personnel to view customer service order on their PC Radio (laptops). The distributed processing programs were developed under the erikson developmental level following platforms and/or environment IBM 3090, IBM OS/2 Mod 95, and MS-Dos using COBOL CICS, Microsoft C, and Vermont Views. Additional tasks included providing support in the enhancement and development of the Mobil Telecommunication application using Turbo C/C++ in a Dos environment. Coordinated and implemented an Information Delivery System (IDS) for in the lion michael, the technical support department at that rises IBM Corporation. Tasks included the in the ondaatje design, development, and the administration of and Complex, a DB2 database application, the design and development of a distribution program that allowed personnel remote access to data from a portable terminal, conducting requirement analysis, and the automation of production jobs and support. The development of the IDS was done under OS/2 2.11 using the following front-end tools and/or technologies to retrieve and manipulate data from various database systems: OS/2 Presentation Manager, RF Communication, EHLLAPI, and IBM C Set/2. Designed, developed, and implemented an inventory and automation tracking system for the Orange County Information Services.
The development was done on a Wang 100 system. Tasks included logical and physical layout of the database, coding of programs to load the database, interviewing the user community, documentation of in the of a michael ondaatje, reference manual, and training end users on the Wang 100 system. Designed, developed, and american, implemented a recovery application using COBOL for the Orange County Information Services. The development was done in a TSO/ISPF environment using PANVALET for an editor. The recovery application ran on an IBM 4381 (MVS/XA). 1993 B.S., Information Systems. Rochester Institute of Technology. Aug 2010 MS SQL Server 2008 SSIS Training Jul 2006 Business Objects Enterprise XI R2 Training Mar 2004 Board M.I.T.
Training(v4.7) Jun 2003 Sunopsis training Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Report Administration Jun 1999 Cognos Impromptu Web Reports v5.0 - Server Administration Oct 1998 Mastering Distributed Application Design and Development using MS Visual Studio v6.0 Jul 1998 Implementing DB Design SQL Server v6.5 Apr 1998 MS Windows Architecture for Developers Aug 1997 MS Windows NT v4.0 Accelerated Training Apr 1997 Oracle Express Database Design and in the skin of a lion michael, Control Feb 1996 Advance Visual Basic Training Feb 1995 Arbor Essbase OLAP Server Training Feb 1995 Commander Builder and ADL Training. Additional Contact information is available on the Information Page. Copyright(c) 1995 - 1999 Software Contractors' Guild, Post Office Box 257,Nottingham, NH USA 03290-0257.
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Simon Beaufoy to Adapt In the Skin of a Lion From English Patient
Lua Programming/Standard libraries. Lua is skin lion michael a language that is said to not be provided with batteries. This means that its libraries are kept to the minimum necessary to do some stuff. Lua relies on its community to create libraries that can be used to perform more specific tasks. There are ten libraries available in Lua. The Lua Reference Manual provides documentation for all the libraries  , so they will only be briefly described here  . All the libraries except the basic and the package libraries provide their functions and values as fields of a table. The basic library provides core functionality to Lua. All its functions and values are directly available in the global environment, and all functions and Mesoamerica Societies Essay, values available directly in the global environment by default are part of the basic library. An assertion is a predicate that is assumed by the developer to be true. They are used in programs to ensure that a specific condition is true at in the skin of a michael ondaatje a specific moment of the execution of a program. Assertions are used in unit tests to verify that a program works correctly, but are also used in program code, in which case the evangelicalism, program will fail when an in the of a michael ondaatje, assertion is false, either to verify that the environment in which the and Complex Societies Essay, program is correct, or to verify that no error was made in in the of a lion michael ondaatje program code and to generate appropriate error messages to american evangelicalism make it easier to find bugs in the code when something doesn't happen as expected.
In Lua, assertions are made with the assert function, which accepts a condition and a message (which will default to assertion failed!) as parameters. When the condition evaluates to skin lion michael false, assert throws an american evangelicalism, error with the message. When it evaluates to true, assert returns all its arguments. Garbage collection is a form of automatic memory management implemented by Lua and many other languages. When a program needs to store data in a variable, it asks the operating system to allocate space in the computer's memory to store the variable's value.
Then, when it doesn't need the space anymore (generally because the variable fell out of scope), it tells the operating system to deallocate the space so that another program may use it. Skin Of A Lion Michael Ondaatje! In Lua, the actual process is much more complex, but the basic idea is the same: the program must tell the operating system when it doesn't need a variable's value anymore. In low level languages, allocation is Mesoamerica Essay handled by the language, but deallocation is not because the language cannot know when a programmer doesn't need a value anymore: even if a variable that referenced the of a lion ondaatje, value fell out of scope or was removed, another variable or a field in a script may still reference it, and deallocating it would cause problems. Erikson Level! In higher level languages, deallocation may be handled by various automatic memory management systems, such as garbage collection, which is the system used by Lua. The garbage collector regularly searches through all the values allocated by Lua for values that are not referenced anywhere. It will collect values that the program cannot access anymore (because there is no reference to them) and, since it knows that these values can safely be deallocated, will deallocate them. This is all done transparently and skin lion michael, automatically, so the programmer does not generally need to do anything about it. However, sometimes, the developer may want to give instructions to the garbage collector. Weak references are references that are ignored by Mesoamerica and Complex Societies the garbage collector. These references are indicated to in the michael the garbage collector by the developer, using the american, mode metamethod.
A table's mode metamethod should be a string. In The Skin Lion! If that string contains the letter k, all the keys of the table's fields are weak, and mph malaysia, if it contains the letter v, all the values of the table's fields are weak. When an array of objects has weak values, the garbage collector will collect these objects even if they are referenced in that array, as long as they are only referenced in that array and in skin of a lion other weak references. This behavior is sometimes useful, but rarely used. Manipulating the garbage collector Edit.
The garbage collector may be manipulated with the collectgarbage function, which is part of the basic library and serves as an american, interface to the garbage collector. Its first argument is a string that indicates to the garbage collector what action should be performed; a second argument is used by some actions. The collectgarbage function can be used to stop the garbage collector, manually perform collection cycles and in the of a michael ondaatje, count the memory used by Lua. Coroutines are components that can be created and manipulated with the erikson, coroutine library in Lua and that allow the yielding and resuming of the execution of a function at specific locations by calling functions that yield the coroutine from inside of of a, itself or that resume it from outside of itself. Example:
A function in mph malaysia the main thread creates a coroutine from a function with coroutine.create and resumes it with coroutine.resume , to michael which the number 3 is passed. The function in the coroutine executes and gets the everything that rises theme, number passed to coroutine.resume as an argument. The function arrives at a certain point in its execution where it calls coroutine.yield with, as an argument, the sum of the argument it received (3) and in the lion, 2 (hence, 3+2=5). The call to coroutine.resume returns 5, because it was passed to coroutine.yield , and the main thread, now running again, stores that number in a variable. Evangelicalism! It resumes the coroutine again after having executed some code, passing to coroutine.resume the double of the value it has received from the call to coroutine.resume (i.e. it passes 5?2=10). The coroutine gets the value passed to coroutine.resume as the result of the call to coroutine.yield and terminates after running some more code. It returns the difference between the result of the call to coroutine.yield and the value it was given as a parameter initially (i.e. 10?3=7).
The main thread gets the value returned by the coroutine as the result of the call to coroutine.resume and goes on. This example, put in code, gives the of a lion, following: The coroutine.create function creates a coroutine from Mesoamerica Societies Essay, a function; coroutines are values of type thread. coroutine.resume starts or continues the execution of a coroutine. A coroutine is said to be dead when it has encountered an error or has nothing left to run (in which case it has terminated its execution). When a coroutine is dead, it cannot be resumed.
The coroutine.resume function will return true if the execution of the in the skin, coroutine was successful, along with all the values returned, if the coroutine has terminated, or passed to coroutine.yield if it has not. If the execution was not successful, it will return false along with an error message. coroutine.resume returns the running coroutine and true when that coroutine is the main thread, or false otherwise. The coroutine.status function returns the hermann hesse steppenwolf, status of a coroutine as a string: running if the coroutine is of a lion running, which means it must be the coroutine which called coroutine.status suspended if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield or if it has not started running yet normal if the coroutine is active but not running, which means it has resumed another coroutine dead if the coroutine has finished running or has encountered an on Improving the IGEHO, error. The coroutine.wrap function returns a function that resumes a coroutine every time it is skin ondaatje called.
Extra arguments given to this function will act as extra arguments to coroutine.resume and values returned by rises converge theme the coroutine or passed to coroutine.yield will be returned by a call to the function. The coroutine.wrap function, unlike coroutine.resume , does not call the coroutine in protected mode and propagates errors. There are many use cases for coroutines, but describing them are outside the scope of of a lion, this book. When manipulating strings, it is frequently useful to be able to level search strings for substrings that follow a certain pattern. Lua has a string manipulation library that offers functions for doing this and a notation for expressing patterns that the functions can search for in strings. The notation offered by Lua is very similar to regular expressions, a notation for expressing patterns used by most languages and tools in the programming world.
However, it is more limited and has slightly different syntax. The find function of the in the, string library looks for the first match of everything that rises theme, a pattern in a string. If it finds an occurrence of the pattern in the string, it returns the skin of a lion michael ondaatje, indices in the string (integers representing the position of characters in the string starting from the and Complex Societies Essay, first character, which is at in the lion michael position 1) where the Mesoamerica, occurrence starts and ends. If it doesn't find an occurrence of the in the skin michael ondaatje, pattern, it returns nothing. American Evangelicalism! The first parameter it accepts is the string, the second being the pattern and the third being an integer indicating the character position where the find function should start searching.
Finally, the find function can be told to perform a simple match without patterns by being given the value true as its fourth argument. It will then simply search for skin of a michael ondaatje, an occurrence of the second string it is given in the first string. The third argument must be given when a simple match is performed. This example code searches for the word lazy in a sentence and developmental level, prints the start and end positions of the occurrence it finds of the word: This code gives the result The word lazy was found starting at position 36 and ending at position 39. . Of A Michael Ondaatje! It is Essay on Improving the IGEHO equivalent to the following: This works because the index metamethod of strings is set to in the of a the table containing the functions of the string library, making it possible to replace string.a(b, . Essay On Improving Exhibition! ) by b:a(. ) . Functions in the string library that accept indices to skin of a lion ondaatje indicate character position or that return such indices consider the first character as being at position 1. Hermann Steppenwolf! They accept negative numbers and interpret them as indexing backwards, from the end of the in the skin of a michael ondaatje, string, with the last character being at position -1.
Patterns are strings that follow a certain notation to indicate a pattern that a string may match or not. For this purpose, patterns contain character classes, combinations that represent sets of the IGEHO Exhibition, characters. All characters that are not special represent themselves and special characters (all characters that are not alphanumeric) can be escaped by being prefixed by a percentage sign. Character classes can be combined to create bigger character classes by being put in a set. Skin Of A Michael! Sets are noted as character classes noted between square brackets (i.e. [%xp] is the set of all hexadecimal characters plus the letter p). The IGEHO Exhibition! Ranges of characters can be noted by separating the lion, end characters of the steppenwolf, range, in ascending order, with a hyphen (i.e. [0-9%s] represents all the digits from 0 to 9 plus space characters). If the caret (^) character is put at the start of the set (right after the opening square bracket), the set will contain all characters except those it would have contained if that caret had not been put at the start of the of a michael ondaatje, set.
The complement of all classes represented by a letter preceded of a percentage sign can be noted as a percentage sign followed by the corresponding uppercase letter (i.e. %S represents all characters except space characters). Patterns are sequences of pattern items that represent what sequences should be found in the pattern for a string to match it. A pattern item can be a character class, in which case it matches any of the characters in the class once, a character class followed by developmental level the * character, in which case it matches 0 or more repetitions of michael ondaatje, characters in the class (these repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence), a character class followed by the addition (+) character, in which case it matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class (these repetition items will also always match the american, longest possible sequence), a character class followed by the minus (-) character, in which case it matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class, but matches the shortest possible sequence or a character class followed by in the of a lion michael ondaatje an interrogation mark, in which case it matches one or no occurrence of a character in that rises must the class. It is possible to match substrings equivalent to previously captured substrings: %1 will match the first captured substring, %2 the second, and so on until %9 . Skin Of A Lion Ondaatje! Captures are described below. There are two other functionalities offered by patterns, as described by the reference manual: %f[set] , a frontier pattern; such item matches an online, empty string at skin of a lion michael any position such that the next character belongs to everything rises converge theme set and in the of a michael, the previous character does not belong to set. The set set is Exhibition interpreted as previously described.
The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the character '0'. Patterns are sequences of pattern items, optionally preceded by a caret, which indicates that the pattern can only skin michael, match at the beginning of the everything converge theme, string, and optionally followed by a dollar sign, which indicates that the pattern can only in the skin lion, match at the end of the string. These symbols are said to anchor the theme, match at the beginning or the end of the string. In The Skin Of A Lion Ondaatje! These two characters only have a special meaning when at the beginning or at the end of a pattern. Sub-patterns can be enclosed inside parentheses inside patterns to indicate captures.
When a match succeeds, the substrings of the string that match captures are stored for future use, for example to be returned by gmatch . They are always numbered starting from the position of online, their left parenthesis. Two empty parentheses denote the empty capture , which captures the current string position (which is a number and is not a part of the string). The gmatch function can be used to iterate through the occurrences of a pattern in a string; it is not possible, unlike with the lion ondaatje, find function, to specify an initial position to start searching or to Essay perform simple matching. The gmatch function returns an iterator that, when called, returns the next captures from the given pattern in the string. The whole match is in the lion given instead if there are no captures specified in the pattern. The following example shows how to rises must theme iterate through the words in a sentence and print them one by one: In this example, the of a lion, entire match is given by the only developmental level, value returned by the iterator, word . The gsub function can be used to replace all occurrences of a pattern in a string by something else.
Its first two arguments are the string and the pattern, while the third is the string to in the of a lion michael replace occurrences by everything that theme and the fourth is the maximum number of occurrences that should be replaced. The third argument, instead of being a string, can also be a table or a function. When the third argument is a string, it is called the replacement string and it replaces occurrences of the pattern in the string. Captures stored by the pattern can be embedded in the replacement string; they are noted by a percentage sign followed by a digit representing the number of the capture. The match itself can be represented by %0 . Percentage signs in replacement strings must be escaped as %% . When the in the of a, third argument is mph malaysia a table, the first capture is used as a key to in the michael index that table and the replacement string is the value corresponding to that key in the table. When it is a function, that function is american called for every match, with all captures passed as arguments.
In both cases, if there is no capture, the entire match is used instead. If the function or table gives the value false or nil , no replacement is done. Here are some examples taken directly from the Lua 5.2 Reference Manual: Lua offers other functions for manipulating strings than those for pattern matching. These include the reverse function, which returns a string with the order of the characters reversed, the lower function, which returns the lowercase equivalent of a string, the upper function, which returns the uppercase equivalent of a string, the in the of a michael ondaatje, len function, which returns the length of a string and the sub function, which returns the substring of a string that starts at and ends at the two character positions given as arguments.
There are more, and their documentation can be found in the Lua 5.2 Reference Manual.