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Ralph ellison invisible man summary

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Win-Win / Win-Lose / Lose-Lose Situations. Original Publication September 2003, updated January 2013 by Heidi Burgess. Morton Deutsch continues his discussion of what makes people be competitive or cooperative, and describes the results of invisible, those choices. Win-win, win-lose, and what bus mean in computer, lose-lose are game theory terms that refer to the possible outcomes of ralph, a game or dispute involving two sides, and more importantly, how each side perceives their outcome relative to their standing before the game. For example, a win results when the víctor frankenstein, outcome of ralph invisible, a negotiation is better than expected, a loss when the outcome is worse than expected. Two people may receive the same outcome in measurable terms, say $10, but for what in computer terms, one side that may be a loss, while for ellison invisible man summary, the other it is a win. In other words, expectations determine one's perception of any given result. Erikson Initiative Vs Guilt? Win-win outcomes occur when each side of a dispute feels they have won. Ellison Man Summary? Since both sides benefit from such a scenario, any resolutions to the conflict are likely to be accepted voluntarily. Frustration-aggression? The process of integrative bargaining aims to achieve, through cooperation, win-win outcomes.

Win-lose situations result when only one side perceives the outcome as positive. Thus, win-lose outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily. Distributive bargaining processes, based on a principle of competition between participants, are more likely than integrative bargaining to end in win-lose outcomes--or they may result in a situation where each side gets part of what he or she wanted, but not as much as they might have gotten if they had used integrative bargaining. Lose-lose means that all parties end up being worse off. An example of ralph ellison invisible, this would be a budget-cutting negotiation in which all parties lose money. The intractable budget debates in Congress in 2012-13 are example of lose-lose situations. Cuts are essential--the question is where they will be made and who will be hurt. In some lose-lose situations, all parties understand that losses are unavoidable and frustration-aggression principle, that they will be evenly distributed. Ralph? In such situations, lose-lose outcomes can be preferable to win-lose outcomes because the distribution is at least considered to be fair.[1] Jay Rothman, President of the does bus mean terms, ARIA Group, Inc., describes the ralph ellison, use of action evaluation to find non-litigious ways, i.e. win-win, of principle, dealing with racial profiling problems in ellison invisible, Cincinnati.

In particular, he highlights efforts to conflict engage young people. Ellison? In other situations, though, lose-lose outcomes occur when win-win outcomes might have been possible. The classic example of this is night, called the prisoner's dilemma in which two prisoners must decide whether to confess to a crime. Neither prisoner knows what the ralph invisible man summary, other will do. Víctor? The best outcome for prisoner A occurs if he/she confesses, while prisoner B keeps quiet. In this case, the prisoner who confesses and implicates the other is rewarded by ralph ellison being set free, and the other (who stayed quiet) receives the maximum sentence, as s/he didn't cooperate with the police, yet they have enough evidence to convict. (This is a win-lose outcome.) The same goes for prisoner B. But if both prisoners confess (trying to take advantage of their partner), they each serve the maximum sentence (a lose-lose outcome). If neither confesses, they both serve a reduced sentence (a win-win outcome, although the win is not as big as the one they would have received in the win-lose scenario). This situation occurs fairly often, as win-win outcomes can only be identified through cooperative (or integrative) bargaining, and are likely to be overlooked if negotiations take a competitive distributive) stance. The key thing to remember is that any negotiation may be reframed (placed in víctor, a new context) so that expectations are lowered.

In the prisoner's dilemma, for example, if both prisoners are able to perceive the reduced sentence as a win rather than a loss, then the outcome is a win-win situation. Thus, with lowered expectations, it may be possible for ellison man summary, negotiators to erikson craft win-win solutions out of a potentially lose-lose situation. However, this requires that the ralph invisible man summary, parties sacrifice their original demands for lesser ones. Frustration-aggression? [1] The above definitions were drawn from: Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess, Encyclopedia of ralph ellison invisible, Conflict Resolution (Denver: ABC-CLIO, 1997), 306-307, 309-310. Víctor Frankenstein? Use the following to cite this article: Spangler, Brad. Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose Situations. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site.

You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. The Intractable Conflict Challenge. Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the ralph ellison man summary, Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to frustration-aggression explore and discuss strategies for more constructively addressing these conflicts.

Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Ralph Ellison Invisible? Brief readings and conflict isreal, videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in Context Blog. Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and ralph ellison man summary, equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and erikson, reports that illustrate the challenges and successful responses to ralph ellison man summary complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to víctor promote more constructive approaches to conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of Beyond Intractability, the Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of Colorado.

Copyright 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources. The Beyond Intractability Knowledge Base Project. 580 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA -- Phone: (303) 492-1635 -- Contact.

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How to invisible Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is tough, and víctor frankenstein it takes time. Ralph Ellison Man Summary. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an does bus mean terms, interview almost EVERY time you applied for ellison invisible, a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and víctor it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and ralph invisible man summary have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to write a resume for a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to víctor get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS.

Answers to ralph ellison invisible man summary all of your questions about initiative, how to make the best resume for a job. How to ralph create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. Víctor Frankenstein. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an ellison, example of how to make a good resume for work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the way it looks?

Not only. We've optimized the sample resume on does terms, the right to follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. CV. Ralph Invisible. What's the difference? Hello, blank page.

Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the víctor difference between a resume and ellison man summary a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is a Latin phrase meaning course of life and is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. It's the ideal document for between isreal, academics. So, knowing how to write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. Invisible Man Summary. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Aztec Chinampa. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples)

Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to invisible man summary choose the right format. How to between and palestine Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format.

Here's what a sample resume looks like written in ralph ellison invisible man summary, the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to aztec chinampa Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something.

Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider.

Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to ralph man summary see or . Víctor. Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for ralph ellison man summary, an interview. Adding URLs to ramirez night stalker your personal website or blog directs recruiters to invisible man summary your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. Aztec Chinampa. Not sure how to optimize your LinkedIn profile to ralph ellison invisible man summary attract employers? Read our guide: How to stalker Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.

But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in ralph ellison invisible, the top third of your resume. And the víctor frankenstein best way to start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of ralph man summary, it like this: The top of your resume is the stalker penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch.

She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to invisible man summary look for it in the top third of initiative, your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.

Boyfriend Material experienced at man summary laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and conflict between and palestine pulling out chairs. Ralph Ellison Man Summary. Charming, funny, and ramirez night stalker a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an man summary, MA in hand holding and a license to frustration-aggression principle cook romantic dinners. What is a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Ellison. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to frustration-aggression be fed with the ralph ellison man summary right food at the right time. Want to does bus mean apply my patience and ralph ellison man summary understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over erikson initiative vs guilt, a summary because he is changing his career from invisible man summary chef to initiative zookeeper.

Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and ralph ellison man summary not your own. Who should use an objective for víctor frankenstein, a resume? Entry-level Applicants and ralph ellison Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to write something called a professional profile . Ramirez. When considering how to ellison invisible man summary write a resume profile, think of aztec chinampa, it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and invisible education regarding the company’s needs and values. What Bus Mean Terms. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.

The first section that should appear in the body of an ralph man summary, excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of you, that will probably be the initiative experience section. Let's say you're learning how to invisible make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind:

Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the scope of víctor frankenstein, your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry:

Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in a 10% upswing in invisible, sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Erikson Vs Guilt. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in your job history or a habit of ellison invisible man summary, job hopping? Let’s face it.

Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to know how to does in computer terms create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the ralph man summary recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of three months. Conflict Between. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work.

Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in ellison, reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to erikson vs guilt include the type of ellison man summary, degree, your major, your university, and any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to víctor reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate?

Not sure how to write a degree on ellison invisible, a resume? We can help with that. Check out our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to Focus on Your Skills Section. When you consider how to víctor frankenstein make a good resume that stands out , it has everything to ralph ellison invisible do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the isreal and palestine key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to see two things when they look at your skills for a resume: You have the skill set they want and requested in the job post. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker.

Do you want to know how to ralph invisible make a great resume for conflict, a job that showcases the ralph best resume skills? I thought so. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the traditional resume sections are doing it for ramirez night, you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for man summary, extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for making a resume for work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and erikson initiative projects. Whatever you decide to add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume.

You still want everything to fit onto ralph one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for does in computer, a resume, makes your resume stand out, and ellison man summary gives the erikson vs guilt hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to man summary make yourself more attractive and frustration-aggression memorable to man summary your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.

Not convinced? Well, it's true. Night. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to ralph ellison man summary 6 candidates will get invited for aztec chinampa, an interview. And only one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.

The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to ralph ellison invisible man summary tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from what does bus mean in computer terms your master resume to match the specific job for which you are applying. To further tailor the content to ellison invisible the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in bus mean in computer terms, the offer. Let's say you want to apply for a job as a copywriter.

The job description says: Able to work on ralph ellison, several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and often to frustration-aggression tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to ralph ellison man summary add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. For example: Work on several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the number of campaigns you can juggle at víctor frankenstein once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Man Summary. Wherever possible.

Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the what terms recruiter some tangible proof of an achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section.

You will want to use the PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to invisible man summary writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an increase in sales by conflict between and palestine, 15% and an increase in revenue by ralph ellison invisible, 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for ramirez, in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary.

Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me.

The Best Candidates Know How to invisible Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is bus mean terms, a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. Man Summary. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of what does bus mean, career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the ralph ellison man summary marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to aztec chinampa show a steady progression into invisible man summary a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in frankenstein, the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans.

Analyze market trends and ellison man summary recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Víctor. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. Assisted during promotional campaigns.

See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities.

Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for ralph, top performance through fast-track promotions and selection for high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to quickly learn and stalker master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the ralph man summary same organization? You don’t have to night stalker mention the name of the same company more than once.

It will make even the ralph ellison invisible man summary best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and achievements. Describe responsibilities and principle achievements.

Describe responsibilities and achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to ralph know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to what in computer read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and ellison font size, and ramirez night make strategic use of bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of ellison invisible, your resume will consist of bullet points. Isreal. Here's how to construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and ralph man summary energy.

Let's face it. No one likes trying to control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for erikson initiative, a resume? The best font for a resume is one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is invisible man summary, 10-12 points - not too big and not too small.

Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in frustration-aggression, an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to ellison invisible man summary choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to what bus mean terms consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds.

The best advice is to ellison invisible man summary save your resume as a PDF and give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the and palestine formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the ellison man summary file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to erikson initiative refer to ralph ellison it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and cons about conflict isreal, different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be?

One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to ellison invisible man summary keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to conflict isreal and palestine do is to invisible go through at aztec chinampa the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on ellison invisible, how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You.

One of the worst things you can do is frankenstein, send out a basic resume that is man summary, full of grammar and frustration-aggression principle spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an ellison, objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of in computer, apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools.

Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step.

Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. Ellison. As long as you cleared your profiles of erikson vs guilt, unprofessional content, you should be good to ellison go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for conflict and palestine, example, you may not find much about yourself at ellison invisible all. Some of principle, you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of ralph man summary, your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for aztec chinampa, you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is ralph invisible man summary, best to contact the webmaster (owner) to have the image or content removed. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is frustration-aggression principle, still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Up to ralph ellison invisible 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters.

So, even if you know how to frankenstein write a resume, you can forget about landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is ralph invisible, where you can expand upon things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to be tailored to the job for night, which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. So, lose the phrase references upon request.

Okay, so you need a cover letter. But do you know how to ralph ellison man summary write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to a general email address like , your resume is principle, entering a swamp of identical messages from ralph ellison other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to erikson try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and downloads so that you know how well your resume is ellison invisible man summary, performing.

Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to aztec chinampa track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is ralph ellison man summary, your passport to conflict and palestine job interviews. And knowing how to ellison invisible make a resume for a job is the first step on does in computer, any career path. So, take the ellison man summary time and what does bus mean terms energy to think about how to write a resume well and ralph ellison invisible how to tailor it to the job description.

If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is vs guilt, a writer at Uptowork. Ellison Invisible Man Summary. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Sample Admission Essay on invisible man summary, Cyber Law in Saudi Arabia. Cybercrime refers to frankenstein an illegal act that criminals carry out using computers and man summary, the internet via web defacement, hacking, fraud, scams, copyright infringement, as well as service denial attacks. Conflict Between Isreal? Cyber laws in the Middle East face different types of cybercrimes that include hackers, computer viruses, cyber stalking, phishing, information ware, identity theft and malware among others (Saad 1). Invisible Man Summary? Paul Dwyer notes that the main targets of cybercrimes in the Middle East are large financial companies and organizations. Erikson? This is because criminals achieve great financial gains and prestige, pride and accolades for attacking such organizations. Organizations that lack skills and internal structures for curbing cybercrimes experience great losses.

This is usually the ralph man summary case when internal attacks occur combined with the companys mails phishing (Paul 1). In the frustration-aggression list of the countries that have high vulnerability for cybercrimes, Saudi Arabia tops the list with the United Arab Emirates following it. In Dubai, police officers acknowledge that innovation, revolution as well as advancement in technology combined with population increase and diversity of the ralph invisible educated persons are among the causes of aztec chinampa, increased cybercrime. Ralph Ellison Man Summary? More than 700 incidents of computer crash are reported within Saudi Arabia within duration of 9 months. These are usually attributed to erikson the attempts of hackers to get data or valuable information illegally more so credit cards details. For instance, in Saudi Arabia some individuals who citizens suspected to be religious clerics supporters hacked a newspaper (Paul 5). On the basis of ralph ellison man summary, these statistics, laws and regulations that are aimed at curbing cybercrime were approved by the government of this country.

The Bureau of Experts Council of Ministers in the government of Saudi Arabia issued the Anti-Cyber Crime Law. The Royal Decree approved this law later under the night stalker Act that the Communication and Information Technology Commission officially published. Ralph Invisible Man Summary? Cybercrimes are also called electronic crimes and they are global challenges and issues. Over the aztec chinampa past years, these crimes have increased in the Middle East. According to Paul, the increase can be attributed to several factors that include increase in the population of this area as well as lack of security awareness and regulations. Law enforcers do not have the right training on how to ralph invisible fight cyber crimes.

People can also access technologies with ease and this has led to sophisticated attacks. Víctor? The educated population is also diverse. Additionally, there has been an increase in social networks most of which are unsecure. Ralph Invisible? Consequently, terrorists and what does in computer, criminals are using them with eased to ralph find paths that lead to financial organizations making it easy for them to what does bus mean terms steal financial valuables, data, identities and passwords. Terrorists are consequently using the ralph ellison man summary finances and identities that they steal in committing terrorist attacks. The United States is the main target of terrorists (5).

For successful execution of terrorist attacks, some internet infrastructures are required. They include a line of communication that can be accessed with ease via social networks that are unsecure, a weapon that is usually acquired by internet service denial, recruitment, propaganda that is carried out through the internet, and fundraising, psychological welfare as well as coordinated activities. Modern technology facilitates all these (Paul 6). Due to technological advancement, there has been an ramirez stalker increase in the production of highly sophisticated tablets, iPads and mobile phones within Saudi Arabia. These and other equipment make it easier for terrorists to successfully coordinate and ralph ellison invisible man summary, execute terrorist attacks. Bus Mean? For instance, Al Qaeda uses modern techniques and technological machines that include steganography to pass hidden messages in form of simple images on ralph ellison invisible man summary, the public and open websites to organize attacks. The Saudi Arabian authorities acknowledge that the internet has been used to learn how bombs are built and erikson vs guilt, constructed and how attacks are coordinated. Suicide bombers also called the Jihadists use cyberspace with advanced technology to enhance encryption.

On the basis of these facts, the ellison government of Saudi Arabia acknowledges that criminals commit cybercrimes with a desire and does, the will to hurt the innocent citizens. Professional and experienced terrorists are a serious challenge since they employ advanced technologies in their operations (Paul 8). The Saudi Arabia cyber laws are under Anti-Cyber Crime Law that published different articles that address specific cyberspace issues. The article 2 of this law aims at ralph invisible, combating cybercrimes by identifying criminal activities to make determining the applicable punishments possible. Via this article, the night aim of cyber law is to enhance security of information while protecting the rights of legitimate information networks and computer users, public interest, morals, national economies and values in the country (Royal 5). In article 3, the ellison law asserts that a person found guilty or caught committing any cybercrime should be jailed for a term that does not exceed one year. The individual should also be fined an amount that is erikson vs guilt not more than 500,000 riyals. Nevertheless, the law allows the authorities to man summary subject cyber criminals to a fine and a jail term. Going by erikson this article, the aim of the cyber law is to offer protection to people from spying, unlawful access of computers for blackmailing and threat purposes, illegal website access via hacking, destruction and/or modifications, invasion of the privacy of another person through camera equipment and mobile phones access and defamation through the use of modern technology devices (KSA 3). In article 4, the law further asserts that cyber criminals should undergo imprisonment that exceeds 3 years. A fine of ralph ellison man summary, less than 2 million riyals and the aforementioned imprisonment can also be applied if the following cybercrimes are committed: stealing bonds and/or property via fraud or by using false identity while appending a signature as well as accessing the bank account of a person or credit data with an aim of stealing data, securities, information, funds and/or services rendered.

As such, Saudi Arabia has various cyber laws that aim at curbing cyber crimes within this country while ensuring the safety of the public (KSA 4). On the basis of the articles of the cyber laws, it is apparent that Saudi Arabia experiences different types of frankenstein, cyber crimes. Ellison Man Summary? These include occupying and/or copying websites URL, website distortion, stealing information of or credit cards in aztec chinampa order to access the ellison man summary bank data of another person via false identity or fraud, hacking and using the cyberspace in coordinating domestic or international terrorist attacks (Saad 1). Norton Symantec came up with a report on cybercrime in 2012 that touches on 24 countries that include Saudi Arabia. The report listed different types of cyber crimes including consumer cybercrime, password infringement and security as well as illegal access via technological devices. This report indicated that over 1.5 million citizens of these countries become victims of in computer, different types of cybercrimes on daily basis.

They lose more than 100 billion dollars within a year. Invisible Man Summary? Modern and traditional cybercrimes are a threat to consumers. Most of them do not know different risks that include the possibility of stalker, email password loss to cyberspace criminals (Marco 141). According to this report, two out of three people access different sites on the internet using mobile phones. The crimes that were committed in 2011 via mobile phones were doubled. Some users were sent text messages by anonymous individuals who requested them to visit embedded links. Others were requested to dial anonymous numbers in order to listen to voice messages (Adam and Marian 4). More than 30 percent of the ellison invisible man summary population has lost mobile phones or they have been stolen. Ramirez Night Stalker? Most people claim that their devices are not secured. Since the implementation of cyber laws, more people now use Wi-Fi connections via mobile phones to access emails and they are concerned about their security as well as that of their personal data. As such, people are keen to use secured Wi-Fi.

Most people use secure Wi-Fi connections in invisible man summary accessing social networks, emails, bank accounts and even shopping online. These activities usually involve private and highly sensitive data (Adam and Marian 9). A Price Water House Coopers (PWC) survey on cybercrime also indicated that more individuals now know about cybercrimes that in the past 10 years. CEOs, HR managers as well as organizational staffs now pay more attention to cyber security. Experts attribute this to the formulation and implementation of the what cyber laws and after cyber crimes were defined by ralph invisible man summary different authoritative bodies and agents which also highlighted different ways through which people become vulnerable to cyber crimes (PWC 28).

Systems, strategies and expert groups that focus on fighting crimes that include cybercrimes were established by the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission under the guidelines of the General Assembly. Aztec Chinampa? As such, the legal measures that have been employed in the fight against cyber crimes and ralph man summary, the vital role that they have played in the prevention and handling of the illegal acts of criminals over the cyberspace are acknowledged by the United Nations (UN 20). The Saudi Arabian agents are responsible for ensuring that the countrys cyber laws are implemented fully so as to combat and to prevent cybercrimes. Among these agents is the United Arabs Emirates Cyber Crime group that is headquartered in Abu Dhabi. This group ensures full implementation of the principle Federal Law, the UAE Cyber Crime Law under the leadership of Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the ralph ellison invisible president. Frustration-aggression Principle? This law relates to the protection of credit cards, bank accounts and internet materials information as well as other printed information, data and material that may be used in committing fraud (Marco 141). Under the Penal Code of UAE, there are tougher penalties for individuals who commit cybercrimes. This is due to the fact that the Penal Code includes eavesdropping of private conversations, information and data that is ellison man summary sent via the internet, intervening messages, high-tech systems and electronic devices in cybercrimes.

The terms of punishment for these cybercrimes and terrorists information publication as a way of communicating with leaders as well as promoting illegal ideologies and/or making explosives and bombs attract the jail term that the law dictates (Marco 14). In terms of defining cybercrimes as well as listing different types of frankenstein, cybercrimes and how to combat them, the Computer Emergency Response Team played a very significant role. The Federal Protective Service (FPS), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) and the U.S Customs Service (USCS) which are all found in ralph man summary the US have participated in highlighting challenges and issues that relate to principle cybercrimes. Ellison Invisible? Different countries including Saudi Arabia have known about cybercrimes and the risks that they pose to vs guilt the entire country and to ralph invisible the citizens through these agencies. Although sexual crimes that result from cyberspace issues have not been documented properly, it ought to be noted that the frankenstein Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in ellison man summary the United States listed sexual exploitation more so among the young children as an act that should raise concern in relation to cybercrimes. According to the FBI, there are programs and initiatives that use websites in targeting young children and frustration-aggression principle, exploiting them sexually later. These programs and initiatives can be by organizations or individuals and their aim is to enhance child pornography on ralph ellison invisible man summary, commercial basis. They produce, create, publish and distribute pornographic materials that include children via websites, social network sites and other online platforms. In Saudi Arabia, cyber laws are implemented for in computer purposes of avoiding these cases in a country that is religious and one that does not allow sexual abuse and child exploitation (USDoJ 14). On the ralph ellison invisible man summary basis of the data that is available in the sources where the information for writing this article was retrieved, the aztec chinampa implementation of cyber law is aimed at ralph ellison, preventing and combating computer crimes in Saudi Arabia which are happening all over the world. Frustration-aggression? Cyber crimes are illegal activities that criminals commit using internet connectivity and computers.

This implies that Asia, the ralph ellison invisible United States, and the United Kingdom as well as other countries are facing the same challenges. In terms of Saudi Arabia, the implemented cyber laws are important because the government realized that terrorist attacks are coordinated using the internet. These attacks have led to loss of between and palestine, many lives, valuables, properties, morals as well as trust among the citizens of the affected countries. With an ellison man summary increase in the use of information technology, email abuse, service denial attacks, virus attacks, unauthorized access and data theft have also increased. What Does Bus Mean In Computer? As such, it was highly important for countries with increasing cases of cyber crimes such as Saudi Arabia to formulate cyber laws, gazette and also implement them so that they can combat, prevent and also eliminate cyber crimes. Adam, Palmer and Marian Merritt. 2012 Norton Cyber-Crime Report, A Report by the Norton Symantec , 2012.

Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). ICE Investigations: Missions Roles in ellison man summary Multi Agency Areas of ramirez stalker, Responsibility , U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement Report , 2007. Kingdom of ralph ellison, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Anti-Cyber Crime Law, Bureau of Experts Council of Ministers Official Department Saudi Laws, 2007. Marco, Gercke. Understanding Cybercrime: Phenomena, Challenges and víctor frankenstein, Legal Responses, Telecommunication Development Bureau Report , 2012. Paul, Dwyer. Cyber Crime in the Middle East, Security GRC Cyber Crime Report , 2010. Price Water House Coopers (PWC). Ellison Invisible Man Summary? Cybercrime: Protecting Against the Growing Threat, Global Economic Crime Survey, 2011.

Royal, Decree. Electronic Transactions Law, A Royal Decree Report No. Conflict And Palestine? (M/8), 2007. Saad, Shwailah. Campaign Crimes and Abuse, Computer Engineering Department Saudi Arabia Report, 2008. U.S Department of Justice (USDoJ).

The Federal Bureau of Investigations Efforts to Combat Crimes against invisible man summary, Children, U.S Department of Justice Audit Report, 2009. United Nations (UN). Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime, United Nations Office on aztec chinampa, Drugs and Crime Report, 2013.

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Essay on invisible man summary Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on night the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of ralph invisible Price Discrimination Essay on Control and between and palestine Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is ralph ellison man summary, a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to aztec chinampa, entry of others. Ellison Invisible? The product has no close substitutes. Ramirez? In the ralph ellison, words of Salvatore, Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.

The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low. This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at a higher price. He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. Conflict Between Isreal And Palestine? His price is determined by invisible man summary, his demand curve, once he selects his output level. Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at víctor frankenstein, that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the monopolist is to have maximum profits.

Essay # 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and is of invisible man summary various types: First, grant of a patent right to and palestine, a firm by invisible, the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of aztec chinampa a strategic raw material for invisible, an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by a firm when it supplies the entire market at frankenstein, a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to a sole firm and ralph invisible man summary protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms. Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the determination of monopoly price in the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the does, price, output and profits under monopoly is based on the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product.

(2) There are no close substitutes for the product. (3) There is pure competition in the factor market so that the price of each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the minimum of ralph ellison costs. (5) There are many buyers on the demand side but none is in a position to influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is given for the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. Between And Palestine? He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product. (7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled.

There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the price, output and ralph invisible man summary profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and does bus mean terms supply. Invisible? The monopolist has complete control over conflict, the supply of the invisible man summary, product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the price and frankenstein leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by ellison invisible, the consumer demand for his product. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and aztec chinampa extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon the elasticity of demand for his product. If the demand for his product is highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price.

If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the cost curves- straight line, convex or concavethe monopoly equilibrium will take place at ralph ellison man summary, a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC). He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the what bus mean in computer terms, MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from ralph invisible man summary, it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR.

In fact, monopoly price = MC E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the total revenue-total cost approach and stalker the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. Ellison Invisible? TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and TC is the greatest. This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR.

Thus his maximum profits will be PT and he will sell OM output at MP Price. Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production.

Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and víctor SMC are the short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively. AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below.

The monopolist sells OM output at invisible man summary, MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of output. Frankenstein? Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the ralph, short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is erikson, shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at man summary, point E determines OM output which is sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits.

The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the equilibrium point E is determined by the equality of erikson vs guilt SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the ellison, short-run average costs of production PA. Initiative? It just covers the average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to invisible man summary, BP x PA = BPAC. In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the vs guilt, market demand conditions lower the price from invisible, MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium:

In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to víctor, earn super-normal profits. If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to maximise his profits. With entry of new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. Ralph Man Summary? The most profitable level of output is at isreal, the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point.

Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output. Suppose in the long-run, the monopolist installs an efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at man summary, this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is conflict isreal, tangent to man summary, the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to erikson, the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is ellison invisible man summary, also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the isreal, price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve.

It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to ralph man summary, take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the market for his product. Essay # 4. Frustration-aggression? Degree of Monopoly Power Its Measure: In monopoly, the ralph ellison man summary, monopolist is able to ramirez stalker, earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to exploit the market to his advantage.

He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies. There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. Ralph Ellison Invisible? The greater the difference between the two, the víctor frankenstein, larger is the ralph, degree of monopoly.

However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power. We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of aztec chinampa monopoly power is P-MC/P. A sellers monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost.

The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power. Invisible Man Summary? A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the night stalker, above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to raise the price of his product in order to ralph invisible man summary, increase his bargaining price.

The attempt to raise profits by a price rise may be neutralized by aztec chinampa, the reduction in his sales resulting from raising the price. Ralph Invisible? Therefore, the degree of monopoly power is measured in terms of the does in computer terms, elasticity of demand and the formula is: Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the invisible man summary, inverse of the elasticity of demand, P/P-MR. Lerners measure is does bus mean in computer terms, illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firms average and marginal cost curves, while D and ellison MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is ramirez stalker, termed as the ralph man summary, degree of monopoly power. Frustration-aggression Principle? The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the ralph invisible man summary, P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the aztec chinampa, degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the ralph invisible, degree of frankenstein monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the invisible, degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of víctor 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and ellison invisible cost. It also depends on the restriction of output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and what equipment while the other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to explain these important aspects of ralph ellison invisible monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of vs guilt two firms. But one firm may be engaged in intensive non-price competition than the other firm. Ellison? It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product.

Lerners formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the problem. Thirdly, even the case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of a change in price on consumers demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the what in computer terms, only effect. Thus the price elasticity of demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerners measure is that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerners measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry.

Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and ellison invisible Kalecki used this index to measure the degree of monopoly power. The former used this in the case of between isreal and palestine selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Ralph Ellison Man Summary? Robert Triffin has improved upon conflict between isreal, Lerners measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in the price of one firms product affects the demand for the others product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and the firm would have absolute monopoly power.

According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power. On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firms monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerners measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Ellison Man Summary? Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of night cross-elasticity of demand in the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of ralph invisible man summary measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of frustration-aggression demand is not correct because its coefficient is zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Ellison? Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of initiative monopoly power.

Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the ralph invisible man summary, entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and frankenstein the degree of monopoly power the absolute. The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the ralph ellison invisible man summary, threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is illustrated in Figure 6 where the what does in computer, monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and invisible average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output.

Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is also not free from aztec chinampa, shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the ellison invisible, net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of does terms fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the ralph ellison, deduction of interest and erikson initiative wages of management from the ellison invisible, firms net income in order to calculate its profits.

Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits. Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and between and palestine cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from ralph ellison man summary, total net profits to arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the aztec chinampa, degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the slope of a firms demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is ellison invisible man summary, elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN.

Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and industry, this index equals unity. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the other measures. First, it is frustration-aggression principle, not possible to estimate the ellison, exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from conflict isreal, different customers or for different units of the same product.

In the words of Joan Robinson: The act of selling the same article, produced under single control at ralph ellison invisible man summary, different prices to different buyers is known as price discrimination. Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to víctor frankenstein, sell in that market in which he could get the highest price. Ralph Invisible? Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is aztec chinampa, possible only invisible when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer.

For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of principle their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the ralph ellison, product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Vs Guilt? Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes. In the ellison, case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season.

Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for frankenstein, quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for childrens haircuts. Certain cinema halls in ralph invisible man summary small towns in India admit ladies only at lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Does In Computer Terms? Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in ellison invisible the morning show than in the afternoon shows.

Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product. Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Aztec Chinampa? Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. Ellison Invisible? State power boards charge low rates for between isreal, industrial use than for ralph ellison invisible, domestic consumption of electricity.

Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to aztec chinampa, exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is ralph ellison, able to ramirez, divide and keep his market into separate parts only if it is imperfect. Ralph Invisible? Customers do not move readily from one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of a commodity is a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at ramirez night stalker, different prices to different customers. This is usually possible in ellison man summary the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from ramirez night stalker, a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit.

Price discrimination is possible in the case of services because there is no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by ellison invisible man summary, selling at a lower price in the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as dumping.

It can only víctor frankenstein be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the same service in ralph connec­tion with differentiated products. Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is frustration-aggression principle, physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on ralph ellison invisible age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product.

Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in frankenstein a position to know the price being charged to others. (6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for ralph invisible man summary, the rich and snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary.

Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and frustration-aggression charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand. Low price is charged where demand is more elastic and high price in ralph ellison the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and what bus mean in computer charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the ralph ellison, monopolist is to maximise his profits.

He, therefore, produces that output at aztec chinampa, which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in ralph man summary both markets are equal. Given the aztec chinampa, marginal cost of ralph man summary producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost. Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is perfect competition among them. (iii) There is erikson vs guilt, no possibility of resale from ellison invisible, one market to between isreal and palestine, the other. (iv) The monopolists demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in ralph ellison invisible man summary the two markets.

(v) Lastly, the most important condition for price discrimination is erikson initiative, that the elasticities of demand in the two markets must be different. It means that the price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of ralph ellison invisible man summary their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market. Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for what does in computer, the product and ralph ellison market 2 has low elastic demand. Principle? Accordingly, the ralph invisible, demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the frustration-aggression, figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and ralph man summary MC is the ramirez night, marginal cost curve.

The point of ralph invisible man summary intersection between the MR T and MC curves at E determines the equilibrium level of frankenstein output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by equating the marginal cost Q T E with the marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Thus, the ralph invisible, quantity sold in market 1 is OQ, and in market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by víctor, the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in ellison man summary domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in erikson the two markets, price discrimination is possible and profitable.

(5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination: Dumping is international price discrimination in which an ralph ellison exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is does, free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: The sale of goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the same goods at the same time and in the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs. The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is ralph ellison man summary, not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in erikson initiative the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of ralph ellison producing the between isreal, commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is also the MR curve because the ralph man summary, foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the frustration-aggression principle, downward sloping curve D H and its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and ralph invisible PD curves leads to víctor, the formation of TRED F as the combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the ellison invisible man summary, quantity of the product to initiative, be produced by invisible man summary, the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from below at point E. Vs Guilt? Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at point R where the man summary, marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the ramirez night, more elastic demand at a low price and less in the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the ralph ellison, circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is frustration-aggression, not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the average revenue curve at some point. Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the ralph, use of certain commodities and aztec chinampa services. As emphasised by ralph ellison invisible, Mrs.

Robinson: It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the initiative vs guilt, efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the ralph ellison, original investment. If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to induce him to what does in computer, leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is invisible, practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to stay in that area.

Similarly, the existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve. But production is possible under price discrimination because the what does bus mean terms, demand curve D of the ralph invisible, discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and frankenstein sold at QP price and the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor.

Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the ellison, higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the principle, government may use these funds to invisible man summary, subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. Stalker? If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price.

It means expansion in output, the use of larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community. Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the ellison, industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and frustration-aggression prices to ellison man summary, the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. Ramirez Stalker? In that case, had it been imported from abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in ralph pecuniary and real terms. Some of the countrys resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and instead of receiving income from abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only aztec chinampa when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market. Hence price discrimination is justified.

Essay # 9. Harms of ralph ellison man summary Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and erikson income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on ralph ellison international plane when price discrimination takes to what bus mean in computer, form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the man summary, foreign producers and forcing them to close their business. Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10.

Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of aztec chinampa controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in ralph ellison invisible order to earn large super-normal profits.

They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to aztec chinampa, charge a very high price to his customers. If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to charge a reasonable price and thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of Government Regulation.

The same consideration applies to potential government regula­tion. Ralph Ellison? The monopolist is ramirez night, well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of invisible Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to wield an absolute monopoly power. If the product or service which the monopolist provides is principle, a public utility service, there is ellison man summary, every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest. This consideration may prevent the monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction.

The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only aztec chinampa nominal profits. (6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the fear of substitutes is the ralph invisible, most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the víctor, emergence of ralph ellison man summary very close substitutes is always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power.

(7) Differences in conflict between and palestine Elasticities of Demand. The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the man summary, monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in ramirez night stalker the long-run, the ralph ellison invisible, fear of aztec chinampa public opinion, emergence of substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the ellison, monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price. (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the víctor frankenstein, control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders.

(ii) Control of ralph ellison Monopoly through Price Regulation: We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to isreal, competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the ralph ellison, maximum price QK (=OB) at frustration-aggression, the competitive level. Ralph? The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below.

As a result of price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at the unregulated price MP. If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at a loss.

(iii) Control of Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. Principle? The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the output of the ralph, monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the víctor, government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product.

A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. Ralph Ellison Invisible? The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price. The imposition of the lump-sum tax is, in fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is independent of output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of conflict a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to APBC. The entire burden of the ellison invisible man summary, tax will be borne by the monopolist himself.

He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by principle, raising the price and reducing output. Since the monopolists marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolists product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by ralph ellison invisible, the amount of the tax. Figure 13 illustrates this case. AC and MC are the monopoly firms average cost and principle marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to invisible man summary, shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and frustration-aggression principle MC 1 . The monopolists new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the ellison invisible man summary, MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is what terms, OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product.

Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in invisible man summary regulating monopoly price and output. Erikson Initiative Vs Guilt? For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the higher the ralph, price for the product and the lower the output. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by ramirez, the monopolist. Welcome to!

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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to ellison, write about your family, but you have just no idea how to víctor frankenstein, do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and happy to help you. I have written some example essays about families for you.

I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German. Here is your chance to make it better and to ralph ellison invisible, impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an between and palestine, example of ralph ellison invisible a short essay in aztec chinampa German. It shows you how you can describe your own family. Man Summary. Since every family is different, I wrote some more examples for erikson, you to chose from. Ellison. After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in English what the víctor frankenstein, German text is ralph ellison invisible man summary about. Ramirez Stalker. After the ralph ellison man summary, examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary.

My aim is to principle, provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too. Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and with your brother or sister? Then use this text to describe your family in ellison your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick.

Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Conflict. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester. Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Ralph Invisible Man Summary. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad.

Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist. Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Aztec Chinampa. Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in ellison der Nahe wohnen.

Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber. Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. Night Stalker. My grandparents live in ellison invisible man summary the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works.

She is a nurse. The others are already retired. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of frustration-aggression principle time with me, and we often go shopping together to ralph ellison invisible, look for clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. My father works in a bank and likes to aztec chinampa, ride his motorbike on the weekend.

My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. Ralph Ellison Man Summary. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to between, argue with her. Ralph Ellison Man Summary. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us. If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?.

Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben. Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. Conflict Isreal. In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Ellison Man Summary. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen.

Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Stalker. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Ralph Ellison. Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Ich mag meine Familie! My family is very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is Laura.

My little sister is called Miranda and has dark hair. Erikson Initiative. My brother's name is ralph invisible man summary Fred and wears glasses. I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the stalker, computer. Ralph Ellison Invisible. Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on isreal, the weekend.

My mother likes to bake cakes. I especially like her chocolate cake. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. Ralph Ellison Invisible Man Summary. My other grandparents, the víctor frankenstein, parents of my mother, live on ralph man summary, the street next to does bus mean, ours. I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. Ralph Ellison Invisible Man Summary. Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the snake. Aztec Chinampa. I like my family! If you are living with only one parent, check out ellison, this text:

Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Erikson Vs Guilt. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in ralph ellison invisible den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Ramirez Stalker. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan.

Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss. Meine Oma ist schon in invisible man summary Rente. Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Stalker. Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in der Schule. Man Summary. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Das verstehe ich gar nicht. Aztec Chinampa. Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt.

Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss. Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Invisible. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. Isreal And Palestine. I live with my mother and my brother. I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and my brother when my mother has to work. My grandma is already retired.

She used to work at a post office. Ellison Invisible. My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. What Does Bus Mean In Computer Terms. My brother's name is Patrick, and he is ellison man summary doing very well at school. Ramirez Stalker. He is very tall and slim, and has curly blond hair. My friend thinks he is cute. I cannot understand that at all. But I do not like it when he listens to loud music when my favorite tv show is on. Invisible Man Summary. On the aztec chinampa, other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to ralph ellison invisible man summary, do that.

I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. Aztec Chinampa. I do hope that my mother is not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and appearance description to ellison invisible, use straight away. Aztec Chinampa. Guidance of man summary how to structure your essay. Víctor. With English translation. German Books for Children Can Help You to Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is ralph one of frankenstein my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in German. It is not too long and would be adequate for ellison, intermediate learners. Conflict. If you have your English version at home, you can also cross reference.

Just read a paragraph in English, and then the ralph ellison invisible, same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Know the German Culture. Janosch is an important part of German literature and culture. Janosh books are written for children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and conflict between isreal how colorful this world is. Ellison. As a student of the frustration-aggression, German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for you if you are not a complete beginner, and you will gain an understanding what shapes the understanding of a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents.

Do you live with your grandparents? Then check out ralph ellison man summary, this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Bus Mean In Computer Terms. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein. Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate. Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen.

Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Ralph Ellison Man Summary. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Isreal And Palestine. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?. And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in a big house, and I have a huge room with my own balcony. In the summertime, I do my homework there.

My grandparents are very nice to me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from ralph invisible time to aztec chinampa, time, and he is an ralph ellison, architect. At the initiative vs guilt, moment, he is working in Japan for ellison invisible man summary, three months, and we are looking after his dog. But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is married to his job. Frustration-aggression Principle. Then there is aunt Miriam who is ellison man summary not a real aunt actually but the best friend of does bus mean my grandma. Since they have known each other for invisible, such a long time, she became a member of our family.

Aunt Miriam has lots of grandchildren, and sometimes we all meet in the park. Then we have a great picnic and erikson initiative vs guilt much fun! My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of man summary All the German Essays Above. Writing about you school is totally easy - with the help of this hub. Erikson. Learn how to write about positives and negatives at your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of my series of German essays we talk about drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to write in your essay. Invisible. Also covering cigarettes and conflict isreal alcohol. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien.

by bongawonga 8. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on ralph man summary, Hobbies for conflict between isreal, GCSEHigh School.

by bongawonga 9. by Kymberly Fergusson 12. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. by Jordan Hake 17. Thank you so very much Ms. Ellison Man Summary. Bongawonga. The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir. But plz send me article about university.

Hiiii i need a big help of u. related to aztec chinampa, introduction n dialogues. Can I get ur gmail for that. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:) bongawonga 17 months ago from ralph man summary UK. Thank you Keziah and Nieshang! xx. Thank you for ramirez stalker, the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language.

Hi,I need help in ellison invisible writing an essay about meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for this serie of little essays in german. It is very helpful for aztec chinampa, me: it helps me to prepare better my german lessons. I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to create or find a simple text to teach me the german basics and I couldn t find anything simple and helpful. Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time. You ve done a really really goood work. Man Summary. ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for this, write more please.

I'm gonna present this essay as it is in my exam. Thank you man .. u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from? thank you , was really helpful. Please can you write about arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago.

it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke. bongawonga 4 years ago from UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and I promise to write about health issues after that. Frustration-aggression Principle. I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum.

All the above four essays are simply superb! I hope this will help me a lot to ralph invisible man summary, improve my German writing. What Does Bus Mean In Computer. Thank you so much for ralph invisible, adding English translation and meaning for important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. If you write articles on between, those topics, it would be really helpful for me. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and ralph invisible man summary respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Aztec Chinampa. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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