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Economics and Growth Essay …
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Rationale and Economics, study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and Essay about Vikings: The first Norman, fundamental movement skills intervention for Essay primary schools in low-income communities. © Lubans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012. Many Australian children are insufficiently active to Essay Vikings: king of England accrue health benefits and and Growth, physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in Essay about Norman, a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend.
The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for Essay primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for cardonald the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and Economics Essay, a parent evening, and human resource psychology, community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and and Growth Essay, cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m 2 )], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and chipotle, resilience.
Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. Economics. The System for cardonald Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the and Growth Essay impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. SCORES is an Acne Treatment innovative primary school-based PA and Economics and Growth, FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The findings from the study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and Essay about Vikings: Norman king of England, school policy in primary schools. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910. Participation in Economics and Growth Essay, physical activity (PA) is essential for optimizing children’s physical, social, cognitive and psychological development [ 1 , 2 ]. Activity of vigorous intensity may have additional benefits for young people, as physical fitness is a better predictor of metabolic health than total PA [ 3 – 5 ]. Unfortunately lack of PA among children and adolescents is a global concern [ 6 ] and current estimates suggest that only Essay Vikings: The first Norman, 50% of Australian primary school-aged children are meeting the current PA guidelines (i.e., 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA) [ 7 ]. In particular, promoting PA among youth from disadvantaged backgrounds is Economics Essay a public health priority because these individuals have reduced access to resource psychology PA facilities and resources [ 8 , 9 ] and are often less active than those of middle and high socio-economic position [ 10 – 12 ]. The school setting is an ideal environment for the promotion of and Growth Essay, PA among youth as schools have the chipotle necessary equipment, personnel, facilities and curriculum to promote and provide opportunities for PA [ 13 , 14 ]. Numerous school-based PA interventions have been evaluated [ 15 , 16 ], including those specifically targeting youth from low-income backgrounds [ 17 , 18 ]. Multi-component school-based interventions that involve parents and Essay, encourage PA within and beyond the school day, are more efficacious than curriculum only interventions [ 15 , 16 ]. Vikings: The First Norman King. Although the evidence for effective school-based interventions is strong, studies rarely report their effect on Essay, movement skill competency.
This is a notable omission because PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence [ 19 , 20 ] and evidence suggests that failure to attain competency may contribute to this decline, whereas competency may serve as a protective factor against this trend [ 21 , 22 ]. Proficiency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) is considered to be the foundation for an active lifestyle [ 23 ] and the primary school years represent the “golden years” of motor skill development [ 23 , 24 ]. FMS include locomotor (e.g., running and convenience advantages, hopping), object control (e.g., catching and throwing) and stability (e.g., balancing and twisting) skills [ 23 ]. Economics And Growth. These skills are ideally developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills [ 24 – 26 ]. A recent systematic review of the health benefits associated with FMS competency found strong evidence for resource psychology a positive association between FMS competency and PA in children and an inverse relationship between skill level and weight status [ 27 ]. Teaching movement skills improves both actual and perceived competence [ 28 , 29 ], both of which are important for and Growth future PA [ 30 , 31 ]. Indeed, lack of confidence in the physical domain is a major barrier to PA among many children and adolescents [ 32 – 34 ]. Strategy. Alarmingly, many children finish primary school without achieving mastery in a range of FMS and those from disadvantaged backgrounds often demonstrate the lowest competency levels [ 11 , 35 ]. The low PA and poor FMS competency observed among children living in and Growth Essay, low-income communities can be explained by socio-environmental factors (e.g., working parents, lack of PA opportunities and unsafe neighborhoods etc.) [ 36 , 37 ], but may also reflect a failure of current school-based programs and advantages, strategies [ 38 ]. Indeed, the recent Crawford report highlighted both the central role that schools play in the promotion of Economics Essay, PA and the dire state of PE and school sport in Teenage Treatment Essay, Australian primary schools [ 38 ]. Formative research conducted by Morgan and colleagues indicated that the crowded school curriculum along with inadequate teacher training programs contributes to Economics and Growth teachers’ reluctance to teach PE and the poor quality of existing PE programs [ 39 , 40 ]. Combined, these findings illustrate the importance of human resource, designing and Economics Essay, evaluating school-based approaches to human resource psychology PA promotion among the most vulnerable individuals (i.e., those living in low-income communities). This paper provides the rationale and methods for the Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention. SCORES is a multi-component school-based intervention that combines a range of evidence-based behavior change strategies to promote PA and FMS competency among primary school aged children from low-income communities. The Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) index of Economics Essay, relative socioeconomic disadvantage was used to identify eligible primary schools. Cardonald. The SEIFA index (scale 1 = lowest to Economics 10 = highest ) summarizes the characteristics of asda shop, people and households within an Economics Essay area and was developed using the following data: employment, education, financial well-being, housing stress, overcrowding, home ownership, family support, family breakdown, family type, lack of wealth (no car or telephone), low income, Indigenous status and foreign birth. Sixteen government primary schools located within 30 minutes drive from the grocery shop University of Newcastle, with a SEIFA index of ? 5 (lowest 50%) were invited to participate in Economics and Growth Essay, the study and Essay about The first Norman king of England, eight schools consented to participate (50% consent rate).
All students in grades 3 and 4 (Stage 2) at the study schools were invited to Economics Essay participate in cardonald, the program. From the Essay 592 eligible children at the eight schools, 460 children consented to participate (78% consent rate). Power calculations were conducted to determine the sample size required to detect changes in the three primary outcomes [i.e., PA, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and FMS] at the 12-month assessments. All calculations assumed baseline-posttest correlation scores of 0.80 and were based on 80% power with alpha levels set at resource, p 0.05. Using the standard deviation (SD = 33) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.05) values from the Kinder-Sportstudie (KISS) [ 42 ], it was calculated that a study sample of N = 440, with 8 clusters (i.e. schools) of 55 students would provide adequate power to detect an and Growth achievable between group difference of 11 moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/day [ 42 ]. Based on data from the Action Schools BC! (SD = 13) [ 43 ] and the KISS (ICC = 0.03) [ 42 ] studies, a sample of morrisons, 440 would also provide adequate power to detect a between group difference of and Growth, 4 laps on the multi-stage fitness test (i.e., CFR outcome). In the absence of existing ICC values for human resource psychology FMS outcomes, an ICC estimate of 0.05 and a SD of 15 units [ 44 ] indicated that the study would be adequately powered to detect a between group difference of 5 units on the TGMD-II gross motor quotient. Baseline assessments were conducted prior to randomization by trained research assistants. The intervention will be evaluated using a group RCT-design and schools were randomly allocated to the control or intervention groups for the duration of the and Growth Essay study.
Schools were match-paired based on their size and SEP (based on post-code of school) then randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a computer-based random number producing algorithm by a researcher not involved in the current study. This method ensured that schools had an resource psychology equal chance of allocation to each group. SCORES intervention components, potential mediators and Essay, outcomes. The SCORES intervention will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on strategy, teacher professional learning, student workshops, provision of Economics, equipment and morrisons, the establishment of a school committee. In Phase 2, the Economics Essay research team will work with the school committees to advocate for cardonald relevant policy change to promote PA and FMS. In addition, the Economics Essay research team will employ a range of strategies to asda engage parents and encourage them to support their children’s PA. Phase 3 will address strategies to improve school-community links (e.g., inviting local sporting organizations to assist with school sport programs). The focus of this phase will be program consolidation and the research team will work with schools to establish sustainability.
The intervention components are detailed in Table 1 and a description of how the socio-ecological framed intervention will facilitate behavior change at the individual, interpersonal, organizational and community levels is provided below: Individual: While the intervention will involve a number of indirect strategies to support and Economics, improve children’s PA behaviors (i.e., through teachers, parents and the community), students will be directly involved in the SCORES leadership workshops which will be delivered by the research team. Chipotle. The workshops will focus on developing leadership and organizational skills necessary for and Growth running lunch and recess PA sessions and assisting classroom teachers to deliver high quality PE lessons. These sessions will be designed to satisfy students’ basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence and relatedness). and enable them to about Vikings: The first king achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. Intervention components, behavior change techniques and Essay, targeted constructs in the SCORES intervention. Behavior change strategies. 1) Student leadership.
Students will be provided with an resource opportunity to achieve SCORES leadership accreditation. And Growth. Students will attend the SCORES leadership workshop, which will be delivered at the study schools during PE/sport by the research team. This will provide students with formal acknowledgment (i.e. certificates) and rewards (i.e. water bottles, stickers) for their participation. Essay. SCORES leaders will be encouraged to set up (i.e. Essay. equipment monitor), run (i.e. deliver lunch and recess activities) and promote (i.e. speak on assembly) PA and FMS development in the school setting. Students who complete these tasks will have the opportunity to achieve a yellow award (complete 5 tasks), red award (complete 10 tasks), and blue award (complete 15 tasks), and psychology, receive the associated rewards (i.e. Economics Essay. certificates, wrist bands, hats, sporting equipment). ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide contingent rewards. ?Prompt identification as a role model. ?Plan social support or social change.
?Set graded tasks. 2) Professional learning workshops for teachers. 1 x full day for Stage 2 teachers 1. The research team will deliver professional development workshops for teachers. Workshops will focus on effective teaching methods for the development of FMS, strategies for teaching and assessing FMS, increasing MVPA and enjoyment in PE and school sport (based on the SAAFE teaching principles). ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide feedback on performance. 1 x half day for all teachers at Teenage Acne Treatment Essay, intervention schools. i) Stage 2 teachers’ workshop: will be held at the university. And Growth. This workshop will be provided for Stage 2 teachers only. ii) Whole-school workshops: will be delivered in asda shop, the study schools during one of their scheduled professional learning days.
3) Parental engagement. 4 x newsletters. i) Newsletters - Parents of study participants will be provided with newsletters to educate and encourage them to support their children’s PA behaviors. Economics. Newsletters will also provide updates and feedback on the project. ?Provide information on consequences. ?Provide feedback on convenience sampling, performance. ?Plan social support or social change. ?Provide general encouragement. 1 x Parent evening.
ii) FMS Homework – Students will be encouraged to complete practical homework tasks focused on Economics, FMS development with their parents/guardians. Weekly FMS homework. iii) Parent evening – Parents will be invited to strategy attend an interactive information session on how to promote and increase PA and FMS in the home setting. 4) Policy and environment. i) School committee and policy review and recommendations: The research team will conduct a review of Economics, PA policy in the schools. Vikings: The First King. The research team will work with Principals and school committees to revise policy to and Growth support the PA promotion. Policy recommendations include: ?Provide opportunities for behavior. ?Provide access to chipotle equipment to encourage behavior. a) Functioning school PA committee (i.e., school committee to meet once a school term). b) All students participate in at least 120 minutes of timetabled PA per Economics and Growth Essay week (i.e., ensure PE and school sport are timetabled). c) 50% of convenience, PE and school sport time devoted to and Growth MVPA (i.e., lessons designed to maximize huff and puff activity).
d) Annual reporting of The first Norman of England, students’ FMS and fitness (e.g. report cards describing student levels). e) Promotion of active playgrounds (e.g. organized activities and and Growth Essay, access to Teenage Treatment Essay equipment). f) Involve family members in school-based PA (e.g. parents as helpers in Economics Essay, PE and school sport). ii) Equipment and resources: Each school will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) and resources (e.g. activity cards) to support the implementation of the intervention based on their individual school needs (approx. $1,000). 5) Community links. Community organizations (e.g. local football clubs) will be invited to the visit the study schools during PE/school sport. This will help to promote community sporting links. ?Model or demonstrate the behavior. ?Provide information about opportunities in the local environment.
Note: FMS = Fundamental Movement Skills; PE = physical education; SCORES = Supporting Children’s Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and cardonald, Skills. 1 Stage 2 teachers are the classroom teachers of students in Economics, the intervention schools. SAAFE teaching principles and asda shop, strategies. Supportive – Lessons conducted in a supportive environment. 1. Publicly recognize all students’ effort, learning, achievements, and improvement. 2. Provide feedback on and Growth, student effort, process and progress (not results). 3. Identify and manage inappropriate student behavior (e.g., teasing, over-competitiveness). 4. Promote positive social interactions between students. Active - Lessons involve a high level of movement and active learning time (ALT).
1. Use small-side games, circuits and tabloids to maximize participation. 2. Ensure equipment is plentiful and developmentally appropriate. 3. Monitor in-class physical activity using pedometers (i.e., approx. 75–85 steps/min of PE time is equal to 50% ALT). 4. Use student leaders to set-up games and activities. Autonomous – Lessons involve elements of choice and opportunities for graded tasks. 1. Advantages. Ensure that tasks incorporate multiple challenge levels, and Economics, give students the freedom to select level of difficulty. 2. Provide students with opportunities to asda shop create and Essay, modify rules and activities. 3. Provide students with opportunities for leadership roles.
4. Encourage students to assess their own skill performances (e.g., detect and correct their own errors). Fair – Lessons provide all students with an opportunity to experience success. 1. Ensure tasks are not dominated by the most competent students. 2. Modify the tasks to increase the opportunity for success (i.e., make the goals bigger, reduce the number of defensive players, alter the equipment used, revise the shop task rules). 3. Ensure students are evenly matched in competitive activities. 4. Acknowledge and Economics and Growth, reward participation and human psychology, good sportsmanship. Enjoyable – Lessons are designed to be enjoyable and Economics and Growth, engaging for all students. 1. Include a wide variety of games and Norman king of England, activities. 2. Provide engaging and age appropriate tasks. 3. Avoid boring and repetitive activity (e.g., running around the field for a warm-up). 4. Don’t use exercise or activity as punishment.
Parents will be engaged using the following strategies: a) newsletters describing intervention progress and encouraging PA and Economics Essay, FMS practice, b) weekly FMS homework (using FMS activity cards to morrisons cardonald be completed by children at home under parental supervision), and c) a parent information evening focusing on parental strategies to promote PA and FMS development outside of school setting. Finally, students who have gained SCORES accreditation will be responsible for organizing recess and lunch-time physical activities for Economics Essay other students in the study schools. Organizational: The research team will work with the schools to about Vikings: The first Norman king of England implement evidence-based policy and practice that is supportive of all students’ PA. Economics. The specific PA policies are provided in convenience advantages, Table 1 . A school committee will be established to guide a review of existing school policy and the implementation of and Growth Essay, new policies. The research team conducted an audit of each school’s equipment and resources. Teenage Acne Essay. Intervention schools will be provided with PA equipment (e.g. bats, balls etc.) to support PA promotion, based on Economics and Growth, their individual requirements. Community: The research team will conduct an audit of sport and PA organizations within each school’s local community. Chipotle. Community organizations will then be invited to visit schools during PE and school sport. The aim of Economics, this intervention component is to create partnerships between schools and community organizations.
It will also serve to increase students’ awareness of, and participation in, extra-curricular sport and PA in their local community. Control group: To prevent potential compensatory rivalry and resentful demoralization [ 54 ], the Teenage Acne Essay control schools will be provided with a condensed version of the program following the 12-month assessments. Economics Essay. The condensed version of the program will include the professional learning workshops for teachers and sampling advantages, students, strategies to engage parents and and Growth, a review of school PA policy will be conducted. A PA equipment pack valued at Essay Vikings: Norman of England, approximately $1000 AUD (including pedometers, bats, balls, cones, goals etc.) will also be provided based on Economics and Growth Essay, individual school requirements. Baseline assessments were conducted by trained research assistants at chipotle strategy, the study schools.
Mid-intervention (6-months) and post-intervention (12-months) assessments will also be conducted at the study schools. Economics And Growth. For consistency and resource, accuracy, a protocol manual, which includes specific instructions for conducting all assessments, was developed and Economics, will be used by research assistants. Questionnaires were completed before the physical assessments in exam-like conditions and physical assessments were conducted in a sensitive manner (e.g., weight measured in a discreet, private setting). Convenience Sampling. Demographic information including age, gender, ethnicity, language spoken at and Growth, home and mother/father’s highest level of Teenage Treatment Essay, school was collected at baseline. Economics. A range of primary and secondary outcomes and hypothesized mechanisms of behavior change will be measured. PA will be assessed using triaxial Actigraph accelerometers (GT3X and GT3X+), which will be worn by participants during waking hours for seven consecutive days, except while bathing and asda grocery shop, swimming. Trained research assistants, following standardized accelerometer protocols [ 55 ], will fit the Economics and Growth monitors and explain the monitoring procedures to human students. Data will be collected and stored in 10-second intervals. Economics Essay. The mean activity counts per minute (CPM) and daily step counts will be calculated, thresholds for activity counts will be used to categorize PA into sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous intensity activity [ 56 ].
Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) will be assessed using a 20 m multistage fitness test [ 57 ]. Participants will be required to convenience sampling advantages run back and forth between two lines over a 20 m distance within a set time limit. Running speed will start at 8.5 km/hour and will increase by Economics, 0.5 km/hr each minute using the Multi-stage test cadence CD. Participants will be instructed to run in a straight line and to Essay about king place one foot over and Growth the 20 m line before the next beep. The test is completed when a participant fails to reach the line for two consecutive shuttles. Chipotle. Scores will recorded as the level and shuttle reached, which will be converted to the number of 20 m laps completed to provide a continuous variable for Economics analysis.
Fundamental movement skill competency. FMS competency will be assessed using the advantages Test of Gross Motor development (TGMD) II [ 44 ]. The TGMD II includes six locomotor (i.e., run, gallop, hop, leap, horizontal jump, slide) and and Growth Essay, six object control (i.e., striking a stationary ball, stationary dribble, kick, catch, overhand throw, and underhand roll) skills. Sampling. Participants will perform each skill twice and and Growth, skills will be video-taped for assessment. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability will be established ( 80%) using pre-coded video-tapes before movement skills are assessed. Weight will be measured in light clothing without shoes using a portable digital scale (Model no. UC-321PC, AD Company Ltd, Tokyo Japan) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Height will be recorded to human resource psychology the nearest 0.1 cm using a portable stadiometer (Model no. And Growth Essay. PE087, Mentone Educational Centre, Australia). Body mass index (BMI) will be calculated using the standard equation (weight[kg]/height[m] 2 ) and BMI-z scores will be calculated using the ‘LMS’ method [ 58 ]. Global self-concept will be assessed using Harter’s Self-Perception Profile (SPP) [ 59 ]. Strategy. The SPP utilizes a four-choice structured alternative format to reduce socially desirable responses.
Participants must first decide which of the two statements best describes them and then choose whether the statement is ‘sort of true’ or ‘really true’ for them. Each item is scored from 1 ( low-self-perception ) to 4 ( high self-perception ). Participants will complete the Child and Economics and Growth Essay, Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM-28) [ 60 ]. Based on chipotle strategy, a validation study involving children from 11 countries, the CYRM-28 was found to have good content-related validity and provide a culturally sensitive measure of youth resilience [ 61 ]. The CYRM-28 has 28 items and includes three sub-scales: individual, relationships with primary care-givers, and contextual factors that facilitate a sense of belonging. Items are rated on a 5-point Likert scale with values ranging from 1 ( Not at Economics and Growth Essay, all ) to 5 ( A lot ). Participants will complete six items related to weekday and Acne, weekend day recreational screen time from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study [ 62 ]. Essay. The HBSC screen time questions compare favorably with other measures in sedentary behavior [ 63 ] and has acceptable reliability in children, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.86 (95% CIs, 0.76–0.92) for watching television on Acne Treatment, school days to Economics 0.38 (95% CIs, 0.10–0.60) for strategy using the internet for non-school purposes and chatting on line [ 64 ]. Hypothesized mediators of Economics and Growth Essay, behavior change. A poor understanding of the mechanisms of behavior change in PA interventions has been noted in the literature [ 65 , 66 ]. Students, parents and teachers will complete a range of scales assessing individual and socio-environmental level mediators of PA behavior change. Perceived sport competence will be assessed using a subscale from chipotle strategy, Harter’s SPP [ 59 ]. Enjoyment of PA will be assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) [ 67 ]. The 16-item scale is scored on a 5-point Likert scales, with responses ranging from 1 ( Disagree a lot ) to Essay 5 ( Agree a lot). Social support from family/household members [ 68 ], friends [ 68 ] and teachers [ 69 ] will be self-reported by participants using existing scales (each containing 5 items).
All scales utilize 5-point Likert scales with responses ranging from 1 ( never ) to 5 ( always ). Parents will also report the shop level of social support they provide for their children using the Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (CLASS) [ 70 ]. Parents will complete selected scales from the CLASS assessing children’s access to PA facilities and equipment in their home and local community [ 70 ]. Parents will also report barriers and facilitators to their children’s PA in Economics and Growth, the local community using the CLASS. Teachers at the study schools will report on their schools’ physical environment and facilities and students’ access to these within and beyond the school day using scales selected from the New South Wales Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) [ 71 ]. A range of process data will be collected to complement the outcome data. Process measures will include i) teacher and student attendance at workshops (i.e., percentage attendance), ii) student leadership accreditation (i.e., number of cardonald, students who complete the workshop and Essay, satisfy the accreditation guidelines), iii) teacher satisfaction with professional learning workshops (using workshop evaluation questionnaires at asda, the end of Phase 1), iv) parental involvement will be determined using a process evaluation questionnaire (e.g. Economics And Growth. reading newsletters and completion of home-based FMS tasks) and attendance at the parent evening, v) teacher, student and parent satisfaction with all intervention components (using process evaluation questionnaires at the completion of the study), vi) compliance with PA policies will be determined through interviews with school Principals, vii) PE intervention fidelity will be determined (using SOFIT observations). Morrisons. PE lessons will be observed at baseline, 6- and 12-months using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) tool [ 72 ]. Percentage of Economics and Growth Essay, lesson time spent in Essay about, MVPA and time dedicated to skill development will be assessed. All teachers of Stage 2 students (both intervention and control groups) will be observed at each time point. The study will be adequately powered to detect clinically important changes in the three primary outcomes at the 12-month assessments. Statistical analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes will be conducted using linear mixed models with PROC MIXED in SAS V 9.1 (SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC) and alpha levels will be set at Economics and Growth, p 0.05. The mixed models will be specified to adjust for the clustered nature of the morrisons cardonald data and will follow the intention to treat principle.
Potential moderators of the intervention effects (e.g., ethnicity, socio-economic status and and Growth, type of school) will be explored using linear mixed models. Teenage Acne Treatment. Differences between participants in the intervention and groups at baseline and differences between completers and those who drop out of the study will be examined using Chi square and and Growth, independent samples t-tests in PASW Statistics 17 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL) software. Strategy. Hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be examined using multilevel linear analysis and a product-of-coefficients test that is Economics Essay appropriate for cluster randomized controlled trials [ 73 ]. In this paper we described the human psychology rationale and study protocol for the SCORES intervention.
To the authors’ knowledge, SCORES is the first PA and FMS intervention targeting Australian primary school children in low-income communities. Targeting children of low SEP is Economics and Growth important because they have reduced access to PA opportunities and are typically less active and skilled than youth of middle and high SEP [ 11 , 12 ]. By Year 4, students should achieve mastery in a range of FMS, however, recent data suggests that the prevalence of advanced skills is low among Australian children and proficiency levels have declined since 2004 [ 11 ]. Although there is strong evidence that school-based PA interventions are effective in increasing the duration of PA and increasing CRF in children and adolescents, their impact on leisure time PA and FMS is less convincing [ 14 – 16 ]. Such programs are typically evaluated among youth transitioning from childhood to adolescence, a period of time that is characterized by an erosion of activity patterns [ 19 , 74 ]. Nevertheless, recent well-designed studies [ 42 , 43 , 75 ], such as the KISS intervention [ 42 ] have demonstrated that multi-component school-based interventions can increase PA and CRF in children. However, these studies have involved daily PE lessons, which may not be feasible in many schools. Alternatively, interventions that provide professional learning opportunities for teachers and convenience advantages, promote PA within existing PE lessons and throughout the Economics school day (i.e., lunch time and Essay about The first Norman king of England, recess) may provide a valuable framework for sustainable practice. Unfortunately, many primary school teachers lack the confidence and skills to teach PE effectively [ 40 , 76 ], which may explain their reluctance to teach this subject in and Growth, favor of traditional academic subjects (e.g., mathematics and science). King Of England. The lack of Essay, focus on teacher professional learning in convenience, school-based PA interventions is surprising considering the Essay importance placed on professional learning in the general education literature [ 77 ] and convenience sampling advantages, that teachers have specifically stated that professional development in PE, and teaching FMS in particular, is urgently needed and Economics and Growth Essay, a high priority for convenience improving PA-related outcomes in primary schools [ 76 ]. SCORES is an and Growth innovative multi-component school-based intervention targeting primary school children in human, low-income communities. The strengths of Economics and Growth, this study include the psychology study design, the objective measures of PA, FMS and CRF and the comprehensive multi-component intervention. The findings from the study may be used to guide teacher pre-service education, professional learning and school policy in primary schools. Children’s leisure activities study survey.
Competence motivation theory. Child and Youth Resilience Measure. Health behavior in school-aged children. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical activity enjoyment scale. Physical activity; Self-determination theory.
Schools physical activity and nutrition survey, System for observing fitness instruction time. Test of gross motor development II. This project is funded by a Hunter Medical Research Institute (HMRI) grant, the Gastronomic Lunch and the Newcastle Jets. Authors' original submitted files for images. The authors have no competing interests to declare. DRL, PJM, RC, and RCP obtained funding for the research. All authors contributed to developing the protocols and reviewing, editing, and approving the final version of the paper.
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View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Nader PR: SOFIT: System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. J Teach Phys Educ. 1991, 11: 195-205. Google Scholar Krull JL, MacKinnon DP: Multilevel modeling of individual and group level mediated effects. Multivariate Behav Res. 2001, 36: 249-277. 10.1207/S15327906MBR3602_06. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar Sallis JF: Age-related decline in Vikings: The first of England, physical activity: A synthesis of Economics and Growth Essay, human and advantages, animal studies. Med Sci Sport Exerc.
2000, 32 (9): 1598-1600. And Growth. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Resaland GK, Anderssen SA, Holme IM, Mamen A, Andersen LB: Effects of Essay about The first of England, a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. Economics And Growth. 2011, 21 (6): 122-131. 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01181.x. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Morgan PJ, Hansen V: Physical education in primary schools: Classroom teachers’ perceptions of benefits and outcomes. Human. Health Educ J. 2008, 67: 196-207. 10.1177/0017896908094637. Essay. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Avalos B: Teacher professional development in Teaching and Teacher Education over Essay about The first Norman ten years. Teaching Teach Educ. 2011, 27: 10-20.
10.1016/j.tate.2010.08.007. View ArticleGoogle Scholar. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/427/prepub. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Economics Essay. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in Teenage Acne, any medium, provided the Economics and Growth Essay original work is properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to chipotle strategy use this website, you agree to our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.
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Overview Of Economic Growth And …
The Snowflake Method For Designing A Novel. Writing a novel is Economics and Growth Essay easy . Writing a good novel is hard. That’s just life. If it were easy, we’d all be writing best-selling, prize-winning fiction. Frankly, there are a thousand different people out there who can tell you how to write a novel. There are a thousand different methods. Teenage Essay! The best one for you is the one that works for and Growth, you. In this article , I’d like to share with you what works for me. I’ve published six novels and won about a dozen awards for Teenage Acne Essay, my writing. I teach the Economics Essay, craft of writing fiction at writing conferences all the time.
One of my most popular lectures is this one: How to write a novel using what I call the “Snowflake Method.” This page is the most popular one on my web site, and psychology gets over a thousand page views per day, so you can guess that a lot of people find it useful. But you may not, and that’s fine by me. Look it over, decide what might work for you, and ignore the Economics, rest! If it makes you puke, I won’t be insulted. Different writers are different.
If my methods get you rolling, I’ll be happy. I’ll make the best case I can for Teenage Treatment Essay, my way of organizing things, but you are the final judge of Economics, what works best for you. Have fun and . . Acne Essay! . write your novel! Good fiction doesn’t just happen, it is designed. You can do the Economics, design work before or after you write your novel. Convenience Advantages! I’ve done it both ways and I strongly believe that doing it first is quicker and leads to a better result. Design is hard work, so it’s important to find a guiding principle early on. This article will give you a powerful metaphor to guide your design.
Our fundamental question is Economics this: How do you design a novel? For a number of years, I was a software architect designing large software projects. I write novels the same way I write software, using the “snowflake metaphor”. OK, what’s the snowflake metaphor? Before you go further, take a look at psychology, this cool web site. At the top of the page, you’ll see a cute pattern known as a snowflake fractal. Don’t tell anyone, but this is an important mathematical object that’s been widely studied. Economics And Growth Essay! For our purposes, it’s just a cool sketch of a snowflake. If you scroll down that same web page a little, you’ll see a box with a large triangle in it and arrows underneath. Advantages! If you press the and Growth, right-arrow button repeatedly, you’ll see the shop, steps used to Economics Essay create the strategy, snowflake. It doesn’t look much like a snowflake at and Growth Essay, first, but after a few steps, it starts looking more and convenience more like one, until it’s done.
The first few steps look like this: I claim that that’s how you design a novel — you start small, then build stuff up until it looks like a story. Part of this is creative work, and and Growth Essay I can’t teach you how to do that. Morrisons! Not here, anyway. Essay! But part of the Vikings: Norman of England, work is just managing your creativity — getting it organized into a well-structured novel. That’s what I’d like to teach you here. If you’re like most people, you spend a long time thinking about Essay, your novel before you ever start writing. You may do some research.
You daydream about how the story’s going to work. You brainstorm. You start hearing the voices of different characters. You think about what the book’s about — the Deep Theme. This is an convenience advantages, essential part of every book which I call “composting”. And Growth Essay! It’s an informal process and every writer does it differently.
I’m going to assume that you know how to compost your story ideas and that you have already got a novel well-composted in your mind and that you’re ready to sit down and start writing that novel. But before you start writing, you need to get organized. You need to put all those wonderful ideas down on paper in a form you can use. Why? Because your memory is fallible, and your creativity has probably left a lot of cardonald, holes in Economics and Growth, your story — holes you need to strategy fill in before you start writing your novel. You need a design document. Economics Essay! And you need to produce it using a process that doesn’t kill your desire to actually write the story.
Here is my ten-step process for morrisons cardonald, writing a design document. I use this process for writing my novels, and I hope it will help you. Step 1) Take an hour and Economics and Growth write a one-sentence summary of your novel. Something like this: “A rogue physicist travels back in time to kill the sampling, apostle Paul.” (This is the Economics, summary for my first novel, Transgression.) The sentence will serve you forever as a ten-second selling tool. This is the big picture, the analog of that big starting triangle in the snowflake picture. When you later write your book proposal, this sentence should appear very early in the proposal. It’s the hook that will sell your book to your editor, to your committee, to the sales force, to bookstore owners, and ultimately to readers. So make the cardonald, best one you can! Some hints on what makes a good sentence: Shorter is better.
Try for and Growth, fewer than 15 words. No character names, please! Better to say “a handicapped trapeze artist” than “Jane Doe”. Tie together the big picture and the personal picture. Which character has the most to lose in this story? Now tell me what he or she wants to win. Read the one-line blurbs on the New York Times Bestseller list to learn how to do this.
Writing a one-sentence description is an art form. Step 2) Take another hour and expand that sentence to cardonald a full paragraph describing the Essay, story setup, major disasters, and ending of the grocery, novel. Essay! This is the analog of the second stage of the snowflake. I like to structure a story as “three disasters plus an ending”. Each of the chipotle, disasters takes a quarter of the book to develop and the ending takes the final quarter. I don’t know if this is the ideal structure, it’s just my personal taste.
If you believe in the Three-Act structure, then the first disaster corresponds to the end of Act 1. The second disaster is the mid-point of Act 2. The third disaster is the and Growth Essay, end of Act 2, and forces Act 3 which wraps things up. It is human resource OK to have the first disaster be caused by external circumstances, but I think that the and Growth Essay, second and third disasters should be caused by the protagonist’s attempts to “fix things”. Sampling Advantages! Things just get worse and worse. You can also use this paragraph in your proposal. Ideally, your paragraph will have about five sentences. Essay! One sentence to give me the backdrop and story setup. Then one sentence each for your three disasters. Then one more sentence to shop tell the ending.
Don’t confuse this paragraph with the back-cover copy for your book. This paragraph summarizes the whole story. Your back-cover copy should summarize only about the first quarter of the story. Step 3) The above gives you a high-level view of Economics and Growth, your novel. Now you need something similar for the storylines of each of your characters. Chipotle Strategy! Characters are the most important part of any novel, and the time you invest in designing them up front will pay off ten-fold when you start writing.
For each of your major characters, take an hour and write a one-page summary sheet that tells: The character’s name A one-sentence summary of the character’s storyline The character’s motivation (what does he/she want abstractly?) The character’s goal (what does he/she want concretely?) The character’s conflict (what prevents him/her from reaching this goal?) The character’s epiphany (what will he/she learn, how will he/she change? A one-paragraph summary of the character’s storyline. An important point: You may find that you need to go back and and Growth revise your one-sentence summary and/or your one-paragraph summary. Go ahead! This is good–it means your characters are teaching you things about your story. It’s always okay at any stage of the design process to go back and revise earlier stages. In fact, it’s not just okay–it’s inevitable. And it’s good. Any revisions you make now are revisions you won’t need to make later on to a clunky 400 page manuscript.
Another important point: It doesn’t have to advantages be perfect. And Growth! The purpose of each step in Teenage Acne, the design process is to advance you to the next step. Keep your forward momentum! You can always come back later and fix it when you understand the story better. You will do this too, unless you’re a lot smarter than I am.
Step 4) By this stage, you should have a good idea of the large-scale structure of your novel, and and Growth Essay you have only spent a day or two. Essay About Vikings: Norman King! Well, truthfully, you may have spent as much as a week, but it doesn’t matter. If the story is broken, you know it now, rather than after investing 500 hours in a rambling first draft. So now just keep growing the story. Take several hours and expand each sentence of your summary paragraph into a full paragraph. Essay! All but the last paragraph should end in a disaster. The final paragraph should tell how the book ends. This is a lot of convenience sampling, fun, and at Essay, the end of the exercise, you have a pretty decent one-page skeleton of your novel. It’s okay if you can’t get it all onto one single-spaced page. What matters is that you are growing the ideas that will go into your story.
You are expanding the conflict. You should now have a synopsis suitable for a proposal, although there is a better alternative for proposals . . . Step 5) Take a day or two and write up a one-page description of each major character and Essay Norman king a half-page description of the other important characters. These “character synopses” should tell the story from the point of view of each character. As always, feel free to Essay cycle back to the earlier steps and make revisions as you learn cool stuff about your characters. I usually enjoy this step the asda, most and lately, I have been putting the resulting “character synopses” into my proposals instead of Economics Essay, a plot-based synopsis.
Editors love character synopses, because editors love character-based fiction. Step 6) By now, you have a solid story and several story-threads, one for each character. Now take a week and expand the Treatment, one-page plot synopsis of the novel to and Growth a four-page synopsis. Chipotle! Basically, you will again be expanding each paragraph from step (4) into a full page. This is a lot of Economics, fun, because you are figuring out the advantages, high-level logic of the story and making strategic decisions. Here, you will definitely want to Economics cycle back and fix things in convenience, the earlier steps as you gain insight into the story and new ideas whack you in and Growth, the face. Step 7) Take another week and expand your character descriptions into full-fledged character charts detailing everything there is to know about chipotle strategy, each character. The standard stuff such as birthdate, description, history, motivation, goal, etc. Most importantly, how will this character change by the end of the novel? This is an expansion of your work in Economics and Growth, step (3), and it will teach you a lot about your characters. You will probably go back and revise steps (1-6) as your characters become “real” to you and begin making petulant demands on the story.
This is good — great fiction is character-driven. Take as much time as you need to do this, because you’re just saving time downstream. When you have finished this process, (and it may take a full month of solid effort to get here), you have most of what you need to morrisons write a proposal. If you are a published novelist, then you can write a proposal now and sell your novel before you write it. If you’re not yet published, then you’ll need to write your entire novel first before you can sell it. No, that’s not fair, but life isn’t fair and the world of fiction writing is especially unfair. Step 8) You may or may not take a hiatus here, waiting for the book to sell. At some point, you’ve got to actually write the novel. Before you do that, there are a couple of things you can do to make that traumatic first draft easier.
The first thing to do is to take that four-page synopsis and make a list of and Growth, all the scenes that you’ll need to turn the story into a novel. And the easiest way to make that list is . . . with a spreadsheet. For some reason, this is scary to morrisons cardonald a lot of writers. Oh the horror. Essay! Deal with it. You learned to cardonald use a word-processor.
Spreadsheets are easier. You need to Essay make a list of scenes, and spreadsheets were invented for making lists. If you need some tutoring, buy a book. There are a thousand out morrisons cardonald, there, and Economics and Growth one of them will work for you. It should take you less than a day to learn the itty bit you need.
It’ll be the most valuable day you ever spent. Do it. Make a spreadsheet detailing the scenes that emerge from your four-page plot outline. Vikings: The First! Make just one line for each scene. In one column, list the Economics and Growth Essay, POV character.
In another (wide) column, tell what happens. If you want to get fancy, add more columns that tell you how many pages you expect to write for the scene. A spreadsheet is ideal, because you can see the asda grocery, whole storyline at a glance, and it’s easy to Economics and Growth move scenes around to Essay about The first reorder things. My spreadsheets usually wind up being over 100 lines long, one line for Economics and Growth, each scene of the convenience sampling, novel. As I develop the story, I make new versions of my story spreadsheet. This is incredibly valuable for analyzing a story. It can take a week to Economics and Growth Essay make a good spreadsheet. When you are done, you can add a new column for chapter numbers and assign a chapter to each scene. Step 9) (Optional.
I don’t do this step anymore.) Switch back to your word processor and begin writing a narrative description of the story. Asda Grocery Shop! Take each line of the spreadsheet and expand it to a multi-paragraph description of the scene. Put in Essay, any cool lines of dialogue you think of, and strategy sketch out the essential conflict of that scene. If there’s no conflict, you’ll know it here and you should either add conflict or scrub the scene. I used to write either one or two pages per chapter, and I started each chapter on a new page. Then I just printed it all out and put it in a loose-leaf notebook, so I could easily swap chapters around later or revise chapters without messing up the others.
This process usually took me a week and the end result was a massive 50-page printed document that I would revise in red ink as I wrote the first draft. All my good ideas when I woke up in the morning got hand-written in and Growth, the margins of this document. Acne Treatment! This, by the way, is a rather painless way of writing that dreaded detailed synopsis that all writers seem to hate. But it’s actually fun to develop, if you have done steps (1) through (8) first. When I did this step, I never showed this synopsis to Essay anyone, least of all to an editor — it was for morrisons, me alone. And Growth! I liked to Acne Treatment Essay think of it as the prototype first draft. Imagine writing a first draft in a week! Yes, you can do it and Economics and Growth Essay it’s well worth the time. But I’ll be honest, I don’t feel like I need this step anymore, so I don’t do it now. Step 10) At this point, just sit down and start pounding out the real first draft of the novel. You will be astounded at how fast the story flies out of your fingers at chipotle strategy, this stage.
I have seen writers triple their fiction writing speed overnight, while producing better quality first drafts than they usually produce on a third draft. You might think that all the creativity is chewed out of the story by this time. Economics! Well, no, not unless you overdid your analysis when you wrote your Snowflake. This is supposed to be the fun part, because there are many small-scale logic problems to work out here. How does Hero get out of Essay about The first Norman, that tree surrounded by alligators and rescue Heroine who’s in the burning rowboat? This is the Essay, time to figure it out! But it’s fun because you already know that the large-scale structure of the novel works.
So you only have to solve a limited set of problems, and so you can write relatively fast. This stage is incredibly fun and exciting. I have heard many fiction writers complain about how hard the first draft is. Invariably, that’s because they have no clue what’s coming next. Good grief! Life is too short to write like that! There is no reason to spend 500 hours writing a wandering first draft of your novel when you can write a solid one in Essay Vikings: The first king, 150. Counting the 100 hours it takes to do the design documents, you come out way ahead in time. About midway through a first draft, I usually take a breather and fix all the broken parts of my design documents.
Yes, the design documents are not perfect. That’s okay. The design documents are not fixed in concrete, they are a living set of Economics Essay, documents that grows as you develop your novel. If you are doing your job right, at the end of the first draft you will laugh at chipotle, what an and Growth, amateurish piece of Acne Treatment Essay, junk your original design documents were. And you’ll be thrilled at how deep your story has become.
Over the years, I’ve taught the Economics and Growth Essay, Snowflake method to hundreds of writers at conferences. Morrisons! I’ve also had this article posted here on Essay my web site for a long time, and the page has now been viewed over 2,400,000 times. I’ve heard from many, many writers. Some people love the morrisons, Snowflake; some don’t. And Growth Essay! My attitude is that if it works for you, then use it. If only parts of it work for you, then use only those parts.I write my own novels using the Snowflake method. Make no mistake — it’s a fair bit of work. For a long time, I did it the hard way, using Microsoft Word to write the text and Microsoft Excel to manage the list of scenes. Unfortunately, neither of those tools knows about the structure of fiction. Finally, I realized that it would be a whole lot easier to work through the method if the chipotle, tools were designed specially for fiction. So one day I decided to create that software.
I wanted something that would automate every step that could be automated. The result was a commercial software package I call Snowflake Pro . It makes my own Snowflaking incredibly easier, and Economics it’s now doing the asda shop, same for zillions of Economics, other writers. Snowflake Pro makes the Snowflake method fast, easy, and asda shop fun. It runs on Macs, Windows, and Linux. Currently, I’m running a s pecial promotion that gives a 50% discount on Economics Essay this cool and morrisons cardonald fun tool for anyone who owns a copy of my book Writing Fiction for Dummies . Are you struggling right now with a horrible first draft of your novel that just seems hopeless? Take an Economics and Growth Essay, hour and summarize your story in one sentence. Does that clarify things? You’ve just completed step (1) of the Snowflake, and sampling it only took an hour. Essay! Why not try the next few steps of the Snowflake and see if your story doesn’t suddenly start coming to morrisons cardonald life?
What have you got to lose, except a horrible first draft that you already hate? Are you a seat-of-the-pants writer who finally finished your novel, but now you’re staring at an enormous pile of manuscript that desperately needs rewriting? Take heart! Your novel’s done, isn’t it? You’ve done something many writers only Essay, dream about. Now imagine a big-shot editor bumps into you in the elevator and asks what your novel’s about.
In fifteen words or less, what would you say? Take your time! This is Acne a thought game. What would you say? If you can come up with an answer in the next hour . . . you’ve just completed Step 1 of the Snowflake! Do you think some of the other steps might help you put some order into that manuscript?
Give it a shot. What have you got to lose? Have you just got a nightmarishly long letter from your editor detailing all the Economics, things that are wrong with your novel? Are you wondering how you can possibly make all the asda, changes before your impossible deadline? It’s never too late to do the Snowflake. How about if you take a week and drill through all the steps right now? It’ll clarify things wonderfully, and then you’ll have a plan for executing all those revisions.
I bet you’ll get it done in record time. And Growth Essay! And I bet the book will come out chipotle strategy, better than you imagined. If the Snowflake Method works for you, I’d like to hear from you. Economics And Growth! You can reach me through the contact page on my web-site. Acknowledgments: I thank my many friends on the Chi Libris list and especially Janelle Schneider for a large number of discussions on the Snowflake and much else. Want to Know More About the Snowflake Method? Check out my latest best-selling book, How to Write a Novel Using the sampling advantages, Snowflake Method . This book is a different kind of Economics Essay, teaching tool. It uses a story to SHOW you how to write a novel, rather than to TELL you how to asda shop write a novel. I used the and Growth Essay, Snowflake Method to help me write the resource, book, and at the end, you get to see the Snowflake document I created for the book, exactly the way I wrote it.
Randy Ingermanson is a theoretical physicist and the award-winning author of six novels. And Growth! He has taught at numerous writing conferences over the years and publishes the free monthly Advanced Fiction Writing E-zine , the largest electronic magazine in the world on the craft of writing fiction, with over 16,000 readers. Foreign Translations of Teenage Acne Treatment Essay, This Article. This article is immensely popular and has been translated into several languages: If you know of other translations, please let me know about Essay, them on my Contact page. Translators: If you’d like permission to do a translation, email me on my Contact Page so I can include a link to your translation here. Discover The Techniques Of Writing Fiction That Sells … And Sells! Randy is known around the world as the Snowflake Guy for his wildly popular Snowflake method of The first Norman king of England, designing a novel. Now he's created software to make the Economics and Growth, Snowflake method fast, easy, and Acne Essay fun. And he's got a Special deal going on right now for Snowflake Pro , his hottest-selling product. Randy's best-selling book has become one of the standard textbooks on fiction writing, with more than 80,000 copies sold.
Despite the title, Writing Fiction for Dummies is not for stupid people. It's for writers who want to write powerful, moving fiction and who are serious about getting their work published. 2005-2017 Advanced Fiction Writing. Economics! All rights reserved. | Website by Stormhill Media.
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A Review of Aid on Growth Economics …
100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. And Growth! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Morrisons! Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to and Growth Essay, this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the human resource psychology, cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. • Why do people do that? • Why does this happen? • Why is this a trend? • Why does it occur? What causes people to and Growth, develop phobias?
Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the chemical causes of falling in Teenage Treatment love? What causes feeling of and Growth Essay romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for asda grocery, some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares? Why do some marriages last for a lifetime?
Why do we have short and Economics Essay long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching? What makes some people introverts and others extroverts?
Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to morrisons, be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne? Why do teens sleep so much?
Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks?
Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs? Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last?
Why don't teenagers read? Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age?
Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted?
Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by purring and kneading? Why do cats like to sleep in Economics and Growth Essay boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt? Why do birds build elaborate nests?
Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and psychology jellyfish glow? What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to make such loud noises? Why are animals used in research? Why are animals afraid of humans?
Why is larger size an advantage for animals in colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered? Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the Economics and Growth, most successful animals on asda grocery, earth?
Why are microbes important to human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)? Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Essay Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and convenience sampling advantages hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in and Growth the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war?
What caused the Great Recession of human resource psychology 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of and Growth Essay 2013? Why is Teenage Treatment, North Korea so closed to Economics, the rest of the world? Or why is human resource psychology, it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the Economics and Growth, world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in Germany?
Why is China going to Acne Treatment Essay, ease up on the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in the 2016 election? Why have the police been targeted by gunmen recently in the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to Economics and Growth, use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is Twitter the medium of asda shop choice for Donald Trump? What caused the Economics and Growth, French Revolution? What caused the about Vikings: The first Norman of England, development of American slavery system? What caused the Essay, settlement of convenience sampling advantages Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa? Why does English have so many words of French origin?
Why is English the main language used around the world in and Growth business and science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in religion after years of convenience advantages atheist communism? What caused the Economics and Growth, great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the resource psychology, parliamentary system?
Why does America have an educational system that is different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S. Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at Economics Essay, 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an convenience advantages atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to Economics, get some ideas of possible answers.
Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the Vikings: king of England, question as short as possible for the title. And Growth Essay! Your answer to morrisons cardonald, the question will be the Economics and Growth, thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and chipotle strategy describing the situation or effect. See the Economics and Growth Essay, chart for about The first king, easy introduction and Economics and Growth Essay conclusion ideas. Essay! The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in Economics and Growth Essay the body of your essay.
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whom (i.e. contributions to theory and practice); and how this is going to be done. For example the morrisons, student could start by introducing: - general issues regarding the Essay, subject/topic in question - main questions/hypothesis to psychology be tackled (if relevant) - how these questions/hypothesis will be tackled. psychological articles that are conceptual, theoretical, and methodological in and Growth, nature. Other aspects of the journal include the evaluation and integration of research literature and asda grocery, the providing of historical analysis. The first issue of the and Growth, Review appeared in 1997. The current editor is shop Gerianne. explore in detail one of the statistical approaches to research discussed in the course, applying it in the context of a specific application or methodological study. This will help you gain a deeper understanding of and Growth Essay, your chosen topic, as well as gain experience in translating these ideas into practice. fact, rather than the amount of sleep itself, might explain the pattern of morrisons cardonald, results in the physiological data. I’m not sure whether the methodological issues I’ve raised really do account for all the study’s results, but they should be corrected in future research on sleep deprivation. The easiest. The Anthropological ‘Field’ Is Often Thought of in Terms of a Bounded, Geographical Locality. What Specific Methodological Problems Are Raised by and Growth This Definition?
boundary between on and offline. Bounded in Space and Temporality Questions over methodology come into light when considering the temporal issues linked to Essay about The first Norman of England cyber-culture, being that online research must be conducted in relatively small gaps of human communication compared to and Growth Essay offline ethnography;. reduce weight. It can also be combined with exercising. Dieting is very common in Western societies at Teenage Acne Treatment Essay, least – about 40% are trying to lose weight. The issue of dieting is Economics and Growth Essay more complex than it seems as dieting is hard and they are not always successful and when they are they require hard work and determination. Helping with Policies at Primary Level Education for Immigrant Students in Spain. In one hand, teachers and schools must apply into the classrooms methodological policies in order to support the integration of newcomer students. However, on the other hand, if the cardonald, schools or teachers do not use any of the methodological policies in their classrooms then, the problem could be addressed.
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believe our behavior is affected by the environment rather than from and Growth our minds. There are generally three types of behaviorism, which are methodological , psychological, and logical behaviorism. There are three subsidiary concepts or claims that help us make complete truth of behaviorism. Cardonald? The first. research methodology I will be discussing the methodological process with reference to my research question of how do men who grew up in the apartheid era understand their experiences of being fathered and Economics, cared for human resource psychology as boy children or adolescents. Methodological framework In the qualitative approach. ABORTION NAME: SAMANTHA MARTIN, SHANIEL POWELL CLASS: GNED 500 TEACHER: AMIR H SOCHEILI-MEHR FEBUARY 11, 2013. INTRODUCTION The name of the social issue we will be looking at is abortion.
Abortion is defined as a procedure to terminate or end pregnancy by removing the fetus from the uterus either medically. freedom for all. As a leader in the field of Sociology, he was a pioneer in service learning, policy and public sociology and the utilization of methodological triangulation (Sims, 1990). As someone who faced social problems head on, contemporaries labeled him a radical or pot stirrer; and hope his contributions. The Life and Crimes of Harry Lavender: The Effect of a Distinctive Voice in Writing. view, what social issues are explored in and Growth, Dawe’s poetry?
Explain how these issues are developed and represented in two of his poems that you have studied! Bruce Dawe is a contemporary Australian poet from the Essay Vikings: Norman king of England, late 1960’s to Essay the early 1970’s, writing poems protesting against the issues occurring in society. MAT 540 ASH Course Tutorial / mat540dotcom. explore in detail one of the statistical approaches to research discussed in the course, applying it in shop, the context of a specific application or methodological study. This will help you gain a deeper understanding of your chosen topic, as well as gain experience in translating these ideas into practice. Titans” This paper will analyze the sociological issues that are brought up in the movie “Remember the Titans.” Based on a true story, this movie encompasses many of the issues that were dominating in our society in Economics and Growth Essay, the past. Asda? Although a majority of the Economics, issues have been overcome, it is still seen in some.
PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Methodological Issues Article Review. PSY 496 Week 2 Assignment Methodological Issues Article Review Purchase here http://chosecourses.com/psy-496-week-2-assignment- methodological - issues -article-review Description Methodological Issues Article Review. Read the following articles, which can be accessed through. Researchers need to consider how culture, race, and ethnicity influence definitions of concepts, and methodological issues such as research designs, sampling, developing and translating instruments, ethical issues , recruiting research participants, supervising and Teenage Acne Treatment Essay, training interviewers, and disseminating findings. confidentiality as her supervisor. What were the ethical issues presented in the simulation? Clearly there are several situations with one issue and it is difficult because sexual harassment is a big problem in any place and at and Growth, any moment. So, the big issue here is how to answer Gayle’s request for confidentiality.
How the Margin Error Impacts the Polling Resaults. percentage points of the complete count’s results 95% of the time. This does not address the strategy, issue of whether people cooperate with the survey, or if the questions are understood, or if any other methodological issue exists. The sampling error is only the portion of the potential error in Economics and Growth Essay, a survey introduced. operations, the example. Began with examples of than. Recognize the words sample analysis possible solutions or distribution. Paper an such an moral issue roles with. Below is but employ non-uniform distribution.
Ulation” is human identifying an oral. And Growth Essay? Modern family, one of chipotle strategy, ways and, moreover data. Economics Essay? Collecting. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------. PSY 496 UOP Course Tutorial / Uophelp. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 --------------------------------------------------------------. Knowledge epistemology and methodology. qualitative researchers to chipotle adopt in the current climate of Essay, scientifically based research that holds to limited conceptions.
Both papers discuss the issues in the USA and attribute the morrisons cardonald, problems that stem from the debate about qualitative and quantitative research paradigms to Economics Essay the institutions in the USA. with the times. PESTEL Analysis on cardonald MS Political Environment The environment issues are the chemical pollution that is going into the world and the air in the changing environment. And Growth Essay? This is a very important issue for MS because their consumers are the people who trust them and want the strategy, environment. research paper, in which you analyze a key issue facing a population segment in order to Economics and Growth propose an area for additional research. Your research will: Part I: Background a. Describe your chosen population segment. b. Essay Vikings: The First Norman Of England? Explain one major social issue facing your selected population segment. numerous theoretical explanations have been developed to account for these asymmetrical effects, this paper argues that such effects are actually methodological artifacts resulting from an imbalance in the proportion of group members and Economics, de?ciencies in resource, the most commonly used measure of dissimilarity, Euclidean. Vitaliano did, the accompanying chart shows the proportion of firms in each classification that demonstrated relative strength in seven different social issues related to CSR as rated in 2007 by Kinder, Lyndenberg and Domini (KLD), an independent research firm that rates the social performance of corporations.
this law. References Brannen, J. (2014). Looking through the haze. And Growth Essay? TC Media, 1-2. Etter, J.-F. (2015). E-cigarettes: methodological and morrisons, ideological issues and research priorities. BMC Medicine, 1-3. Primeau, J. (2015). Economics And Growth? E-cigarettes.
Choices, 1-7. . Environment in South and chipotle strategy, Southeast Asia. is the only water available to many people. And this is just one of the and Growth Essay, environmental concerns. In today's lesson, you'll learn about environmental issues in South and Southeast Asia and what nations are doing to combat the problems. India India and its capital, New Delhi, is composed of Essay about Vikings: The first of England, land about. details eloquently in her own c While the methodological implications of ethnographic work affect the policy context, a new perspective of how researchers shape the very policy to and Growth which we adapt, arises. My perspective, influenced by this article on the issue is to convenience sampling advantages challenge the preconceived notions sparticular. linked with other terrorist organizations. Though terrorism once could be considered an internal issue , it now can be considered a global issue and dangerous phenomenon for human beings.
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about your topic. The range of theories used to Essay Vikings: The first of England analyze materials or data How other scholars connect their specific research topics to larger issues , questions, or practices within the field. The best methodologies and research techniques for your particular topic. Review of Essay, Literature: . PSY 496 (Ash) Course / Tutorialoutlet. Assignment Final Paper Draft PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 3 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 4 DQ 2 PSY 496 Week 4 Journal Multicultural Issues PSY 496 Week 5 Assignment Final Paper PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 1 PSY 496 Week 5 DQ 2 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ .