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Taking a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay -- Fidel Castro
AQA Physical Education Coursework. Extracts from Taking a Look and History Essay, this document. Hardy's Essay Example. AQA GCSE PE/Games Health-related Exercise/ Training Program Candidate name: Candidate no: Centre number: Sport/Activity: Rugby (Games candidates must do a game activity). Training method: Circuit Training _____________________________________ For Teacher use only Teacher: Group: Planning (Max 20) Performing (Max 20) Monitoring (Max 10) Evaluating (Max 20) Blank page for Taking a Look Culture your use Planning Purpose/aim of the what dreams book, program. A Look At Cuban Culture Essay. Personal fitness profile. Explain how fit you think you are, and if you have any injuries or health problems.
Outline how much physical activity you get in a typical week. State what targets you expect to achieve by the end of the 5 sessions in terms of aspects of fitness/skills you want to of Beauty Essay, improve. 5 marks Awareness of safety aspects. Taking At Cuban And History. Outline any potential risks with any apparatus/equipment. What factors will you need to consider when planning the order essay, order/types of exercises? Explain how and why you will prepare your body for exercise/and help it to recover afterwards.
5 marks Appropriateness of chosen exercises. Explain why you have chosen at least two of the Taking a Look at Cuban Culture, exercises/ activities and what book how they will help you achieve your targets. 5 marks Appropriate application. Explain how your training will progress each time and how you will be working harder. 5 marks Performing (Teacher's Marks) Implementation with control/consistency/ease Completion safely and efficiently Attitude/motivation towards improving Effectiveness/appropriateness of warm up/cool down 20 marks Monitoring Record your results after each exercise. . At Cuban Essay. read more. 60 At the end of exercise: 164 At 30 seconds intervals after finishing: 140/116/95/80/76/67/62 Recovery time: 3 minutes = 2 marks Concluding Statement/summary of results 2 marks My recovery rate improved through the course of the 5 sessions, and so therefore, my level of fitness was increasing. My heart rate rose during the Pessimism Essay, 3rd and 4th sessions but this was only a Look Culture and History Essay, because I had caught cold as I recovered my heart rate slowed and even slowed past the starting rate this shows that the exercise had been of a higher intensity each time. My heart was beating at the same rate at lebara mobile the end of session was as it was after the a Look and History Essay, much more intense exercise after session 5. I felt much more able to cope with each session and got my breath back quicker too.
It also shows that I improved because my heart rate was the same after each session and because the An Extended of Beauty Essay, sessions got harder and more intensive and my heart was not working any harder. This shows I had made progress from session 1 to 5 I also felt that my asthma had improved and I was able to breathe a lot easier too after the sessions. This also meant that I got my breath back faster. Taking A Look Culture And History Essay. Evaluation Planning Make comments to explain the what dreams may come book, statements/questions in at Cuban Culture and History Essay the first column (max 6 marks) . An Extended Definition Of Beauty Essay. read more. to pump around white blood cells and now it had to Taking a Look at Cuban Culture and History, work even harder/2 Final evaluation Make comments to explain the statements/questions in the first column (max 6 marks) Refer to essay on natural disasters, your post test scores When I had completed the five sessions I did the Illinois agility Test again. This time I got a time of Taking a Look at Cuban Culture Essay, 15.03 seconds This not only demonstrates an improved fitness level, as my score is higher but also shows I had improved as I could repeat the on natural disasters, test and Taking a Look at Cuban and History Essay consecutively get under my original time of 15.49 seconds. /2 Was the essay on natural disasters, program easy to manage (set up, do, record progress etc)? /2 Explain what progress or improvements you have made because of completing the program. My cardio respiratory system had obviously developed as it could cope with supplying oxygen to the working muscles. I improved agility as I found it almost easy to at Cuban and History, complete the exercises in Pessimism Novels Essay well over the targets I set for the 1st session. I improved my hand eye co-ordination as I found it almost 2nd nature to receive and pass a ball it became a reflex and I could complete the same number of Taking a Look at Cuban Culture, passes I did with a big ball at the beginning as I could with a harder little ball at the end /2 Did you enjoy it and work to your limit? How do you know? /2 If you were going to continue with the program what changes would you make. /2 . read more. This student written piece of work is essay disasters, one of many that can be found in our GCSE Exercise and Training section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. foot * Volley * Laces * Lob Tackling * Center * Rear * Slide * Side Set Piece: * Kick-off * Goal kick * Penalty kick * Free kick * Throwing * Corner Dribbling: * Set over * Skills * Sprinting * Dummying * Body Swerve PE GCSE Coursework: Section. Culture Essay. This allows me to test my skills, accuracy and world order essay fitness levels from the and History, beginning of my program to the end of my program. It also allows me to mobile, see if I have improved between weeks. Agility training will consist of circuit training 2. This has helped improve my level of play and at Cuban knowledge of the game.
This will help my coursework and coaching as I have learnt a lot of uk, different skills and tactics which I can use to help the year 9's. Taking Culture Essay. I am going to watch the Essay, team play a match. Personal exercise programme - Like all martial artists I feel that I am . During the a Look and History, whole period I will increase the level of overload according to the results. Often training leading up to the beginning of a competitive season will gradually increase in lebara uk intensity, cumulating in a peak of performance roughly half-way through the season. After the season training is a Look Culture and History, of less intensity.
My Training Program After considering many factors I have decided to implement a mixture of weight training and Essay example plyometrics. I think this was because it was the first week of real training I had done for a very long time. This week got me back into the rhythm of Culture, actually doing work on my cardiovascular endurance. I feel that improvement will be made at examples the end of this training programme. This can be done by some kind of cardiovascular exercise 2. Flexibility or stretching exercises 3. The final stage should involve a sport specific or skill related component where the neuromuscular mechanisms relate to the activity soon to be undertaken. the sails are most effective in a goose wing position - the mainsail out to one side of the boat and at Cuban Culture and History the jib out on the other, this way they catch the most wind. Balance - I need balance to lebara mobile uk, let me move about easily in the boat but I. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. Taking At Cuban And History Essay. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to examples in literature, view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your Physical Education (Sport Coaching) work?
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AngloGold Ashanti : resumes dividends on free cash flow jump. At Cuban And History? AngloGold Ashanti said it would resume dividend payments following a hiatus of more than three years, after lower operating and interest costs helped it nearly double free cash flow to $278m. The company declared a dividend of approximately 10 US cents a share for 2016. Adjusted Headline Earnings (AHE) were $143m, or 35 US cents per share, compared with $49m, or 12 US cents per share in 2015. The sharp improvements in free cash flow and earnings were achieved through strong ongoing focus on cost and capital discipline, as well a higher gold price. AngloGold Ashanti has since 2013 used 'self-help' measures including asset sales and efficiency improvements to reduce debt and essay, improve balance sheet flexibility without diluting shareholders. It has, at the same time, improved safety and Taking at Cuban, cash-flow margins across its 17-mine portfolio. The company has prioritised inward investment in world order, high-return brownfield projects over acquisitions, as it seeks to improve the quality of its production base and extend mine lives. 'Production from our operations delivered a strong turn around in the second half of the year. We have again generated strong cash flows despite a volatile gold price, which has further strengthened our balance sheet and improved flexibility,' Chief Executive Officer Srinivasan Venkatakrishnan said. At Cuban Essay? 'We will continue to deliver on our strategy through the development of order, high-return, brownfield projects in a Look Culture Essay, order to continue to improve the underlying quality of our portfolio.' All in of symbolism, Sustaining Costs (AISC) came in within revised guidance range at Taking a Look $986/oz, up from world order essay, $910/oz in a Look and History, 2015. The AISC reflects continued cost discipline and weaker local currencies in some jurisdictions, offset by an increase in world, sustaining capital expenditure and inflation. Production of 3.6Moz was within the original guidance for Taking at Cuban Culture and History the year ended 31 December 2016 at a total cash cost of $744/oz, compared to examples of symbolism, 3.8Moz (excluding discontinued operations) at $712/oz in the prior year.
Production was negatively impacted by Taking at Cuban and History Essay, weaker output from the South Africa mines due mainly to safety-related stoppages, lower grades from Kibali, a planned decrease in head grades at Tropicana and Geita, and no production contribution from Pessimism in Thomas Essay example, Obuasi. Both Mponeng and Moab Khotsong in South Africa delivered increased production over the prior year, along with Iduapriem and Siguiri in the Continental Africa Region, and Sunrise Dam in Australia. Mponeng delivered the best improvement, with a 16% increase in production and a 14% decrease in AISC year-on-year. AngloGold Ashanti delivered a steady operating and financial performance in the second half of 2016, with production coming in at 1.9Moz compared to 2.0Moz in 2015. This operating result was achieved despite safety-related stoppages that impacted output by at Cuban Culture, roughly 60,000oz in SA, planned lower grades at Geita and Tropicana, and the Obuasi mine having been on world order care and Taking a Look and History Essay, maintenance for last year. These negative production factors were partly offset by continued focus on tight cost control, a 14% higher realised gold price, and weaker currencies in some jurisdictions. AISC for second half of 2016 was $1,058/oz, higher than the $897/oz for the second half of 2015 due mainly to Pessimism example, lower gold ounces sold, higher overall cash costs, higher brownfields exploration costs, and increased sustaining capital expenditure. Adjusted EBITDA of $767m, increased by 13% in the second half of 2016 compared to $679m in the second half of 2015, due to the 14% increase in the average gold price received which was partially offset by a 5% reduction in Taking a Look at Cuban, ounces sold over this period. Proven and probable gold reserves at Pessimism Novels example year end of 50.1Moz, substantially offsets depletion during the year.
The number of fatal accidents across the Group's operations reduced by more than a third compared with 2015. Regrettably, however, six operating fatalities were recorded in South Africa during 2016 and another in Brazil. Despite these setbacks, significant safety milestones were achieved last year including a fatality free fourth quarter across all business units; one million fatality-free shifts at Mponeng, Kopanang and Moab Khotsong; as well as two-million fatality-free shifts for the Vaal River Region. Notably, Moab Khotsong achieved a full calendar year without a fatality in September and the Surface Operations unit achieved a full year with no lost-time injury. While these milestones demonstrate relative success in the implementation of our safety strategy, we remain vigilant to ensure further gains in at Cuban and History, this most important area of the business. There is no higher priority for AngloGold Ashanti than the An Extended, safety of every one of its employees. A Look Culture Essay? We believe that through close cooperation among stakeholders and fair application of regulations with due regard to proportionality, as well as continued vigilance in an unpredictable operating environment, we can further improve safety performance. Production guidance for 2017 year is estimated to be between 3.6Moz and on natural disasters, 3.755Moz. Total cash costs are estimated to be between $750/oz and $800/oz and AISC between $1,050/oz and $1,100/oz at average exchange rates against the US dollar of 14.25 (Rand), 3.40 (Brazil Real), 0.75 (Aus$) and 16.50 (Argentina Peso), with oil at $58/bl average for the year, based on market expectations. Capital expenditure is a Look and History Essay anticipated to be between $950m and world order, $1,050m, with reinvestment at: Cuiaba, in Brazil, where a greater rate of at Cuban Culture and History Essay, ore reserve development is uk expected to improve mining flexibility hampered by geotechnical challenges in recent years; Iduapriem in Essay, Ghana, to strip waste rock from the Teberebie ore body to extend mine life, and lower cash costs; Geita, in Tanzania, to replace the Definition of Beauty Essay, mine's original 20-year old power plant to ensure reliable electricity supply, and also continue the ramp-up of underground production in advance of depletion of open-pit ore in future; at Sunrise Dam, in Australia, where investment in plant modifications are expected to improve gold recoveries; and at Kibali, in the DRC, where additional ore reserve development will be conducted ahead of a ramp-up in underground production. Both production and cost estimates assume neither labour interruptions or power disruptions, nor changes to asset portfolio and/or operating mines and have not been reviewed by our external auditors.
Other unknown or unpredictable factors could also have material adverse effects on our future results and Taking at Cuban Culture, no assurance can be given that any expectations expressed by AngloGold A shanti will prove to world order essay, have been correct. Please refer to the Risk Factors section in AngloGold Ashanti's annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended 31 December 2015, filed with the United States Securities and Taking Essay, Exchange Commission. 21 February 2017. JSE Sponsor: Deutsche Securities (SA) Proprietary Limited. Forward-Looking Information and Non-GAAP Financial Measures. Certain statements contained in this document, other than statements of historical fact, including, without limitation, those concerning the economic outlook for the gold mining industry, expectations regarding gold prices, production, cash costs, all-in sustaining costs, all-in costs, cost savings and other operating results, return on equity, productivity improvements, growth prospects and outlook of Pessimism in Thomas Hardy's Novels Essay example, AngloGold Ashanti's operations, individually or in the aggregate, including the achievement of project milestones, commencement and completion of commercial operations of certain of AngloGold Ashanti's exploration and production projects and at Cuban Culture Essay, the completion of may come book, acquisitions, dispositions or joint venture transactions, AngloGold Ashanti's liquidity and Taking Culture and History Essay, capital resources and capital expenditures and the outcome and consequence of any potential or pending litigation or regulatory proceedings or environmental health and essay, safety issues, are forward-looking statements regarding AngloGold Ashanti's operations, economic performance and financial condition.
These forward-looking statements or forecasts involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause AngloGold Ashanti's actual results, performance or achievements to Taking a Look, differ materially from the dreams may come, anticipated results, performance or achievements expressed or implied in these forward-looking statements. Although AngloGold Ashanti believes that the Taking Culture and History, expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements and forecasts are reasonable, no assurance can be given that such expectations will prove to order essay, have been correct. Accordingly, results could differ materially from those set out in the forward-looking statements as a result of, among other factors, changes in economic, social and political and market conditions, the success of Taking Culture and History Essay, business and operating initiatives, changes in the regulatory environment and may come book, other government actions, including environmental approvals, fluctuations in gold prices and a Look at Cuban Culture, exchange rates, the outcome of pending or future litigation proceedings, and business and operational risk management. For a discussion of lebara, such risk factors, refer to AngloGold Ashanti's annual report on Form 20-F for the year ended 31 December 2015, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission ('SEC'). These factors are not necessarily all of the important factors that could cause AngloGold Ashanti's actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. Other unknown or unpredictable factors could also have material adverse effects on future results. Consequently, readers are cautioned not to Culture and History Essay, place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. AngloGold Ashanti undertakes no obligation to examples in literature, update publicly or release any revisions to these forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the a Look Culture Essay, date hereof or to reflect the mobile uk, occurrence of unanticipated events, except to the extent required by applicable law. All subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to AngloGold Ashanti or any person acting on its behalf are qualified by the cautionary statements herein. Taking A Look At Cuban Essay? The financial information contained in this news release has not been reviewed or reported on by the disasters, Company's external auditors.This communication may contain certain 'Non-GAAP' financial measures. AngloGold Ashanti utilises certain Non-GAAP performance measures and at Cuban Culture and History Essay, ratios in managing its business.
Non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as an alternative for, the reported operating results or cash flow from operations or any other measures of performance prepared in accordance with IFRS. In addition, the presentation of these measures may not be comparable to Definition of Beauty Essay, similarly titled measures other companies may use. At Cuban Culture? AngloGold Ashanti posts information that is important to investors on the main page of its website at www.anglogoldashanti.com and under the lebara mobile uk, 'Investors' tab on the main page. This information is updated regularly. Investors should visit this website to obtain important information about AngloGold Ashanti.
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Essays in Cuban Intellectual History
compels us act essay Updated 13 March, 2005. Published in Taking a Look Culture Essay, Science, December 13, 1968. For copyright permission, click here. The author is professor of biology, University of world California, Santa Barbara. This article is based on a presidential address presented before the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Utah State University, Logan, 25 June 1968. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of nuclear war, Wiesner and York (1) concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are . confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution.
If the great powers continue to look for solutions in the area of science and technology only, the result will be to Culture Essay worsen the Essay, situation. I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and Taking a Look at Cuban and History, almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is essay on natural disasters that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in Taking and History Essay, the way of change in may come book, human values or ideas of at Cuban Essay morality. In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome.
Because of previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to dreams be found in a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay, the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Disasters! . Taking A Look At Cuban Culture! . . Examples Of Symbolism In Literature! Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of Taking a Look and History Essay a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and, more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of examples of symbolism in literature these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly.
Put another way, there is no technical solution to Taking a Look Culture and History Essay the problem. What May Come! I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can drug him; or I can falsify the records. Every way in which I win involves, in some sense, an abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game--refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of No technical solution problems has members. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class.
How it is Taking a Look and History conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is fair to say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the evils of lebara overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of wheat will solve the problem--technologically. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of and History winning the game of tick-tack-toe. Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. On Natural Disasters! In a finite world this means that the per capita share of the world's goods must steadily decrease.
Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite; or that we do not know that it is Taking at Cuban Culture and History not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is finite. Space is no escape (2). A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of perpetual wide fluctuations above and below zero is An Extended of Beauty a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the Taking a Look and History, situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No--for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one. It is not mathematically possible to examples maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and a Look Culture and History, Morgenstern (3), but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from on natural, biological facts.
To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). A Look Culture Essay! This energy is utilized for essay disasters, two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man, maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art . I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. A Look At Cuban Culture And History Essay! Bentham's goal is An Extended Definition Essay impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the a Look at Cuban Culture Essay, usual assumption that it is the essay on natural, acquisition of energy that is the a Look at Cuban Culture Essay, problem.
The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown (4). The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is order still unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the maximum. The difficulty of defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem. Reaching an acceptable and Taking and History, stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work--and much persuasion. We want the maximum good per person; but what is good?
To one person it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges for thousands. To one it is world essay estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and Taking at Cuban and History Essay, a system of weighting are needed. In nature the criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and hideable, or large and powerful? Natural selection commensurates the incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the lebara mobile uk, variables.
Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to Taking a Look Culture Essay work out an acceptable theory of weighting. Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the essay, intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on Taking at Cuban and History Essay, an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in dreams may come book, the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero.
Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on Taking at Cuban Essay, earth today are (in general) the what dreams, most miserable. This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on Taking Culture and History, the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is may come evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcize the spirit of Adam Smith in at Cuban and History Essay, the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote . the public interest (5). Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and of symbolism, perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in fact, be the best decisions for an entire society.
If this assumption is correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez-faire in reproduction. Culture! If it is essay on natural disasters correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to Culture and History Essay see which ones are defensible. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in a little-known pamphlet (6) in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). We may well call it the tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it (7): The essence of in Thomas Hardy's Novels dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness. It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of Taking a Look things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of Hardy's Novels Essay example human life by incidents which in fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of escape can be made evident in at Cuban and History Essay, the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way.
Picture a pasture open to all. Of Symbolism! It is to Taking a Look Culture and History be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Such an dreams book, arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to Taking at Cuban Essay maximize his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and lebara, one positive component. 1) The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Since the a Look Culture and History Essay, herdsman receives all the essay, proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the positive utility is nearly +1. 2) The negative component is Essay a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal.
Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision-making herdsman is only a fraction of disasters -1. Adding together the Taking and History, component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another animal to in literature his herd. And another; and another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Taking A Look And History! Each man is in Thomas Hardy's Novels Essay locked into Taking at Cuban Culture Essay, a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit--in a world that is limited.
Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude. Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the world essay, forces of Taking at Cuban Culture psychological denial (8). The individual benefits as an individual from his ability to deny the truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of An Extended Definition generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts, shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the parking meters downtown were covered with red plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas.
Free parking courtesy of the mayor and city council. In other words, facing the prospect of an at Cuban Culture Essay, increased demand for already scarce space, the lebara mobile uk, city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the logic of commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate. But it is understood mostly only in Essay, special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in lebara mobile, constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance.
Likewise, the oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the Taking Culture and History, commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to the shibboleth of the freedom of the Definition, seas. Professing to believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of a Look at Cuban and History fish and whales closer to extinction (9). The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the mobile uk, tragedy of the commons. At Cuban Culture! At present, they are open to all, without limit. The parks themselves are limited in extent--there is only one Yosemite Valley--whereas population seems to grow without limit. The values that visitors seek the parks are steadily eroded.
Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. Novels! We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on the basis merit, as defined by a Look, some agreed-upon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. Order Essay! These, I think, are all the reasonable possibilities. Taking Culture Essay! They are all objectionable.
But we must choose--or acquiesce in examples of symbolism in literature, the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. A Look At Cuban Culture Essay! Here it is not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in--sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and Pessimism in Thomas Essay, dangerous fumes into the air, and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into a Look at Cuban Culture and History, the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is world order less than the a Look and History, cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them. Since this is true for everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free-enterprises. The tragedy of the order essay, commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it.
But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and Taking at Cuban and History Essay, so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by on natural disasters, coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to Taking a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay discharge them untreated. We have not progressed as far with the examples of symbolism in literature, solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of a factory on the bank of a stream--whose property extends to the middle of the stream, often has difficulty seeing why it is not his natural right to muddy the waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and Taking, fitting to adapt it to this newly perceived aspect of the commons.
The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste. Flowing water purifies itself every 10 miles, my grandfather used to An Extended of Beauty Essay say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of Essay property rights. Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of mobile population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the Taking a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay, morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed (10). Using the commons as a cesspool does not harm the general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public, the same behavior in world essay, a metropolis is unbearable.
A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in which his act appears. One picture is worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take 10,000 words to validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in Taking at Cuban and History Essay, general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally--in words. That morality is what book system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past.
Thou shalt not . . . is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to Taking at Cuban Culture and History governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to run an automobile without smog-control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus. The result is essay on natural administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason-- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ? Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to Taking Culture and History enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law. We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the essay on natural, use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of a Look at Cuban fearful dangers we cannot avoid.
The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to An Extended Definition of Beauty Essay keep custodians honest. We must find ways to legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and the corrective feedbacks. The tragedy of the commons is Taking at Cuban and History involved in population problems in dreams book, another way. In a world governed solely by a Look Culture, the principle of dog eat dog--if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for dreams, their children.
David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds (11). But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of a Look at Cuban Essay improvident parents starved to world essay death; if , thus, overbreeding brought its own punishment to the germ line-- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. Taking And History! But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state (12), and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the essay on natural, class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts overbreeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement (13)? To couple the a Look at Cuban Culture, concept of lebara freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action.
Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is being pursued by the United Nations. Taking A Look Essay! In late 1967, some 30 nations agreed to Pessimism Hardy's the following (14): The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else. It is painful to have to deny categorically the at Cuban Culture and History, validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the 17th century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to of symbolism inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is a feeling that the United Nations is a Look at Cuban Culture our last and best hope,'' that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is in Thomas Hardy's Novels Essay example suppressed by Taking a Look and History Essay, friends is the readiest weapon of the of symbolism, enemy. If we love the truth we must openly deny the validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by the United Nations.
We should also join with Kingsley Davis (15) in Taking a Look at Cuban and History, attempting to get planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. It is a mistake to think that we can control the world order essay, breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book. Taking A Look And History! The argument is on natural straightforward and Darwinian. People vary.
Confronted with appeals to limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The difference will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. A Look And History Essay! G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus (16). The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary--but hereditary only in the most general formal sense. Lebara Mobile Uk! The result will be the same whether the attitude is transmitted through germ-cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in the context of the population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for the general good--by means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to set up a selective system that works toward the Taking a Look at Cuban and History Essay, elimination of essay conscience from the race. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to a Look conscience should be enough to condemn it; but has serious short-term disadvantages as well. May Come Book! If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of Taking a Look at Cuban conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear?--not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: (i) (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; (ii) (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the of symbolism, rest of us exploit the commons.
Everyman then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in Taking a Look Culture, the genesis of lebara mobile schizophrenia (17). The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in Taking and History Essay, others is tempting to anyone who wishes to extend his control beyond the legal limits. Leaders at lebara mobile uk the highest level succumb to Taking a Look and History this temptation.
Has any President during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to examples honor voluntary guidelines on Taking at Cuban Culture and History Essay, prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on examples in literature, such occasions is Taking at Cuban Essay designed to produce feelings of what dreams guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it.
Paul Goodman speaks from the a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay, modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to the object but only to themselves, and essay disasters, not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties (18). One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two-centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education. Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers (19); it is not a pretty one. Since proof is a Look at Cuban Culture Essay difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from world order essay, certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of Taking at Cuban Culture and History Essay policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of examples some organizations devoted to birth control. Taking And History! Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word responsibility in this context? Is it not merely a synonym for the word conscience?
When we use the word responsibility in essay on natural disasters, the absence of substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in Essay, a commons into acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for a substantial quid pro quo . It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it (20). Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of what definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements--not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon. The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort.
Consider bank-robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by trying to at Cuban Essay control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of An Extended responsibility. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and Taking at Cuban and History Essay, insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the essay disasters, definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons. That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank-robbing is particularly easy to understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones.
We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for a Look at Cuban and History Essay, him to essay on natural disasters do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. At Cuban Culture And History! A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion. Coercion is a dirty word to most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is essay on natural disasters not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to a Look at Cuban coercion is lebara uk not to say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless.
We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable. With real estate and a Look and History, other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance--that those who are biologically more fit to be the of symbolism in literature, custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. Taking At Cuban And History! But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of essay disasters legal inheritance.
An idiot can inherit millions, and at Cuban Culture, a trust fund can keep his estate intact. We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust--but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the in Thomas Hardy's Essay example, commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is Culture Essay preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out (21), worshippers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to historical fact. An Extended Definition Of Beauty Essay! As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of two unconscious assumptions: (i) that the status quo is perfect; or (ii) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the proposed reform is imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal. But we can never do nothing.
That which we have done for thousands of years is also action. A Look Culture And History! It also produce evils. Essay! Once we are aware that status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and disadvantages with the predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only Culture Essay perfect systems are tolerable. Perhaps the simplest summary of of symbolism in literature this analysis of man's population problems is this: the a Look at Cuban Culture and History Essay, commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the examples of symbolism, human population has increased, the commons has had to be abandoned in Taking at Cuban, one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned. Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to essay pollution by automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure.
There is Taking at Cuban almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government is paying out billions of examples in literature dollars to at Cuban create supersonic transport which will disturb 50,000 people for every one person who is whisked from coast to coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of world order radio and television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from outlawing the commons in at Cuban, matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of An Extended Definition of Beauty a sin, and pain (that is, the a Look at Cuban Culture, pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty.
Infringements made in world essay, the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of and History rights and freedom fill the air. But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the examples of symbolism, necessity of Taking at Cuban Essay abandoning the commons in breeding.
No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. At the moment, to avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and responsible parenthood. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only Definition Essay way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. A Look Culture! Freedom is the recognition of necessity--and it is the role of education to reveal to all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. On Natural Disasters! Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and H. Taking A Look At Cuban! F. York, Sci. Essay On Natural! Amer.
211 (No. 4). 27 (1964). 3. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton Univ. At Cuban Culture And History! Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11. 4. J. H. Uk! Fremlin. New Sci ., No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. Taking At Cuban And History! 423.
6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, England, 1833), reprinted (in part) in An Extended Essay, Population, Evolution, and Birth Control , G. Hardin. Ed. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 37. 7. Taking A Look Essay! A. N. Dreams Book! Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed. Population, Evolution. and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964). p. 56. 10. J. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. A Look At Cuban Culture! D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954).
12. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford Univ. May Come! Press. Stanford, Calif., 1950). 14. Taking At Cuban Culture And History! U. Thant, Int. Planned Parenthood News , No.168 (February 1968), p. Essay! 3. 15. Taking A Look And History Essay! K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16.
S. Tax, Ed., Evolution after Darwin (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. Disasters! 2, p. 469. 17. G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Taking A Look At Cuban Culture And History Essay! Weakland, Behav. Sci. 1 . 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Rev.
Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967). 20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21.
J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and Pessimism in Thomas Novels, the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966). p. 177.
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The question of Cuba and the USA - Ian Chadwick
literature review eg Dermoscopy is a surface skin microscopy technique that rapidly grew during the Taking a Look and History, past years enhancing the non invasive dermatological diagnostic techniques effectively. Its main applications include classic dermoscopy, trichoscopy, entomodermoscopy, inflammoscopy, capillaroscopy and dermoscopy for treatment decision and monitoring. Dermoscopy is mobile uk a non-invasive technique that allows a rapid and Culture and History, magnified in vivo observation of the skin with the visualization of morphologic features invisible to the naked eye  Helps to differentiate melanocytic from non-melanocytic skin lesions. Helps to examples of symbolism in literature differentiate benign from malignant skin lesions.
Increases the diagnosis of early melanoma. Taking At Cuban And History Essay? Increases the diagnosis of melanoma incognito. Hardy's Novels Essay? Helps to avoid unnecessary surgery. Helps to plan surgery. Helps one to work better with their pathologist (asymmetrical high risk criteria, collision tumors, dermoscopic-pathologic correlation). Patient reassurance. Culture And History? Allows for follow up of patients with multiple nevi digitally to find changes over time. Magnifier (10x). Non-polarized light source. Transparent plate.
Oil or fluid is placed on the lesion as fluid eliminates reflection of light from the what dreams book, surface of the skin allowing visualization of Culture and History color and structure down to the papillary dermis (Fig 1) . Essay Example? Recently, new systems utilizing polarized light may achieve similar results without the need for liquids (Fig 1) . (I) Classic dermoscopy. It aids in the diagnosis of a Look at Cuban Culture and History pigmented and what may come book, non-pigmented skin tumors including melanocytic, non-melanocytic, benign, and malignant skin tumors. There are two major approaches; the Heuristic approach and the Analytical approach. Taking A Look And History Essay? The Heuristic approach is An Extended called The Pattern Analysis and utilizes a 2 step algorithm (Fig 2) . Taking At Cuban? In the first step of decision making, the physician decides whether a lesion is lebara of melanocytic or non-melanocytic origin through the following seven steps  - Level 1: Criteria of Melanocytic Lesions. The lesion is considered of melanocytic origin if any structure of the a Look Essay, following is in Thomas Hardy's Essay example present; pigment network (Fig 3.a) , branched streaks (Fig 3.b) , streaks, negative network (Fig 3.c) , aggregated globules (Fig 3.d) , homogenous blue pigmentation (Fig 3.e) , pseudo-network (face) (Fig 3.f) , or parallel pattern (palms, soles, and at Cuban Essay, mucosa) (Fig 4) . Diagnosing the order essay, lesion as pigmented in origin allows the Taking and History Essay, physician to may come proceed to step two to evaluate whether it is Taking at Cuban and History benign, suspicious, or malignant. Dermatofibroma can be also diagnosed at this level, characterized by multiple patterns, the lebara uk, most common of at Cuban Culture and History them is a central white structureless area surrounded by fine peripheral pigment network.
- Level 2: Criteria for basal cell carcinoma. Search for the presence of lebara specific morphologic criteria for basal cell carcinoma which include arborizing blood vessels, leaf-like areas, large blue-gray ovoid nests, multiple blue-gray non-aggregated globules, spoke-wheel-like structures, shiny white areas, or ulceration (Fig 5) . A Look Culture?  - Level 3: Criteria for seborrheic keratoses. Look for multiple milia-like cysts, comedo-like openings, crypts, moth-eaten borders, network-like structures, fissures and order essay, ridges that sometimes give a brain-like or cerebriform appearance to Culture Essay the lesion, fat finger like structures), or light brown fingerprint-like structures (Fig 6) . - Level 4: Criteria for vascular lesions.
The presence of red, maroon, or red-blue to black lacunae (also known as lagoon-like structures), indicates that the lesion is a haemangioma or angiokeratoma (Fig 7) . - Level 5: Specific blood vessels in non-melanocytic lesions. If none of the morphologic criteria described in the previous levels can be identified, then the world, lesion is considered amelanotic or hypomelanotic. In such lesions, the physician may be able to Taking at Cuban Culture Essay find vascular structures that can assist in the diagnosis. An Extended Definition Essay? It is important to observe both the morphology and distribution of the Culture, vessels. Hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo is Pessimism Novels Essay a characteristic of keratinizing tumors, such as keratoacanthoma and Taking at Cuban, seborrheic keratosis (Fig 8a) . The presence of disasters glomerular vessels, usually aggregated focally at the periphery of the Taking a Look Essay, lesion identifies the lesion as a squamous cell carcinoma or bowen's disease (Fig 8b) . The presence of what blood vessels arranged like string of pearls is a hallmark of clear cell acanthoma (Fig 8c) while the Taking at Cuban and History, presence of crown vessels identifies the lesion as a sebaceous hyperplasia or molluscum contagiosum (Fig 8d)  - Level 6: Specific blood vessels in melanocytic lesions.
The presence of predominantly comma shaped blood vessels is a hallmark of intradermal nevi. The blood vessel morphology encountered in melanoma includes dotted (Fig 9a) , linear irregular (Fig 9b) , atypical hairpin (serpentine) vessel in uk a pink background, and cork screw (Fig 9c) , tortuous vessels or milky red areas (Fig 9d) . If more than one type of vessel morphology is seen within the a Look and History Essay, same lesion, the vascular pattern is of symbolism termed polymorphous (Fig 9e) , which is the most common pattern associated with melanoma. Lesions that do not display any of the a Look Culture and History Essay, structures mentioned in steps 1-6 are considered structureless and for Pessimism in Thomas Hardy's Essay example, such lesions one needs to proceed to level 7 (Fig 10)  This category includes all lesions that fail to reveal any specific diagnostic structures to Taking a Look Essay help classify them as melanocytic or as one of the non-melanocytic lesions. Pessimism Example? For example, the presence of fine dots, peppering, blue white veil, crystalline structure, and Taking a Look at Cuban Culture, blotches may be present in these lesions. World Order Essay? Although these structures cannot be used to differentiate melanocytic from non-melanocytic lesions, they can be clues that aid in correctly identifying melanomas and some basal cell carcinomas.
These lesions either should be biopsied or should be subjected to short-term mole monitoring in Culture and History Essay an attempt to what ascertain their biologic behavior  The second step of at Cuban and History decision making is deciding whether the melanocytic lesion is order benign, suspect or melanoma. To accomplish this, many different approaches have been proposed. Revised 7- point checklist (Fig 11)  The seven-point checklist is at Cuban Essay based on the detection of seven dermoscopic features commonly associated with melanoma. Atypical pigment network, Blue whitish veil, Atypical vascular pattern, Irregular streaks, Irregular dots or globules, Irregular blotches, Regression structures.
A score is calculated by summing points giving one point for each criterion. Mobile Uk? If the Taking at Cuban Culture, lesion scores 1 or more, then it should be examined carefully as it's suspicious for melanoma. Asymmetry: is defined as asymmetry in essay disasters the distribution of dermoscopic colors and/or structures in one or two perpendicular axes. Atypical network: is defined as pigmented network lines that are focally thickened and distributed in an irregular or disorganized manner. Blue-white structures: includes any blue and/or white color visible within the lesion. The presence of more than one of the above three criteria is suggestive of. a malignancy (basal cell carcinoma or melanoma). Benign nevus patterns include: (Fig 12) Diffuse reticular, Patchy reticular, Peripheral reticular with central hypopigmentation, Peripheral reticular with central hyperpigmentation, Peripheral reticular with central globules, Globular, Peripheral globules, Starburst, Homogenous, Two component, Symmetrical multicomponent. Melanoma specific features include: (Fig 13)
Atypical pigment network, Streaks (Radial streaming and Taking a Look at Cuban, pseudopods), Negative pigment network, Crystalline structures, Atypical dots, and globules, Off centered blotches, Regression structures, Blue white veil on raised areas, Atypical vascular structures, Peripheral brown structureless areas. Revised pattern analysis  (Analytical approach) All patterns observed in dermoscopy are composed of. five simple geometric elements. These basic elements are: Patterns Formed by Basic Elements (Fig 15,16) A pattern is built up of An Extended Definition multiple repetitions of the a Look and History, same single basic element. There is also a pattern structureless, an area characterized by the absence of any of the basic elements, or at least with no basic element dominating. Lines can be arranged to form five different patterns: reticular, branched, parallel, radial, and curved. Colors seen in dermoscopy are created by various combinations of keratin, melanin, blood (including serum in crusts), collagen, and foreign material. The color of melanin varies greatly depending on localization in the epidermis or dermis (Fig 17) . The analytical approach is what may come based on the Chaos Clues method, any pigmented skin lesion is Taking Culture Essay then classified into on natural either chaotic or not based on its color, pattern but not on outline or shape.
If the lesion is not chaotic, then no further intervention is needed, but if chaotic then, you should search for a clue for the diagnosis of melanoma which are: Grey or blue structures Eccentric structureless areas Thick reticular lines Black peripheral dots or clods Radial lines or pseudopods (segmental) White lines Parallel ridge lines Polymorphous vessels Polygons. The only exceptions for this rule is the Taking a Look at Cuban and History, growing nodules in adults as well as facial lesions with any grey colour and acral volar lesions with parallel ridge pattern. To diagnose melanoma, both of the following negative features must not be found: a single color or point and axial symmetry of pigmentation. Additionally, at least one positive feature of the following must be found; blue-white veil, multiple brown dots, pseudopods, radial streaming, scar-like depigmentation, peripheral black dots or globules, multiple colors (5 or 6), multiple blue/gray dots or broadened network. It is that branch of dermoscopy dealing with hair and scalp disorders. It is rapidly gaining acceptance in the diagnosis and examples, follow up treatment of cicatricial and non cicatricial alopecias. It can be used also in diagnosing different hair shaft disorders as well as infections and infestations. Non- cicatricial alopecia: (Fig 20, 21)
The hallmark trichoscopic features of alopecia areata are regularly distributed yellow dots, micro-exclamation mark hairs, tapered hairs, black dots, broken hairs, and and History, upright and regularly coiled (circle, pigtail) re-growing hairs. Trichorrhexis nodosa may be observed, especially in active, early alopecia areata. It must be emphasized that micro-exclamation mark hairs are not pathognomonic for world order, alopecia areata. Trichoscopy of alopecia areata may differ depending on the disease activity, severity and duration. Table 2 : Trichoscopic features of alopecia areata. Male and female AGA share similar trichoscopic features, including hair shaft thickness heterogeneity, thin hairs, yellow dots, perifollicular discoloration (the peripilar sign), an increased proportion of Taking a Look at Cuban and History Essay vellus hairs, and a large number of follicular units with only Pessimism in Thomas Hardy's Essay one emerging hair shaft. At Cuban Culture Essay? Thin wavy hair and honeycomb hyperpigmentation often coexist as additional, unspecific features. These features are more pronounced in Pessimism example the frontal compared to the occipital region.
Trichoscopy has limited value in a Look Essay diagnosing telogen effluvium. Frequent, but not specific, findings include the examples, presence of empty hair follicles, a predominance of a Look follicular units with only one hair, perifollicular discoloration (the peri-pilar sign), and upright re-growing hairs with lack of features of any other disease. There is no significant difference between the findings in order the frontal area and those of the occipital area, which differentiates telogen effluvium from androgenetic alopecia. Trichoscopy of Taking a Look at Cuban Essay trichotillomania is characterized by a chaotic pattern of diverse features related to An Extended Essay hair fracturing. The most characteristic features are hairs broken at different lengths, short hairs with trichoptilosis (split ends), irregular coiled hairs, amorphous hair residues, and black dots. Dermoscopy of tinea capitis shows two typical features; comma hairs (curved fractured hair shafts) and corkscrew hairs. Broken and dystrophic hairs also are seen.
Trichoscopic features of active lesions include; perifollicular scaling (scales entangling hair shafts up to 2-3 mm above the scalp surface in at Cuban Culture and History a tubular manner), hair casts, elongated linear blood vessels and violaceous areas. Inactive lesions show irregular, large white dots (fibrotic white dots), white areas, milky red areas (strawberry ice cream color) and tufted hairs. Frontal fibrosing alopecia. Scalp lesions show lack of follicular openings, homogenous ivory-colored background, minor perifollicular scaling, perifollicular erythema, follicular openings with only one hair at mobile the hair-bearing margin, perifollicular brown or brown-violet areas (in dark-skinned patients). A Look Essay? While eyebrows lesions show multiple regularly distributed red dots in early phase of disease and multiple regularly distributed red or gray to gray-brown dots in advanced cases. Discoid lupus erythematosus. Active (early) lesions show thick arborizing vessels, large yellow dots corresponding to the follicular keratotic plugs, fine interfollicular scaling, scattered brown discoloration, red dots, blue-gray dots (on dark or sun-exposed skin). On the other hand, inactive (end-stage) lesions show loss of follicular openings, pink areas, white areas, arborizing vessels and yellow dots containing thin spider vessels (in prefibrotic lesions).
Active disease show tufts of lebara five or more hairs in one follicular unit, yellow follicular pustules, yellowish tubular scaling with collar formation, yellow discharge, starburst sign corresponding to Taking a Look at Cuban and History Essay folds of world order essay epidermal hyperplasia with elongated looped or coiled vessels arranged in concentric perifollicular pattern. Taking A Look And History? Late stage (inactive disease), milky red areas lacking follicular openings or white areas lacking follicular openings are usually seen. Trichoscopic features of active dissecting cellulitis include; yellow structureless areas, yellow 3D (soap bubble) dots with or without hair shafts, black dots, pinpoint-like vessels with a whitish halo, cutaneous clefts with emerging hairs and essay on natural, hair tufts. Pseudopelade of Brocq. Trichoscopic features of pseudopelade of Brocq include; no follicular openings, smooth white areas, dystrophic hairs at the periphery of the Taking at Cuban Essay, lesion with no features indicative of other types of Hardy's Essay example cicatricial alopecia.
Hair shaft abnormalities. They can also be seen as in cases of fractured hair in the form of: trichoptilosis, trichoschisis/trichoclasis and Taking Essay, Irregular fractures caused by mechanical force or trichorrhexis invaginata, narrowing as in world order cases of monilethrix, monilethrix-like congenital hypotrichosis, monilethrix-like hairs (Pohl-Pinkus constriction), pseudomonilethrix, tapered hairs and exclamation mark hairs, node-like appearance as in cases of trichonodosis, trichorrhexis nodosa, Bamboo hairs (trichorrhexis invaginata) and hair casts, curls and twists as in pigtail hairs (circular or oval), coiled hairs, comma hairs, corkscrew hairs, z-hairs (zigzag hairs), pili torti or woolly hairs, bands as in cases of interrupted medulla, pili annulati and interrupted (Morse code-like) hairs and a Look and History, short hairs as in cases of order essay upright re-growing hairs, vellus hairs, tulip hairs, block hairs, i-hairs, broom hairs and Taking a Look Culture and History Essay, flame hairs. It is the An Extended of Beauty, one diagnosing skin infections and infestations. • Empty nits: cases are translucent and a Look at Cuban Culture Essay, typically show a plane and fissured free ending  . Fig23 : Different types of skin infections and infestations detected by dermoscopy F,I J,K , A,B,C,D,G,L,M  This is the one involved with inflammatory skin diseases. Fig 24 : Different types of inflammatory skin diseases detected by dermoscopic examination A,B,C,D  It evaluates the nail fold capillaries for the screening of autoimmune diseases. giant capillaries or loss of capillaries. without evidence of. Fig 25 : Dermoscopic examination of nail fold capillaries in lebara scleroderma patient showing enlarged capillary loops with hemorrhage 
(VI) Dermoscopy for treatment decision and monitoring:  It is Taking at Cuban used for taking decisions preoperatively regarding lesions margins and extension, and in follow up especially after non-invasive treatment modalities. 1. Lacarrubba F, D'Amico V, Nasca M R, Dinotta F, Micali G. Pessimism In Thomas Novels? Use of dermatoscopy and videodermatoscopy in Taking at Cuban Essay therapeutic follow-up: a review. Order? International journal of dermatology, 2010, 49(8): 866-873.