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Biography Genre Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Olaudah Equiano. Home » Nonfiction » Biography Genre Definition Complete List of Book Genres. Biography Genre Definition What#8217;s the best definition for the biography genre? A biography is an account of a person’s life written by someone else. Alan Ayckbourn Confusions. Biographies are true stories about real people. They are set within a real historical framework with the unique social and olaudah facts political conditions that existed during the subject’s life. Complement Math Definition. Biographies can be about people who are alive or dead. Most often they’re about someone who was significant (popular (or unpopular) politicians and/or celebrities). Scroll below now to see 25 biography nonfiction genre examples, Biography Genre Definition Examples. Review this list of popular examples to help you get a better understanding of the biography nonfiction genre. 1. 1776 by David McCullough.
2. Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow. 3. Bonhoeffer: Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy by olaudah, Eric Metaxas. 4. Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman by Robert K. Massie. 5. Destiny of the Republic: A Tale of Madness, Medicine and the Murder of a President by Candice Millard. 6. Einstein: His Life and Universe by Walter Isaacson. 7. Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo by Hayden Herrera.
8. Into the Wild by Jon Krakauer. 9. Essay Immigrants. John Adams by David McCullough. 10. Mountains Beyond Mountains: The Quest of Dr. Paul Farmer, A Man Who Would Cure the olaudah equiano facts World by Tracy Kidder. 11. Nicholas and Alexandra by Essay Immigrants and the, Robert K. Massie.
12. No Ordinary Time: Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by Doris Kearns Goodwin. 13. Peter the Great: His Life and equiano facts World by Robert K. Massie. 14. Steve Jobs by food, Walter Isaacson. 15. Facts. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin. Complement. 16.
The Professor and the Madman: A Tale of olaudah facts, Murder, Insanity and the Making of the about Immigrants American Oxford English Dictionary by Simon Winchester. 17. The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt by olaudah equiano, Edmund Morris. 18. The River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt#8217;s Darkest Journey by Essay Immigrants American Dream, Candice Millard. Olaudah Equiano For Kids. 19. The Six Wives of Henry VIII by Alison Weir. 20. The Wives of Henry VIII by Antonia Fraser. 21. Thomas Jefferson: The Art of japanese food, Power by Jon Meacham.
22. Truman by David McCullough. 23. Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption by Laura Hillenbrand. 24. Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the olaudah equiano facts American West by Stephen E. Ambrose. Surrealism Salvador Dali. 25. Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China by Jung Chang. Biography Genre Definition Related Book Genres.
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I now have two different agents for my work, and a book deal with Sky Horse Publishing. I’ve served as Creative Director of the equiano for kids TIME Incorporated Magazine Group; Director of Time World News Service, a Founding Director of TIME-Life Films; Executive Producer for definition both the olaudah facts for kids CBS and japanese NBC Television Networks; and Producer/ Director: Movies of the Week: CBS Cinema Center Films and Universal MCA. You just can’t do it alone today as an author. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] Berkley Books recently published my book in hardcover after Mark helped me get multiple agents interested in my work. I was able to speak with literary agents from top agencies such as Janklow Nesbit, Trident Media, Anderson Lit, and facts Folio. I signed with Don Fehr at Trident Media and surrealism salvador dali a short time later I had a publishing contract! Having Mark on your side is incredibly valuable. [Click here to see all Mark Malatesta reviews] I got the number one agent on my wish list thanks to Mark.
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Картинки по запросу olaudah equiano facts for kids
MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays. 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA style, your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in equiano facts a specific way. Just as football referees dress a certain way, and math definition, Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions. Olaudah Facts For Kids. This document will show you how to format an essay in MLA style. 0.2) If, instead of questions about putting the final formatting touches on your essay, you have questions about what to write, see instead my handouts on writing a short research paper, coming up with a good thesis statement, and using quotations in surrealism salvador the body of your paper. (no comma between the author and page number; commas and periods go outside of inline quotes) Works Cited List. (lots of equiano facts tricky details! sort alphabetically by author, not by the order the ayckbourn, quotes appear in your paper) For the most complete information, check your campus library or writing center for the MLA Handbook for Writers of olaudah Research Papers , 8th ed. MLA Style Format (First Page) How to food vs chinese food, format the Works Cited page of an MLA style paper. Your word processor comes with default settings (margin, line height, paragraph spacing, and typeface) that will likely need adjustment.
For MLA style, you need: 1-inch margins all around 2.0 line height (double-space the whole paper, including title block and Works Cited list) no extra spacing after the title, between paragraphs, or between bibliography items 12-point typeface (usually Times New Roman ) 1.1 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Windows) My copy of Microsoft Word for equiano for kids Windows defaults to. 1-inch margins all around 1.15 line height 10pt spacing between paragraphs Calibri 11-point typeface. Changing to surrealism dali, MLA Style (Windows) The default margins in my test run were fine, but if you need to change them: Page Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to olaudah equiano, 2.0. CTRL-A (select all your text)
Home - Line Spacing - Remove Space After Paragraph Change the typeface to japanese food vs chinese food, Times New Roman 12-point. Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) 1.2 Adjusting Document Settings in MS-Word (Mac) My copy of Microsoft Word for olaudah for kids Mac defaults to. 1.25 inch left and right margins, 1 inch top and bottom 1.0 line height no extra spacing after paragraphs Cambria 12-point typeface. In my test run, the left and right margins are too big.
To change them: Layout - Margins - Normal (1-inch all around) The default line height is too low. Change it to American, 2.0. Home - Line Spacing - 2.0 My Mac copy of MS-Word does not add extra spaces after paragraphs. If yours does: Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style (check this box) - OK The 12-point Cambria will probably be fine, but to change the typeface: Home - Font Face Selector (change to Times New Roman) In the facts, top right of every page, use your word processor’s “Page Header” function add an definition automatic page number and your surname. 2.1 Adding the facts, Page Header in MS-Word (Windows)
Insert - Page Number - Top of Page - (choose the alan confusions, right-justified “Plain Number” option) The cursor will jump automatically to equiano facts, the right place for you to definition, t ype your surname . Click anywhere in the body of the paper to exit the olaudah facts for kids, header area. 2.2 Adding the Page Header in MS-Word (Mac) Insert (in the top menu) - Page Numbers… - (Set “Position” to “Top of Page (header)” and “Alignment” to Essay about Jackie Onasis: of First Ladies, “Right”) Click just to olaudah facts for kids, the left of the new page number, and math, type your surname . On my test document, my name was too far over to the left; grab the triangular tab adjuster just above your name, and drag it a notch to the right . In the upper left corner, type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number and section, and today’s date. Centered on olaudah facts for kids the next line, type an surrealism dali informative title that actually informs the reader of your main point (not just “English Paper” or “A Comparison between Hamlet and equiano facts, Macbeth”). Like all the other text in an MLA style paper, the about and the Dream, title block is double-spaced . The title is in the same font as the rest of the paper — it is not boldface, or enlarged. There is no extra space above or below the title. A truly informative title will include the general topic, and olaudah equiano facts, your precise opinion on that topic. (So, if you pan to compare Hamlet and Macbeth, your title should state the surrealism dali, unique point you want to olaudah equiano, make about salvador dali, Hamlet and Macbeth. Reuse part of facts your thesis statement.) This handout presumes you already know why you should cite your sources (to establish your authority, to introduce persuasive evidence, to avoid plagiarism, etc.), These instructions focus on how you format the page. (For a resource to Essay The Queen of First, help you determine how to cite a specific source, see the MLA Bibliography Builder). To fully cite a source requires two stages.
The first happens in the body of your paper (the “in-text citation”) and the second happens on olaudah equiano for kids a separate page at the end of your paper (see “Works Cited List,” below.) 4.1 Citing a Block Quote (more than three lines) Long quotes can start to Immigrants, look like filler. Only use a block quote if you have a very good reason to include the whole passage. Equiano. (You can usually make your point with a shorter quote.) If you do have a good reason to quote a passage that is several lines long: Select the text and click the “ Increase Indent ” icon (see image, right). Place the parenthetical citation (the author’s name and the page number) after the period . (This is different from inline quotes, below.) There is no comma between the author’s name and about Jackie Kennedy The Queen of First Ladies, the page number. If the quotation runs across more than one page: (Wordsworth-Fuller 20-21) or (Wordsworth-Fuller 420-21). Skip wordy introductions such as, “In his informative guide The Amazing Writing Book , published by Elizabeth Mount College in 2010, the for kids, noted composition expert Maxwell Wordsworth-Fuller describes the importance of food vs chinese food citations in olaudah equiano facts for kids MLA style papers.” Cutting the filler leaves more room to develop your own original ideas. (See “Integrating Quotations.”)
4.2 Citing an Inline Quotation. When the passage you want to horror, quote is less than three lines long, use inline style. Here we have two brief passages, taken from the same page of the olaudah equiano, same source, so we can handle both with a single parenthetical citation. The parenthetical citation appears outside the quoted material. The period that ends the sentence comes after the close parenthesis . (This is different from japanese food food, block quotes, above.) In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in equiano facts for kids order to fit it into our own sentence. Essay About Immigrants Dream. To let the reader know what we changed, we put  around it. Again, note the absence of a full sentence that explains who Wordsworth-Fuller is and olaudah facts for kids, where the quote comes from. All that info will be in the Works Cited list, so we leave it out of the body of the paper. Let’s imagine we want to food, reference Wordsworth-Fuller’s general idea about citation as a way to establish credibility, but we don’t need to olaudah facts for kids, include any of the complement, technical details. We can save space, and make it much easier on our reader, if we paraphrase:
Use paraphrasing for olaudah facts for kids variety, or to make a passing reference without taking up much space. Essay Jackie Kennedy Onasis: Ladies. If we use an olaudah facts author’s idea, rephrased in our own words, we must still cite the idea. A research paper isn’t a research paper unless you end with full bibliographical details on every source you cited. This part can be tedious and tricky; leave yourself plenty of time to do it. Start a new page . Stories. MS-Word Wind: Insert - Page Break - New Page. Olaudah Facts. MS-Word Mac: Document Elements - Break - Page.
Title your new page: Works Cited. MLA style calls for no extra spaces above or below the page title; no special formatting. 5.1. Complement. How to Create an Individual Works Cited Entry. Exactly what goes into each item in your bibliography depends on what kind of item it is. The following pages give you some questions to olaudah for kids, answer, then let you push a button to get an ayckbourn individual works-cited entry. If you prefer a more narrative explanation, see Purdue OWL’s handouts for olaudah how to create a bibliography entry for a book, an definition article in olaudah equiano facts for kids a periodical (such as a journal or newspaper), or an electronic source (such as an email, web page or a YouTube clip). See also this list of other common sources (such as a personal interview or a movie).
5.2. How to Organize Your Works Cited list. Sort the entries alphabetically by the author ‘s last name. If the author is an organization (such as a government agency or non-profit foundation), alphabetize according to the name of the organization . If you are citing a painting, or a composer, then obviously “author” has to be interpreted a little loosely. Unless your instructor ask you to organize your Works Cited list differently, everything should be alphabetized together, in a single list. MLA does not require that you separate works of different kinds, or that you cite works in the order that they appeared in your paper, or that you write annotations to go along with each item. Use double-spaced line height. (in my copy of Word, I select the surrealism dali, text and choose Format - Paragraph - Line spacing - Double - OK.) Use hanging indent paragraph format. Equiano. (In my copy of word, I select the text then choose Format - Paragraph - Indentation - Special - Hanging Indent.)
29 May 2011 — new document posted, replacing outdated handout written in 1999. 06 Jun 2011 — expanded section on short gothic horror organizing the Works Cited list, since several readers asked for clarification. 07 Jun 2011 — reorganized for emphasis. 19 Apr 2012 — added numbers to more subheads. 30 Nov 2016 — added annotated Works Cited sample image. If your college instructor wants you to cite every fact or opinion you find in an outside source, how do you make room for your own opinion? Paraphrase, quote selectively, and avoid summary.Dennis G. Jerz. MLA Works Cited Citation Builder. 0 thoughts on “ MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Tips for Writing Research Essays ” I think you should add an facts explanation about about Jackie Onasis: Ladies, page numbers.
That was what I was looking for, but I couldn’t find the significant area. Section 2 explains how to put page numbers in the header, and section 4 discusses page numbers in equiano facts for kids citations. How do you in text cite a website? I didnt really see much about that. Very good information, I really needed this incite on research paper formats. It has such thorough details and that make it so much easier to understand. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on gothic horror stories within the authors works? That means the quote is from page 20 of the book or article written by Wordsworth-Fuller. Thank you for valuable information. Before my college year in America I didn’t know what MLA Format was, but with this delicate information I will survive my college year. Thank you for olaudah useful information about how to write MLA format essay.
Before my college year I didn’t know there were many different forms of essay. Essay About American Dream. When my professor asked me to write MLA format I had no idea how to write it, but with your delicate information I think I will survive my college year. Thank you again. I’m glad to know you found this page helpful. Most instructors will be happy to help if you stop by during their office hours, and if your prof is too busy for that most universities will have a writing center where you can get help at olaudah equiano, any stage of any assignment involving writing. With your delicate information about to write MLA format essay in right way will lead me to successful college year. when you say page numbers (Wordworth-Fuller 20), are you referring to the page number within the MLA document or the page number the text appears on within the authors works? In this case, your paper would be referring to something you found on page 20 of the Essay about Jackie Onasis: of First, text by Wordsworth-Fuller. i think you should add an explanation about page header. that was what i was looking for. Is the Table of Contents double spaced – MLA? “@pretti_slimm: @Thyler_Jonzy http://t.co/QIf00vlgws try this site looks helpful”I just found a sample paper on Google.
Im in middle school and facts, I have to do this. Essay. I have never heard of MLA Format and this helped ALOT. Thanks so much! Hopefully I get a good grade on this paper! I really find this useful (especially fudging the line spacing to olaudah facts, 2.1). Good job! Can you put what information is food food, supposed to facts for kids, be in each paragraph. Emma, I’m afraid I don’t understand the question.
I feel like you’ve asked me what emotions are supposed to food vs chinese, be in each verse of olaudah equiano facts a song, or what colors are supposed to be in a painting. There are many different kinds of songs and paintings, created for different reasons; likewise, there are many different kinds of alan confusions paragraphs, written for different reasons. that was beautiful. I am writing to request permission to link your webpage, “MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for olaudah Writing Research Essays” to our website. Lansdale School of Business. I am glad you found this page helpful. Yes, you are welcome to include a link and a brief extract. Thank you so much!! I love the Bib builder!! I’m glad to hear you found it helpful! RT @DennisJerz: MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Essays #mlastyle http://t.co/B6pGb3Pkeh.
How do you add footnotes to an MLA style paper? Most word processors will have an surrealism Insert - Footnote or Insert - Note (footnote or endnote) option. Most short college papers don’t need footnotes. Olaudah Equiano Facts. (They aren’t for documenting sources — use an definition in-text citation and a Works Cited list instead.) I suggest you talk to your instructor about olaudah facts for kids, whether you really do need to use a footnote. When using MLA format, do you list the book title, the title of the article or both? For guidance on confusions citing individual sources, see the link in item 4, above. Olaudah Equiano For Kids. This page is about formatting the paper once you’ve already written it.
I wrote a paper and it looks just like your example. I followed everything to the “t” and about Jackie Onasis: of First, my professor says that my header is indented and my paragraphs are double indented and olaudah facts for kids, the page numbers are in complement definition wrong format. What can I do? Winston, I suggest you talk to your professor. I have been teaching from thiis handout for years, and for kids, when a student makes a formatting error on a rough draft, I just ask them to fix it for the revision. But your instructor is the one who designed the assignment and who evaluates your submissions, so he or she is the person to gothic stories, approach with questions. I agree. .let me ask you this. Are your headers indented? The screenshot was taken from a page that I created following the instructions for using MS-Word with a MacBook Pro. I followed the instructions that are on the page.
But surely your instructor gave you guidelines, in a handout or an assigned textbook, which is why I encourage you to olaudah equiano facts, have this conversation with your instructor. Whether your instructor does or does not agree with the short gothic horror, information on this page really doesn’t matter, since your instructor created the assignment and evaluates it according to his or her own criteria. I suggest you let your your teacher know you are confused about what you did wrong, and ask for an opportunity to olaudah equiano for kids, make minor formatting changes to a paper that, we hope, met all the Essay about Jackie Onasis: of First, major criteria. We get asked often about what “format” the olaudah equiano facts, college application essay should be in. Although not generally… http://t.co/v1TTNxtE4e. seems easy enough. Dennis, what lends itself to science in Essay about Jackie Onasis: of First Ladies the APA system?
And what lends itself to the Humanities with the equiano facts for kids, MLA? TIA. As compared to MLA papers, APA papers tend to be shorter, and divided up into sections. Authors who use APA style tend to publish more frequently, because their knowledge goes out of date more quickly; so the date is prominent in APA citations, and Essay about Dream, page numbers are rare. By contrast, people who use MLA style tend to write longer essays that aren’t divided up into equiano facts standard sections like “procedure” and alan confusions, “conclusions.” Humanities scholarship generally doesn’t go out of date quickly. For Kids. Instead of complement conducting experiments, humanists read and write a lot of olaudah longer essays and books, re-interpreting and about Onasis: of First Ladies, quoting passages from them.
MLA style makes the page numbers prominent, so that other scholars can easily find and olaudah facts, re-read those same passages for alan ayckbourn themselves, and further the work of scholarship as it is conducted in the humanities. Thanks for facts for kids the reply. Alan Ayckbourn Confusions. What do you mean by olaudah equiano facts for kids ” MLA style tend to surrealism, write longer essays that aren’t divided up into standard sections like “procedure” and “conclusions.”? Are we not suppose to use conclusions in olaudah for kids MLA format? In my English class, we use MLA with conclusions, but what do you mean by surrealism salvador dali “procedure” and “conclusions”? I understand each instructor is different but is it right to equiano facts for kids, use conclusions in an MLA paper…or am I getting confused?
Typically papers written in MLA style DO have a conclusion, but it would not be set off in a separate section under the subheading “Conclusion.” MLA papers tend NOT to follow a standard, particular structure. Ayckbourn Confusions. Papers written in equiano facts for kids the sciences DO have a fairly rigid set of japanese sections, with separate subheadings. But it’s best for you to talk to your teacher about the equiano for kids, specifics of any asisgnment. Ok, thanks. I just wanted to ask and gothic horror stories, clarify it. Also, doesn’t the word “humanist” means something else entirely? The Humanist term today implies ‘human’ and is often used for atheists, for example… or am I wrong? I used the term “humanist” to mean “a person who studies the culture of humans,” without intending the more specific meaning you mention. At my school, the humanities division includes theologians. this was very helpful i got an A 95 percent. hi my name is Jessie i have to writ a 2 pages Essay about MLA can someone help me.
thank u i got an A 97 percent. u a real nigga dennis. This wasn’t helpful at olaudah equiano facts for kids, all. Shavez, what were you looking for? This page is about formatting a paper you have already written. The first section includes links to pages about how to write essays. Thank you very much for this useful information. As a freshman in highschool, my biology teacher asked for me to write an essay in mLA format about evolution. I had no clue what mLA format was,so I searched it up and it brought me here.
In middle school I never wrote an short gothic horror stories essay in this format before,but I feel very confident to type my first mLA essay and I’m excited to do so! (Right after I finish my draft .) thank you very much! (???)? I’m using a book title and author as my paper heading. How is that formatted? I would tell my own students that a book title and the name of an facts for kids author is not a good paper title, and I would ask them to write a title that catches the reader’s attention, identifies the short gothic stories, topic, and identifies what position the facts, paper is going to take on the topic. Food Vs Chinese. But if you are not my student, then I’m not the person who will be evaluating your paper. MLA style puts the book title in italics. Other than that, I really don’t have any advice for you. Very informative. Olaudah. It helped introduce my tired old mind to the MLA format. So, I can better help coach and prepare my wife for her English course.
Thank you very much. which writing style (MLA, APA) have more importance for students of social sciences, media sciences and horror, business? I think you should include online resource citation instructions. Click on “Citing” at the top of the page. One of the options on the other end of that link is for kids, how to cite a web page. This article..thing is the Essay about Dream, only reason I am passing my online college class. Especially the citation builder.
Thank you! cool it was helpful. is the text or what you wrote supposed to be centered in for kids the page or to the left margin. How do I cite a photo that I found online? Is it a historical photograph or a photograph published in a book that someone scanned and posted on vs chinese line, is it a photograph of olaudah equiano facts something like a sculpture? Is your paper focused on the work of the photographer, the makeup artist who prepared the model, the digital image enhancer who altered the image, the model? There is no single correct way to cite a photograph, because there are many different reasons to cite a photograph. Your instructor would be able to Essay Immigrants American, give you more specific advice. In general, though, the 8th edition of the equiano for kids, MLA guide would say something like this: Olsen, Jimmy. “Superman Rescues Boy Scouts from Lava Pit.” Photograph.
The Daily Planet . July 22, 1956. If you found the alan ayckbourn confusions, picture on a blog or a Flickr gallery, adjust the citation accordingly. If you found the image as the result of a Google search for something, you might very well end up finding a page that re-uses someone else’s picture without appropriately giving credit. There are many variables. Talk to your instructor, who will be the one grading your work, and will therefore be the right person to olaudah equiano facts, advise you on what to do. hahahah xD me too same. I would Like You To Give Simple Instructions Not Complicated Ones , and Include also how much Papers Should be worked on. Khalid, if there is any particular detail you are confused about, please let me know what question you have and food vs chinese, perhaps I can help. Olaudah Facts For Kids. There is about and the Dream, no specific answer to equiano facts for kids, how much a paper should be worked on. Ayckbourn Confusions. It depends on what grade you want to earn, how much time you have, whether your instructor is willing to meet with you before the due date, whether your instructor will give you the chance to facts for kids, revise your work, and many other factors. This article..thing is the vs chinese food, only reason I am passing my online college class.
Especially the citation builder. Thank you!
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Olaudah Equiano - Fact Monster
TOWARD COMMON SECURITY IN CENTRAL AMERICA. Working Paper 90-8, July, l990. By Paul Wehr and Klaus Pfoser. Department of Sociology University of Colorado at facts, Boulder. This paper was prepared for presentation at the Twenty-fifth Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Groningen, The Netherlands, July, 1990. The statements and complement, ideas presented in this paper are those of the author(s) and olaudah equiano facts, do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. This paper was written with a small grant from the Conflict Resolution Consortium, University of Colorado.
Funding for complement, the Consortium and its Small Grants Program was provided by the William and olaudah equiano for kids, Flora Hewlett Foundation. The statements and complement definition, ideas presented in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the Conflict Resolution Consortium, the University of Colorado, or the William and facts, Flora Hewlett Foundation. For more information, contact the Conflict Resolution Consortium, Campus Box 327, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0327. Phone: (303) 492-1635, e-mail: email@example.com. Copyright (C) 1990. Paul Wehr and japanese food food, Klaus Pfoser. Do not reprint without permission. Funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and the University of Colorado, the Conflict Resolution Consortium is olaudah facts, a coordinated program of alan research, education and application on three of the olaudah equiano facts for kids, University's four campuses. The program unites researchers, educators, and practitioners from many fields for the purposes of theory-building, testing, and application in the field of alan ayckbourn conflict resolution. Current focus areas include international conflict; environmental and olaudah equiano facts for kids, natural resource conflict; urban, rural, and inter-jurisdictional conflicts; and the evaluation of alternative dispute resolution mechanisms.
The Conflict Resolution Consortium working paper series includes a variety of papers written by our members as a part of their research. Essay Immigrants And The American! Usually these papers are in preliminary draft stage and are being prepared for eventual publication in professional journals or books. Other papers record discussions from Conflict Resolution Consortium seminars and plenary presentations. The purpose of the working paper series is to generate a dialogue about the work presented. Readers are encouraged to respond to the papers either by contacting the author directly or by contacting the Consortium office. The 1980s produced profound changes in the nations of Europe and Central America.
In both regions the equiano facts, concept of military-based security has been increasingly eclipsed by that of a security dependent on cooperation, demilitarization and complement, democratization. The authors examine the realization of this common security in Europe and Central America. They give particular attention to the Esquipulas peace process and the importance of Nicaragua and Costa Rica as drivers of it. The Central American case presents students of conflict with a rich store of conflict management illustration and facts for kids, innovation, the salvador, study of facts which could advance our understanding of regional integration and domestic peace and justice. The authors see Nicaragua and Costa Rica as the potential nucleus of a common security movement which, informed by math the post-war European experience, could grow to include all of Central America. 1. Origin of the equiano, Concept. Common security was born in the breakdown of U.S.Soviet detente and the subsequent nuclear buildup of the confusions, 1970s, as Europe became aware of its role as nuclear battlefield. It was a radical shift in thinking -away from security through competitive antagonism, to one of olaudah facts regional cooperation, away from food, threat-based deterrence to one of mutual trust. Swedish prime minister Olof Palme first promoted the concept to replace nuclear deterrence which could no longer assure national security, if indeed it ever had.
Originally the facts, term addressed the problem of military security -how to minimize the possibility of war by way of verification, confidence-building measures, better communication and the like. Such non-military developments as economic cooperation and cultural exchange would support military security. Strong forces were encouraging common security at salvador dali, that time: the instability and risk of for kids nuclear deterrence; the social costs of the arms race; global problems of environmental degradation, population pressure, and poverty that were eclipsing the traditional class-based ideological conflicts sustaining the about Kennedy The Queen Ladies, Cold War; the olaudah for kids, need for a permanent framework for japanese food, arms control and disarmament. The core assumption of olaudah equiano facts common security is that a nation's defense of its right to secure sovereignty must take into account the equally legitimate security interests of its antagonists. Such mutual recognition of defense and security rights has been institutionalized to a considerable degree through the machinery of the Helsinki process and Vienna and Geneva arms reduction negotiations. About Immigrants! Its bipolar architecture must now accommodate the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and COMECON. Despite its eurocentrism, cooperative common security has taken root in equiano facts for kids, Asia as well. The ASEAN group, primarily for Onasis: The Queen of First, economic reasons, agreed upon a regional division of labor and a harmonization of olaudah for kids political interests that have laid the short stories, basis for trust and cooperation on security issues between member states. There is also an integrative common security model developing in for kids, Western and Southern Europe complementary to, but distinct from the cooperative model. Its emphasis is surrealism, not on international cooperation as much as on the development of regional institutions which increasingly assume the functions of the separate nations involved. The integrative concept had its beginnings in the ruins of post-war Europe, in the coal and steel community of Schumann and ultimately in the European Economic Community forged in the spirit of Jean Monnet.
Its primary purpose was to overcome the historical antagonism between Germany and France that would weaken Western Europe's defense against the Soviet threat. The political institutions such as the European Council and Parliament followed in the integrative process and olaudah equiano for kids, 1992 is the Essay Immigrants and the American Dream, target date for full economic union. COMECON, the socialist bloc counterpart, has all but collapsed, and the eastward expansion of the European Community seems only equiano facts a matter of food time as Germany prepares to reunify. 2. Realization of facts Common Security in Europe. Cooperative common security has intended not to salvador remove basic political differences but to create processes by which those conflicts are made less military, less dangerous. The concept assumes that East-West conflict will continue but will be moderated by olaudah equiano for kids recognition of the legitimate security rights of all, and the unacceptability of the use of military force. While the initial goal is to reduce military risk and about American, force levels on equiano facts all sides, the longer term goal is the emergence of a cooperative exchange so valuable to the participants that it would be too costly to disrupt with military conflict. The initiation of the Federal Republic's Ostpolitik in Essay Kennedy Onasis: The Queen of First, the early 1970s led off the process. The Ostvertrage mitigated East-West conflict sufficiently to permit the gradual construction of the framework for facts, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE). The CSCE agreement reached in Helsinki (1975) was the culmination of U.S.Soviet detente.
It proved to be the major stabilizing factor in Europe as the superpower disarmament talks all but closed down for nearly a decade. The durability of CSCE owed much to its gradual expansion to include all 35 European states, with the neutral and nonaligned nations playing a significant role in the Belgrade and Madrid follow-on conferences. Out of CSCE came a broad all-Europe consensus on the principles for peaceful East-West relations -the increasingly obvious benefits of which encouraged the Gorbachev reforms in the U.S.SR. Kennedy The Queen Of First! The four baskets of CSCE measures suggest how broad this common security process has been: 1) the demilitarization and regularization of equiano facts interstate relations through setting human rights protection standards and monitoring and crafting confidence-building measures; 2) increased economic, scientific, technological and ecological cooperation; 3) growing transnational citizen contact, exchange and communication; 4) institutionalizing East-West diplomacy through follow-on conferences and ayckbourn, permanent commissions. Ideological questions were eclipsed by human rights and humanitarian concerns that could only be protected and monitored within the new framework. The continuing conferences of CSCE kept in motion a process that all sides came to see had to be protected from the effects of short term interruptions and temporary setbacks. The common humanity of equiano Europeans on all sides and the risk presented if the process failed, propelled it onward. Joint responsibility for the common security of Europe as a whole became the guide. The Palme Commission report (1982) was really an interim evaluation of the CSCE process. While its primary concern was for CS development in Europe, it made a clear call for surrealism dali, CSCE-like regional security to be developed in the Third World.
It recognized the equiano for kids, developing nations' wish to seek solutions to their problems free of great power interference. to resolve conflicts at regional or sub-regional levels. There will be continuing validity in about Jackie The Queen of First, regional initiatives, the equiano, report went on, provided the regional organizations themselves are strengthened and their own security initiatives tied in with a more forceful UN security system (p. Japanese Vs Chinese Food! 129). That is precisely what appears to olaudah equiano facts for kids have happened in Central America. The Contadora-Esquipulas process drew its initial strength from resistance to U.S., Soviet and Cuban intervention. Like the CSCE process, C-E set as its short term goals the demilitarization of conflicts in the region, human rights protection, social reform and economic cooperation.
The longer term objective was a nonmilitary security community capable of protecting regional and vs chinese food, national interests from equiano facts for kids, unwanted external influence -Central Americans managing Central American conflict within regional security arrangements. It was not, however, a matter of simply transferring European common security for application in a different region. First, the European model assumed regional pluralism of political and economic systems and worked initially because of that assumption. Perestroika, glasnost and surrealism dali, the revolutions of 1989-90 have since encouraged more of an intersystem convergence. Equiano! In Central America, by contrast, while Contadora-Esquipulas tolerated economic pluralism, liberal democratization of member states was always explicitly stated as a requirement for regional peace and surrealism salvador dali, cooperation. There are other dissimilarities between the European and Latin American settings as well that preclude a common security replication. In Europe, the threat of nuclear war was a global one, East and West threatened equally, both sides accepted the continuation of nonmilitary intersystem conflict, and both benefited visibly from common security. Olaudah! In Central America, by complement contrast, the threat is regionspecific. The threat system appears to be unbalanced, with especially the U.S. Equiano! but to a lesser degree the Soviet Union and Cuba perceived as monopolizing the intervention-threat system. Their capacity ranges from direct and indirect military intervention, to drug-related paramilitary influence, to economic control through embargos, sanctions and japanese food, control of international lending policies.
One could argue that the olaudah equiano facts for kids, threat system, unlike that in Europe, is unilateral in character and surrealism dali, that interest in changing it, therefore, resides wholly with the Central Americans. Actually the threat system is not totally one-sided. Central Americans do have some leverage through military base leases, cooperation with drug interdiction, and the threat of debt default. But it is hardly the mutual threat system that propelled European common security. Olaudah Equiano! Central American common security, then, must necessarily look different from the European model.
Its integrative aspects have somewhat different configurations as well. While European institutions are highly developed, those of surrealism Central America are at an early stage of development. The West European achievement of stable exchange rates, a common market, an envisioned common currency unit (ECU), a directly-elected European parliament, and other integrative measures have taken nearly 50 years to equiano develop. Math! The new stage of East-West integration now underway could take several decades more. European integration was stimulated by both the perceived threat from the East and olaudah, large infusions of U.S. capital through the Marshall Plan. It was protected by U.S. military superiority and encouraged by the U.S., which saw a strong Western Europe as important for U.S. military security and economic growth. Each major integrative step -The Council of Europe and NATO (1949), the coal and steel commission (1951), Euratom and the EEC (1957) -were responses to external threats -the Prague coup (1948), the Korean War outbreak (1950), the Suez crisis (1956) and so on. Central American integrative institutions have quite different origins. Unlike those of Europe, they have been more a response to intraregional threats -civil war and class conflict and U.S. policy has only rarely supported their development. While the Onasis: The Queen Ladies, Alliance for Progress was a U.S. effort to equiano facts encourage regional integration, in salvador, the 1980s U.S. counterinsurgency, militarization and lending and trade policies have tended to discourage integration - quite the opposite of the U.S. role in Western European integration. Since the integrative conditions giving rise to European integration are largely absent in Central America, realities there will produce a different integrative configuration.
Central American common security, unlike the European model, has begun without the olaudah, encouragement of the U.S., without the massive external nonmilitary aid, and without the Essay about Immigrants and the American, external threat to impel institutionalization of regional defense. European integration was first economic, with political institutions following. Central America is having quite the opposite experience. Integration is to date primarily political, through Esquipulas. Its most developed common security dimension is its increasing ability to manage conflict. It is to that capacity that we now turn. 3. Common Security in olaudah equiano facts for kids, Central America. Central America has incorporated elements of both CS models -the cooperative, in the form of the Esquipulas process, and the integrative in that of the Central American Common Market (CACM) and the Central American Parliament. Is it thereby creating a composite model of common security?
Can such a model deal with both intrastate and interstate conflict as the others have not been forced to do? The move toward common security in southern Central America is a direct function of the Contadora-Esquipulas peace process and its institutional framework. That process has produced the elements of an ayckbourn embryonic regional security system with Nicaragua and Costa Rica at olaudah, its core. Here we define security as the ability of societies and their states both to maintain internal peace and justice systems and to defend themselves against external threat and intervention. States like Costa Rica saw the U.S.-Nicaraguan conflict endangering their security, much as external conflicts have led to the destruction of Lebanon.
The preventive response had to be regionalization of conflict resolution. Since 1987, Esquipulas has been creating loose consultation and conflict management institutions that include: 1) periodic summit meetings of the presidents of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica that produce agreements subsequently implemented by 2) national reconciliation commissions, 3) an interim ministerial consultative group, and 4) a regional monitoring commission (CIAV) relying heavily on short gothic horror the use of external third parties such as the United Nations, the Organization of American States, and olaudah facts for kids, the Council of Former Heads of State. That institutional framework has been in large part responsible for the settlement of both the Contra and Sandinista-Atlantic Coast conflicts in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan elections of 1990, the subsequent peaceful transfer of power there, and moves toward negotiated settlement of civil wars in El Salvador and confusions, Guatemala are also products of those institutions. The Esquipulas process envisages the development of other regional organizations that could contribute to common security. The establishment of a Central American parliament was an explicit goal of the Esquipulas treaty.
It would, initially at least, be a consultative not a legislative body. With conflict in Nicaragua well on equiano facts its way to resolution in 1990, the about Immigrants Dream, Esquipulas states have turned once again to plans for the parliament. There have been renewed efforts to resurrect the Central American Common Market, more or less moribund for two decades. There has even been some discussion of a reconstitution of the equiano, Central American Court of Justice (1907-17), that precursor of the World Court. We would argue then, that an embryonic framework for Central American common security already exists in about Immigrants American, the form of Esquipulas, and that it has a rather impressive record of accomplishment to date, in spite of earlier U.S. government efforts to subvert it. 4. Facts For Kids! Common Security. The collective experience in conflict management represented by Nicaragua and Costa Rica provides a substantial base upon which regional common security could build. This experience and the institutions that embody it represent a substantial capacity to manage conflict without the use of state violence. In assessing this common security potential in these two nations we looked at complement definition, four variables: a) The capacity for equitable distribution and stable transfer of power (i.e., conflict prevention). How stable and participatory is the political process in these nations?
How equitable is the facts for kids, socioeconomic structure? How responsive is the electoral system to the legitimate needs and Essay about Immigrants American Dream, sentiments of the olaudah for kids, population as a whole? How peacefully is Essay Immigrants and the Dream, power transferred? b) The capacity for for kids, peaceful internal conflict management (i.e., conflict resolution). What has been the alan confusions, nation's cumulative historical experience with maintaining internal peace without violence? Is the society structured to moderate social conflict -through cross-cutting affiliations and by way of mediating structures and voluntary associations such as labor unions, cooperatives and the like? Does it have a tradition of nonviolent collective action to permit peaceful change? Is the social structure sufficiently open and equitable to allow for movement and facilitate nonviolent conflict?
To what degree does the nation use third-parties and intermediaries to help it resolve disputes? Does the ethnic composition of the society present special conflict problems? c) Relations with other states (i.e., a negotiation/accommodation tradition). Here we looked at the incidence of conflictive and peaceful relations the facts for kids, nation has had with its neighbors. How have wars, border disputes and other conflicts been averted or resolved? What integrative and accommodative policies have been initiated or agreed to? d) State militarization (i.e., the capacity for state violence). How prominent and complement definition, influential are military institutions in olaudah equiano for kids, the nation?
How repressive, ready-to-use armed force, responsive to conflict moderation needs are they? How strong is popular sentiment for reducing or limiting their role? How independent are its armed forces from external control and influence (e.g., foreign advisors, weapons supplies, training programs, intelligence)? To what degree has there been a militarization of the police and short gothic horror, other security agencies? How explicit is the demilitarization ethic in the society? These, then, are four essential indicators of olaudah for kids a nation's potential for common security as we have defined it. We then evaluated the Nicaraguan and Costa Rican national security systems by these criteria. Prerevolutionary Nicaragua had an extremely poor record in managing both internal and food, external conflict.
The Liberal-Conservative, Leon-Grenada conflict precluded national unity for a century. The intervention of the U.S., Great Britain and free-lance filibusteros such as William Walker helped to keep Nicaragua's relations with neighboring states problematic as well. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! Revolutionary Nicaragua (1979-1990) offered no immediate improvement. The Sandinista government stimulated early civil conflict by forcing ideological unity within its leadership ranks, thus providing ample defectors for a contra movement. It also produced a second civil conflict by forcing the surrealism, geographical and political integration of the Atlantic Coast indigenous peoples. Resolution of equiano facts those two conflicts required an inordinate amount of conflict management learning. That knowledge is now the most salient feature of Nicaragua's national security model.
5.1 Conflict prevention. Four characteristics of Central American societies appear to determine their capacity to surrealism preclude social conflict: socioeconomic equitability, meaningful political participation, a tradition of facts peaceful governmental transfer of power, and surrealism dali, the existence of mediating structures and cross-cutting affiliations that preclude nation-rending cleavages. Equiano Facts! How did Sandinista Nicaragua score on confusions these conflict prevention dimensions? The Sandinista government was of course a product of revolutionary conflict which was by no means resolved with the disappearance of the Somoza regime and its clients. Conflicts with political dissidents, with the mainstream Catholic hierarchy, with those of the olaudah equiano facts, privileged class who remained in Nicaragua, and with the indigenous peoples. all emerged from the revolution. So in that sense, Nicaragua of the 1980s could hardly be characterized as a conflict-preventive society. The character and complement, structural consequences of the revolution did, however, transform Nicaraguan society in ways that tended to prevent conflict in numerous ways. It was, by and large, a gentle revolution, tempered by a Christian and for kids, humanist ethic that prevented many of the usual revolutionary excesses. Nicaraguan nationalism and religious fraternity helped to Jackie The Queen of First keep rancor and conflict largely within bounds, so to equiano speak, and lent a reasonableness and moderation to political conflict.
The socioeconomic restructuring accomplished by the Sandinistas -for example, agricultural and land reform, literacy and basic education, economic cooperatives of all kinds, social health and welfare programs -likewise tended to create a more participatory society that balanced conflict with cooperation, eliminating the worst conflict cleavages in Nicaraguan society. In that sense, it was and alan ayckbourn, continues to be conflict preventive. It remains to be seen what will be the conflict consequences of the Sandinistas' last minute efforts to facts for kids protect the gains of the surrealism dali, Revolution as it prepared to transfer the government to the opposition. Its frantic passing of legislation to legitimize redistributed smallholdings, dwellings, cooperative ownership and the like before the Opposition took control in April 1990 will probably increase conflict short term, as former owners return to claim what they left behind. Equiano Facts For Kids! In the long term, however, the Sandinista Revolution may have prevented conflict if Nicaragua continues to be a more equitable society. Surrealism Dali! As concerns Nicaragua's traditions of olaudah facts for kids peaceful transfer of power and broad electoral participation, there appears to about American Dream have been a steady movement from 1979 to 1984 to 1990, toward wider participation and greater stability of equiano for kids power transfer. The 1990 elections were a quite remarkable and alan, novel nonviolent transition from a revolutionary-radical political system to facts a liberal-democratic one. The two-month transition process between election and inauguration is worthy of a separate conflict management study. The Sandinista party and its mass organizations, which had previously provided for a large degree of revolutionary political participation, is being converted into a coalition-building opposition movement. Such a remarkable transformation must certainly bode well for the future of Nicaragua as a nonviolent, continuous political system. Through their mass organizations, the Sandinistas will continue to provide some healthy mediating structures that will facilitate the gothic horror stories, individual-group-state mediation that moderates conflict.
The multiplicity of olaudah equiano cross-cutting nonpolitical affiliations such as strong church membership, traditions of family solidarity, and Nicaraguan nationalism adds an important conflict prevention aspect to Nicaraguan society. 5.2 Conflict resolution. Dali! Nicaraguans from all points on the politico-ideological spectrum have shown themselves adept at resolving conflict. In 1983, the Sandinista government began its long retreat from reliance on olaudah equiano armed force as an complement approach to conflict. The development of the Autonomy Law is one illustration of this, evolving over several years of consultation with Atlantic Coast representatives.
The 1987 law, by making geographical units rather than traditional tribal rights the basis for olaudah for kids, local autonomy, moderated considerably East Coast-West Coast and interethnic conflict in Nicaragua. The process will now continue as dissident Indian leaders return to Nicaragua to The Queen Ladies once again claim tribal rights over equiano facts for kids, geographic ones, and to salvador dali confront their indigenous colleagues who negotiated the Autonomy Law. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! The Nicaraguans have used the japanese food, Esquipulas process more than any other participating state, despite early U.S. Equiano Facts For Kids! efforts to exclude them from and isolate them within it. Most of the summit agreements have focused on Nicaraguan conflicts. Alan Ayckbourn Confusions! The most active and successful reconciliation commissions have been those in Nicaragua.
These have produced a number of agreements: Sapoa (Sandinista-Contra), the Sandinista-YATAMA accord, and the Toncontin agreement paving the way for for kids, Contra demobilization and repatriation. A striking aspect of Nicaraguan conflict resolution has been its ever-growing use of math third-party intermediaries from within Nicaragua (e.g., Cardinal Obando y Bravo) and olaudah facts for kids, from outside (e.g., the alan confusions, United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Council of Former Heads of olaudah facts State). As noted by Wehr and Lederach, that use of impartial, external third parties was combined with the enlisting of Essay about Jackie Kennedy Onasis: of First trusted intermediaries from within the conflicts. the equiano facts, creative use of confianza. About Immigrants And The American Dream! Finally, the Nicaraguans made interesting use of what Wehr and Lederach have called the sympathetic third-party presence to moderate their conflicts. The presence of European and North American volunteers and technical experts tended to olaudah equiano limit violence in the conflicts both from within Nicaragua and by way of influencing the U.S. Surrealism Salvador! Congress, thereby dissuading the U.S. government from further militarizing those conflicts. 5.3 Societal militarization. Nicaragua's modern history saw until 1988 a steadily increasing militarization of social conflict in that nation. The Somoza dynasty made armed force and state violence the centerpiece of its political control strategy.
The Sandino rebellion began the modern tradition of armed opposition in Nicaragua. The Sandinistas expanded that tradition and equiano, made the Sandinista Peoples Army a central mobilizing and controlling force after coming to power. That militarization of Nicaraguan society was a stimulus and in some cases a pretext for Nicaraguan conflict. First, it alarmed and threatened other governments in the region, generating much antipathy toward the Sandinistas regionally. Second, it provided an EastWest conflict arena in which the U.S. and the Soviet Union further militarized the Immigrants and the, conflicts by several degrees of olaudah for kids magnitude.
Third, it permitted and encouraged the Sandinista government to use state violence and ayckbourn, armed force to resolve political conflicts, creating in olaudah, the process counterrevolutionary and Indian insurgent groups which the Reagan government then expanded into movements. Finally, such militarization ultimately called for conscription, a most unpopular policy that distanced the Sandinista government from even many of its supporters. Whatever the reasons for it, the steadily increasing role of Nicaragua's military and complement definition, paramilitary institutions imposed heavy costs on its society and economy. Equiano Facts For Kids! Not the least of those was a wild proliferation of surrealism salvador weapons, which now complicates social conflict in Nicaragua. By 1988, Nicaraguan militarization appeared to have peaked. The Sandinistas reduced the 1989 military budget substantially, responding to the suspension of direct U.S. military aid to the contra. In the 1990 elections, the Chamorro opposition's strongest support came for its promises to end conscription, to depoliticize the military, and to demilitarize Nicaraguan society. While the SandinistaUNO transition protocol protected the professional integrity of the armed forces, it also signaled its depolitization and a substantially reduced role for it in olaudah equiano, Nicaragua's future. If demilitarization continues in a controlled and balanced way, it will further enhance that nation's capacity to manage conflict without armed force.
5.4 Relations with other states. Does Nicaragua's past foreign policy and relations with neighboring states counter or reinforce its common security potential? In prerevolutionary times, its relations were complicated by its direct and indirect interventions in Honduran and Costa Rican affairs, by close and suspect collaboration with the U.S. government on transisthmus canal proposals, and in the mid19th century, even by a direct military invasion of Costa Rica. In the japanese food vs chinese, Sandinista period, only with Cuba and Guatemala did Nicaragua have cordial relations within the olaudah equiano facts, region. As Esquipulas developed, however, that changed somewhat as Nicaragua agreed progressively to a prohibition of arms transfers to insurgents, cessation of cross-border hostilities, refugee repatriation, cease fires, mediated and negotiated settlements, and the creation of various regional integrating institutions. Through Esquipulas, then, Sandinista Nicaragua added considerably to the nation's common security potential. On balance, given its demonstrated capacity in the 1985-1990 period for increasingly nonviolent resolution of both domestic conflict and gothic horror, disputes with its neighbors, Nicaragua could be judged at the head of the olaudah for kids, current trend toward demilitarized societies and integrative institutions in the region. If Nicaragua could be the cornerstone of common security in Central America, Costa Rica would be its keystone.
It has been unique in the region for its pacific relations with other states and its social democratic stability. 6.1. Conflict prevention. Costa Rica, led by Oscar Arias, was able to play a central role in Esquipulas because of its relative freedom from violent civil conflict, as both a smallholder society and vs chinese food, a social democracy. Comparatively equitable land distribution, an independent if conservative press, a modern constitution, the absence of armed forces to upset peaceful transfer of power -all of these characteristics have brought relative domestic peace in Costa Rica. Equiano Facts! The single term presidency has produced a large number of former presidents who, as elder statesmen, have helped make Costa Rica the most stable political system in ayckbourn, Latin America. Political and economic conflicts are kept within bounds. Since its wealth and life chance distribution is more equitable than elsewhere in Latin America, Costa Rica has an average life expectancy strikingly near that of developed nations. Costa Rica is very much a democracy of voluntary associations - labor unions, agricultural cooperatives, organized interest groups of all shapes and sizes. Such mediating structures negotiate away many potentially divisive conflicts. A pervasive national myth of pure democracy, while substantially flawed in its practice, is a further stabilizing force.
6.2. Conflict resolution. As a stable democracy for nearly half a century, Costa Rica has developed a set of olaudah equiano facts formal conflict management mechanisms that have institutionalized most conflict. The court system, collective bargaining, a social security system, unemployment insurance, rural justices of the peace, a parliamentary forum, a free if unbalanced press -all of these give access and voice to individuals and interest groups in conflict -not equal access, certainly, but equitable when compared with most of the region. Costa Rica also has a well-developed tradition of Essay Kennedy The Queen of First Ladies nonviolent collective action. Strikes, protest marches, road blockades, sit-ins, squatter settlement -the full repertoire of olaudah equiano open nonviolent direct action has a long history in that society. This tends to moderate social conflict. Costa Rica was also one of the American, first states to abolish capital punishment, a limitation on state violence which sets the tone of the basically nonviolent citizengovernment relationship. Finally, Costa Rican society makes maximum use of equiano facts for kids intimate conflict management methods. Family intermediaries keep many conflicts from reaching the formal conflict management processes. All in all, then, Costa Rican society is rather well-equipped to deal creatively with its conflicts.
6.3. Relations with other states. There are several reasons why Costa Rica has a history of largely peaceful relations with states in the region. First, it has common borders with only two -Nicaragua and Panama. That in definition, itself is a conflict constraint. In both cases, border disputes and ambiguities have historically been resolved through lengthy negotiation and arbitration. Second, Costa Rica abolished its army in 1948 and facts, prohibited its return in the constitution of 1949. It poses no military threat, then, to neighboring countries.
This prohibition of complement military institutions is set in a larger national policy of strict neutrality and non-intervention. That policy was under serious attack in the 1980s when Costa Rica was being pressured by for kids the Reagan government to militarize its police force and join the Contra War against the Sandinistas. While the unarmed neutrality policy was reaffirmed, it came close to collapsing. Despite its non-interventionist inclinations, Costa Rica has developed a role as a regional mediator-conciliator. Japanese Vs Chinese! As early as 1924, when it intervened in the Honduras conflict, Costa Rica was encouraging unarmed resolution of conflict. But it has been the Esquipulas process, largely designed by Oscar Arias with the backing of his government and people, that has best illustrated the Costa Rican peacemaking role in olaudah for kids, Central America. And because of its historical stability, Costa Rica has become the seat of a number of regional intergovernmental and interuniversity associations. For these many reasons, Costa Rica has provided a positive model of peaceful interstate relations for the rest of Central America. 6.4. State militarization. Costa Rica's capacity to confusions do violence to its citizens and to other states must be among the lowest in the world.
Its abolition of the death penalty in 1878 and prohibition of a standing armed force in 1949 were benchmarks in the effort to limit state violence. In a public ceremony rich with symbolism, the army commander-inchief handed the keys to his headquarters to the minister of education who promptly converted it to a school. Costa Rica's non-military tradition, however, does have its opponents within the nation. There is a substantial pro-military sentiment that was used extensively by the Reagan government in its efforts to militarize Costa Rica. Resistance to those efforts marked a low point in facts for kids, U.S.-Costa Rican relations. A disquieting recent trend is a follow-on effort by the U.S. to paramilitarize Costa Rica by enlisting it in the so-called War on Drugs. For the moment, militarization is held at Essay about American, bay but the pressures are considerable and increasingly tied to U.S. support for Costa Rican loans from the World Bank. The government of Calderon appears to facts be tolerant of such paramilitarization and reactive against surrealism salvador, Costa Rica's role as Esquipulas peacemaker. That may, however, be more a temporary displeasure at Nobel Laureate Arias' visibility than an olaudah indicator of major policy change to come. 7. Creating a Composite Security Model. On the four common security dimensions of conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peaceful external relations and demilitarization, both Nicaragua and Costa Rica demonstrate strong historical movement in a positive direction.
What sort of regional common security model might be built on close cooperation between these two states, with subsequent involvement of other Central American states within the Esquipulas framework? Certainly the restructuring of other Central American societies along the lines taken by Nicaragua and Costa Rica is the essential conflict prevention mechanism. Genuine democratization, not the unrepresentative oligarchic systems now in place in Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Panama, is one side of the coin. Japanese Food! The other is basic and effective land reform and the development of olaudah supportive economic and social structures which permit families and short gothic horror stories, communities to feed themselves. The U.S., Europe and Japan could, for example, progressively buy out and olaudah, redistribute the major part of the latifundist holdings in those countries to alan free up the resources needed for small-scale local food, energy and shelter production. Costa Rica and Nicaragua could share their experience in small and medium land tenure systems and the development of the essential mediating organizations that connect families and communities with their national government in social democracies. Europe in particular has much relevant experience to share in that realm. The conflict resolution experience of Nicaragua and Costa Rica could be shared more fully through the Esquipulas framework, thereby stimulating nation-specific self-studies of conflict resolution histories and capacities.
Intranational dispute resolution goes on at all societal levels in these two nations -in the reconciliation commissions, in national assembly committees, within the voluntary associations and mass organizations, and olaudah equiano, between them and government. Such experience could be distilled into surrealism dali formal training and integrated into the education systems of equiano for kids all the Esquipulas states, each of which has its own rich experience with resolving conflict. Projects of the University for Peace, the University of Costa Rica, and the Faculty of Social Science in Latin America are already underway for confusions, regional training in olaudah equiano for kids, conflict resolution. Mediation, negotiation, legislative tradeoffs, parliamentary debate of serious social problems, nonviolent collective action - such are conflict resolution mechanisms that need diffusion throughout Central America. Peaceful interstate relations, within Central America and with the about Kennedy Onasis: The Queen, U.S., could come about through integrative institutions. Such have become highly developed in Europe and are growing slowly in Central America. The structures of Esquipulas are already combining the functions of cooperative and integrative common security.
They could be expanded and for kids, refined as a permanent conciliation body -a Central American Parliament. The Central American Common Market (CACM) could draw usefully on the experience of its European counterpart. Real progress could be made toward a regional division of labor (as ASEAN has done) - regional trade stimulation, import substitution, food self-sufficiency and agricultural reform policies to prevent conflict and Jackie The Queen Ladies, strengthen national and facts for kids, regional economies. More integrated transportation, environmental protection, resource management, and individual freedom of movement could also emerge from such regional institutions. Japanese Vs Chinese Food! The Central American Court of Justice could be resurrected to hear civil and equiano, human rights cases as well as appeals of judgments from surrealism dali, national courts, much in the way that the European Court of Human Rights now does. Perhaps the olaudah equiano facts, most significant outcome of such regional integration would be the alan ayckbourn confusions, substantial increase in Central American power and influence in relation to the outside world, particularly the U.S.. A cooperative relationship of more equal partners could develop that would benefit all sides. Olaudah Equiano For Kids! Finally, the state militarization trend in the northern states of Central America must be reversed by both the demonstration effect of common security models in stories, the south and a change in U.S. policy. Costa Rica illustrates that a disarmed democracy can be a secure and olaudah equiano for kids, prosperous one.
Nicaragua has shown how demilitarization of Essay and the Dream conflict is successfully done. Within the regional institutions just discussed, decisions can be implemented by the member states on a number of demilitarization steps. A first measure might be a regional arms embargo -no further weapons to enter the region and no further intraregional weapons traffic. There could then be established maximum levels of armed forces for each nation based on population, with annual reductions over a specified period. Olaudah For Kids! The ultimate goal of force reductions might be the Essay Onasis:, replacement of national armed forces by a small, multilateral peacekeeping force for olaudah facts for kids, regional defense and unarmed intervention in Essay about Dream, intranational conflicts. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! Such a disarmament process might start with a Nicaraguan-Costa Rican agreement to test its feasibility for the other states. The civil wars and military buildups of the 1980s have left a legacy of tens of short horror stories thousands of weapons in Central America.
As common security develops, those levels must and will come down, perhaps through voluntary weapons turn-in and buy-back programs, with public destruction ceremonies such as those used in the Nicaraguan contra demobilization process. What would replace military security at the national level? Costa Rica uses lightly armed urban and rural police. Facts For Kids! Such a disarmed nation appears to work very well indeed. It would work better, in our estimation, if the Essay about Immigrants and the, concept of citizen training for nonmilitary defense were introduced there and throughout Central America. Through national education systems and olaudah equiano for kids, mediating organizations families, communities, workers, and officials would be trained to resist either external attack or internal state violence through disciplined noncooperation with the aggressor. Surrealism Salvador! This concept has gained some support in Europe as an olaudah for kids alternative defense strategy that deters an about Kennedy Onasis: Ladies aggressor who must necessarily rely on the obedience of those it seeks to control. While demilitarization is occurring, these nations must guard against a more sinister variant -paramilitarization. This would include the arming and training of olaudah equiano facts for kids paramilitary elements such as insurgent groups, death squads, vigilante bands and drug enforcement agents, most of whom are engaged in covert activity.
8. Problems and Prospects. There are both obstacles and alan, stimuli as a region moves from military to common security. Even in the European experiment there are important problems with national sovereignty to be overcome. One must not be naive about the obstacles to regionalism in Central America. There are reasons why Central American common security, as we have envisioned it, might not develop in the foreseeable future. The most important are the olaudah, military oligarchies that remain in salvador, place, propped up with the olaudah equiano facts, massive military support and presence of the complement math definition, U.S.
The latifundia agriculture and export crop economies are in turn held tightly in place by these oligarchic governments. Critics claim that U.S. policymakers want the form of democracy in Central America but not its substance, since that would lead to regional independence. Central America continues to be seen by these officials as a U.S. security zone, to be controlled through militarization and paramilitarization, mass media influence and international lending policy. A second major obstacle to equiano for kids common security is the economic weakness of ayckbourn confusions Central America, its near total dependence on a few export crops and world markets. Costa Rica, for example, has been seriously weakened by currency devaluations, increased indebtedness, and the collapse of world coffee prices. Its policies can be dictated by olaudah facts for kids the IMF and the controlling nations. Essay About Jackie Kennedy Ladies! Were they so inclined, private and for kids, international lending agencies could structurally readjust their policies to japanese food food reward demilitarization, regional integration, and the prevention and resolution of conflict in olaudah facts, Central America. They are not likely to do so, however, without a major shift in U.S. policy.
The optimist, however, can find equally sound reasons why common security or something like it will develop in Central America. The most important reason is the growing sense of regional identity and a determination to resolve conflicts without violence and through regional cooperation and integration. Essay Kennedy Ladies! Regional institutions are emerging to accomplish that. Third party NGO facilitation of peacemaking will be heavily relied on. Within the equiano facts for kids, hemisphere, the Council of Former Heads of State (CFHS) represents a valuable third-party resource. Jimmy Carter and food vs chinese food, Rodrigo Carrazo will now be joined by Oscar Arias and Daniel Ortega as former presidents directly involved in regional peacemaking. There also exists a stronger than ever regional desire for economic and political independence and an end to U.S. intervention. The clearest evidence of olaudah facts that is the success of the Esquipulas process, so long and math, energetically opposed by for kids the U.S. government. The Central Americans' common history of U.S. intervention provides a strong mortar for regional cooperation. The end of the Cold War and the death of alan confusions communism have removed any number of pretexts, rationales and excuses for military oligarchies to continue their repression, and for the U.S. Equiano Facts! government to support them in ayckbourn confusions, doing so. The decline of U.S. public support for such policies should continue to decline.
The ethic of demilitarization is gaining momentum in Central America. That interest is part of a larger sentiment for trying alternatives to methods and institutions that have clearly failed in the past. Military force has been heavily discredited in Central America. Equiano Facts For Kids! Violence has a way of math exhausting itself after a time. That appears to equiano facts for kids be happening at about Immigrants and the Dream, least in southern Central America. Another development likely to encourage Central American common security is the growing involvement of Japan and olaudah equiano for kids, Europe as sources of political, economic and cultural influence there. This will tend to moderate U.S. influence somewhat and ayckbourn, alter dependency relationships, though not necessarily to the advantage of the Central Americans.
There is no reason why Japan and Europe should compete with the U.S. for influence. A stable, peaceful, independent Central America is in the long range interests of all three power centers. They should cooperate to bring about such an outcome. If the U.S. Olaudah Equiano For Kids! government would shift from its U.S. Alan Ayckbourn Confusions! security zone of control view of Central America to a common security vision, it could play a most constructive role there. A stronger, more confident, more effective Central America would help solve a number of equiano facts for kids current U.S. Food! strategic concerns -drug traffic, Panama Canal security, foreign debt solutions. The U.S. already appears to have shifted its policy toward Esquipulas. It is at equiano, least no longer actively opposing it and is perhaps even moderately supportive of it. That is a most constructive change. 8.1. A model.
We foresee a possible Central American security community developing simultaneously along three lines -regional defense, political-legal coordination, and economic harmonization of national interests. The interim goals of regional defense would be the demilitarization of national conflicts and the progressive replacement of national military forces by a Central American Defense Force. Such a force would be small in size, lightly armed, and responsible for such regional security tasks as securing the neutral status and continued operation of the Panama Canal. A preliminary step in Central American demilitarization would be an Essay about Jackie The Queen Ladies arms embargo in the entire region, initiated by the U.S. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! as primary supplier of weapons, training and foreign military presence in the region. The embargo would be enforced both by suppliers and by the regional defense force, with governments and insurgent groups alike agreeing to forego weapons acquisition. A second regional defense responsibility would be to replace the vs chinese, U.S. military presence in Panama with a force modeled on UN peacekeeping units. Olaudah! Such a canal security force might be composed of a contingent from each of the Central American states and the U.S., and under Panamanian command to protect a demilitarized Panama's sovereignty.
Internationalizing canal security in this way would remove it as a source of conflict between the Essay about Dream, region and the U.S. and would .pa strengthen the region's self-defense capacity. The canal security program would also train the civilians operating the canal in methods of nonmilitary resistance to any military effort to seize the canal. Political-legal coordination in the region would be accomplished through the olaudah equiano facts, expanded institutions of Esquipulas, perhaps to include the alan, Central American Parliament, a resurrected Central American Court of Justice, and a reborn Central American Federation. Such institutions would set, implement and monitor regional standards for equiano facts, human rights protection, demilitarization processes and timetables, harmonization of legal codes, standardization of insurance, employment, health care and alan ayckbourn, other social democratic rights, election monitoring and the like. Olaudah Equiano Facts! Economic harmonization must facilitate political and military integration. Dali! Central American governments cannot act beyond the tight constraints of economic resources. Cooperative action taken external to Central America is necessary. A genuine Marshall Plan for Central America jointly and equally funded by the U.S., the olaudah facts for kids, European Community and Japan could go far toward strengthening Central American economies so weakened by armed conflict, collapse of export crop prices and alan ayckbourn, foreign indebtedness. That economic infusion from the wealthy world would be administered by a regional unit of Esquipulas or CACM and olaudah facts, need not be without strings. There is no good reason why influence applied to ameliorate internal checks on economic and social development -galloping birth rates, absence of land reform, deforestation, human rights abuse, state violence - should not accompany such economic aid. Short! The debt-for-nature swap is an imaginative idea that could be modified to encourage basic sociocultural changes in El Salvador, Guatemala and elsewhere.
Despite such influence of the grantors, however, the conduit and ultimate decisional and distributive bodies would be the regional economic institutions. These might also have the olaudah for kids, power to levy regional taxes and duties as their European counterparts do. Short Gothic Stories! The common linguistic, cultural and historical backgrounds of the equiano facts, Central American nations would support this shift away from the traditional bilateral aid relationship with the U.S. and international lending agencies to one in which Central Americans were making decisions about resources for Central Americans and within regional institutions. Immigrants! Central America's geographical position as both a bridge between North and South America and an isthmian crossroads through which passes much of the world's trade suggest substantial potential for regional self-sufficiency and stability. That potential can only be realized through regional institutions. We have suggested how the European experience with common security might inform its Central American variant. Learning can flow in the other direction as well. Facts! The Central American peace process has much to teach us. Some real precedents in conflict resolution, conflict prevention and regional integration have occurred in Central America in Essay about Immigrants and the, the 20th century.
The Central Americans themselves are aware of their creative experimentation and the contribution it has made to the world's conflict knowledge pool. Particularly in the 1980s, they have realized that this is a time for alternative concepts, models and olaudah equiano, methods. We intend our study to contribute to that effort of surrealism salvador dali assessing Central America's capacity to resolve its conflicts and defend its territorial, cultural, political and economic integrity. We have learned from our research that those societies are well equipped from their experience to do so -better than even Central Americans might have thought. Peace researchers should pay the closest attention to olaudah facts the common security process as it unfolds there. References. Aguilar B., Oscar 1986. La constitucion de 1949: Antece dentes y proyecciones.
San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 191pp. A description of the constitution that created a stable, unarmed, neutral, democratic Costa Rica, and the events leading up to the constitutional assembly. Aguilar H., Marielos 1989. Clase trabajadora y organizacion sindical en Costa Rica, 1943-1971. Essay And The! San Jose: Editori al Porvenir. A history of the equiano facts for kids, modern labor movement in Costa Rica. Aguilera, Gabriel 1989. El fusil y el olivo. Math! San Jose: FLACSO-DEI. Contains chapters on Esquipulas and olaudah facts for kids, internal conflict in Central America, and the balance of security there. Aldecoa L., Francisco 1989.
El parlamento Centroamericano a la luz de la experiencia Europea. Polemica, No. 8, pp 35-40. A comparison of the Central American and European approaches to political integration. Araya I., Manuel 1984. Immigrants American! Fundamentos historicos de la neu tralidad costarricense. Unpublished paper. FLACSO, San Jose, Costa Rica, 23 pp. Traces the olaudah equiano for kids, development of Costa Rican neutrality policy. Arias S., Oscar 1989.
El camino de la paz. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 426 pp. Arias' collected works including the draft and final Esquipulas treaties, his Nobel acceptance address, and speeches made since 1987 in support of Esquipulas implementation. Arrieta Q., Santiago 1982. El pensamiento politicosocial de Monsenor Sanabria. San Jose: EDUCA. The collected works of Archbishop Sanabria whose role as mediator, labor movement supporter and social democrat is recog nized as important for Costa Rican civil peace and Essay about Kennedy Onasis: The Queen of First Ladies, justice.
Barahona, Francisco 1988. Costa Rica frente al reto cen troamericano: Perspectivas de la neutralidad y la paz. In Costa Rica hacia el 2000. Caracas: Editorial/Nueva Sociedad/UNITAR/PROFAL, pp 55-69. Documents the medi ating and moderating role Costa Rica has played in the region since 1923.
Bird, Leonard 1984. Costa Rica: The Unarmed Democracy. London: Sheppard Press, 224 pp. Bolanos, Pio 1985. Equiano Facts! Genesis de la intervencion norteamerica na en Nicaragua. Managua: Editorial Nueva Nicaragua, 101 pp.
Booth, John Mitchell Seligson 1989. Elections and Democ racy in Central America. Ayckbourn! Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 214 pp. Brock, Lothar 1988. Regional Security: The European Expe rience and its Meaning for Central America. Unpub lished paper presented to the 12th General Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Rio de Janeiro. Buvollen, Hans Petter 1989. Regional Autonomy in Nicara gua: A New Approach to the Indigenous Question in equiano facts, Latin America. Alternatives, XIV, pp 123-132. Clements, Kevin 1989.
Common Security in the Asia-Pacific Region: Problems and Prospects. Alternatives, Vol. XIV, pp 49-76. Everett, Melissa 1986. Bearing Witness, Building Bridges: Interviews with North Americans Living and Working in Nicaragua. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 169 pp. Gomariz, Enrique ed.
1988. Japanese Food Food! Balance de una esperanza: Esquipulas II un ano despues. San Jose: FLACSO, 395 pp. A first year progress report on olaudah equiano facts for kids the implementation of the Esquipulas agreement, with original documents. Gomez, Carmen 1985. La pena de muerte en Costa Rica durante el siglo XIX. San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica, 155 pp.
A history of the process leading to the Costa Rican abolition of the death penalty in 1878. Gonzalez B., Jaime 1988. Surrealism Salvador! La lucha politica noviolenta. Mexicali, Mexico: Bernal, 78 pp. Resume of Sharp's Politics of Nonviolent Action which lays out one theory of nonviolent resistance as a form of national defense. Gutierrez G., Carlos 1957.
La Corte de Justicia Centroamer icana. Tegucigalpa, Honduras: Organization of olaudah American States, 61 pp. The history, structure and demise of the Central American Court of Essay American Justice. Hernandez P., Juan 1989. Religion y revolucion en Nicara gua. Cuadernos de Sociologia, Nos 9-10, pp 69-90. Discusses the interplay of facts for kids religious and political beliefs within the Sandinista movement. Herrarte, Alberto 1989. Federacion: Alternativa a la crisis centroamericano. Horror Stories! San Jose: Libro Libre, 167 pp.
A well-reasoned argument for a Central American federa tion to include Panama and Belize. Hopmann, P. Terrence 1988. Negotiating Peace in Central America. The Negotiation Journal, vol. 4, No. 4, pp 361-380. Independent Commission on Disarmament and Security Issues, 1982. For Kids! Common Security: A Blueprint for Survival.
New York: Simon and Schuster, 202 pp. Instituto Nicaraguense de Desarrollo 1978. Mediacion: Etapa preparatoria. Mimeo. Confusions! Managua, 69 pp. Karnes, Thomas 1961. Equiano Facts For Kids! The Failure of Union: Central America, 1824-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Marin Z., Carlos 1987. Dali! Relaciones Estados Unidos-Costa Rica durante las administraciones de Carazo y Monge, 1978 1986. San Jose: University of Costa Rica, Center for Historical Research, 123 pp.
Discusses Costa Rican resistance to U.S. pressure to militarize and deneu tralize, and Costa Rican participation in Contadora. Morales, Carlos 1981. Facts For Kids! El hombre que no quiso la guerra: Una revolucion en el periodismo de Costa Rica. San Jose: Ariel/Seix Barral, 270 pp. The development of Costa Rican journalism and its role in Jackie Kennedy The Queen of First Ladies, moderating civil conflict. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! Munoz G., Mercedes 1989. El estado y la abolicion del Ejercito 1914-1949.
San Jose: Editorial Porvenir. The internal and external factors that led to the abolition of the Essay and the, Costa Rican army. Ortega, Manuel 1987. La cuestion etnica y el Projecto de Autonomia. Equiano Facts! Cuadernos de Sociologia, No 3, pp 3-9.
Discusses the process of consultation and legislation in short horror, resolving autonomy conflicts on the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Ortega, Marvin 1988. La gestion de los trabajadores en las empresas de Reforma Agraria. Ciencias Sociales, Vol 40-41, pp 25-37. Describes the structure and process of worker democratization and participation in deci sionmaking in equiano, Nicaraguan agrarian reform organizations. Pasos A., Luis 1982.
Los conflictos internacionales de Nicaragua. Managua: Bank of America. 300 pp. Randall, Margaret 1983. Christians in the Nicaraguan Revo lution. Vancouver: New Star. 207 pp. Rodriguez Mirtha 1984. Nicaragua y la revolucion sandinis ta.
Havana: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales. 405 pp. A sympathetic history of the impact of the Sandinista revolution on Nicaragua. Romero P., Jorge 1977. La social democracia en Costa Rica. San Jose: Imprenta Trejos, 326 pp. The ethics and food vs chinese, institutions of social democracy in Costa Rica as a root cause of civil peace. Romero, Ramon 1961. Sandino y los yanquis. Mexico City: Patria y Libertad.
262 pp. Sala V., Jose 1977. El liberalismo positivista en Costa Rica: La lucha entre ladinos e indigenas en Orosi, 1881-1884. Revista de Historia. Vol III, No. 5, pp 187-217. The roles of olaudah equiano for kids Justices of the Immigrants Dream, Peace, petitions and olaudah equiano facts for kids, liberal positivist ideology in japanese food, moderating conflict between indigenous and facts, European peoples. Salisbury, Richard 1978.
Costa Rica y la crisis hondurena de 1924. Revista de Historia. Surrealism Salvador! Vol III, No. 6, pp 43-68. Olaudah Facts! Discusses the Central American Federa tion(1920), the Washington Conference(1923) and subse quent peacemaking intervention by Costa Rica in salvador, Hondu ras. Sanson-Teran, Jose 1959.
El arbitraje internacional y la controversia de limites entre Nicaragua y Honduras. Barcelona: Hispano Europea. 579 pp. Explains one of the early third party inverventions in Nicaraguan border conflicts. Sunol, Julio 1981. Insurreccion en Nicaragua: La historia no contada.
San Jose: Editorial Costa Rica. 237 pp. Equiano For Kids! Description of the major events of the Sandinista insurrection including the help given it by the Costa Rican and Panamanian governments. Walker, Thomas 1986. Food! Nicaragua: The Land of Sandino.
Boulder London: Westview Press, 170 pp. Wehr, Paul John Paul Lederach 1989. Mediating Conflict in Central America. Unpublished paper. Equiano Facts! Department of Sociology, University of Colorado, Boulder, 36 pp. Windass, Stanley 1988. Confusions! The Crucible of Peace: Common Secu rity in Europe. New York and London: Pergamon-Brassey.
Wunderich, Volker 1988. 'Dios hablara por el indio de la Segovias': Las bases sociales de la lucha de Sandino por la liberacion nacional en Nicaragua, 1927-1934. Facts! Revista de Historia, No. 17, pp 13-34. Analysis of the Sandino movement as reformist and non-revolutionary directed primarily at national liberation and ayckbourn, socioeconomic justice. Single copies of olaudah facts for kids this paper may be reproduced for personal use with the following conditions: All information concerning copyrights, authorship, acknowledgement of grant support, and publication must not be deleted from printed or electronic copies. Any use of this material must be fully cited and in compliance with all copyright statutes and ethical fair use principles. The paper may be reproduced only in its entirety. This paper may not be reposted on any other electronic bulletin board or retrieval system without formal permission from the Consortium or the author. This paper is provided free of charge and may not be offered for complement math definition, sale by anyone other than the Consortium or the author(s).
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A for and against essay about the internet. Look at the essay and do the exercises to improve your writing skills. Do the preparation exercise first. Then read the text and do the other exercises. Facts! What's your opinion?
Do you think the internet is Jackie Kennedy of First Ladies, bad for young people? For young people it is. They shoud be surervised while accessing the internet, because they might find pornographic content, violent content and olaudah equiano facts for kids, such. Essay Jackie The Queen Ladies! Internet, an invention which still amazes people in is own way, is equiano, not always good. Short Stories! It has really bad side effects on young adults. As in olaudah for kids the essay, the young people get addicted to online games and they become addicted to the internet quickly. As we can see, there are many more online games being made like Pokemon Go, etc. is really dangerous for young people. I think it really should have a age limit.
And also we must be strict about the rules of ayckbourn confusions, age limit on internet too. I#039;m also a young adult but I find internet uninteresting and dangerous so I approve of it having age limits. For YOUNG PEOPLE yes it is. I think Internet is very useful in schools and in work. It#039;s also handy when you need to communicate. Olaudah Equiano For Kids! On the other hand a lot of people are addicted from sites like facbook, twitter or instagram. I also agree that learning on the internet (like here ont the british council ;) ) is very usefull . So in conclusion internet is possibly the most usefull thing that we ever invented. :) I agree with all of you, but what about Essay Kennedy Onasis: of First Ladies learning how to play a musical instrument? I think internet can be very good for teenagers because it helps them a lot especially for essays, projects and homeworks, but it can be also very bad because children spend too much time online.
I like internet because I can listen to songs onYouTube and I use British Councile:) Hi BigBen6464. I'm glad to hear that you enjoy practising English here :) Is there anything in particular that you like on the site? Jonathan (LearnEnglish Teens Team) Thanks! I like your reading skills practice, stories about UK and What is facts for kids, it? in short horror stories Study Break. British Council really helps me with my vocabulary.
I love it! I think the internet is an olaudah for kids amazing tool which can be used for equally amazing things, but only in the hands of the right person. One bad aspect of japanese food, internet is that anyone could acess anything anytime. That means there is a lot of olaudah, inappropriate content out there, but a good person is able to avoid it. In my opinion, though internet is very good and useful, but some young people use it for bad things. Such as playing computer games and get addict with it. Short Gothic Horror Stories! Many parents has banned the children not allowed to play forever,1 week or a day or so. But they never keep their word because, of course, parents love their kids, that is why after just a while,they let their children play AGAIN with their games, so really though, I think internet is useful with good children,and it is bad with bad children. I totaly agree. It all depends from parents.
If they let children to spend too much time online children will get a bad habit when they grow up. You#039;re quite right! I agree with your good comment in point: #039;I think internet is useful with good children, and it is bad with bad children#039;. !! :) In my opinion, Internet is one of the greatest people created. Equiano For Kids! You have an salvador access to equiano billions of libraries from your computer, you are able to surrealism salvador dali speak with your friends even if they are on the other side of the world. Many people work using the olaudah equiano facts for kids, Internet. Now let#039;s mention disadvantages of the Internet and web-technologies. Essay About Jackie Onasis: The Queen Of First! Firstly, many people nowadays become addicted and can#039;t survive for olaudah for kids, more than an hour without computer or smartphone. They need to ayckbourn publish their photos in social networks, chat with 7 people in equiano facts one moment and read new posts in their favourite online communities.
Young people sometimes find their online-life better than the real one. The second disadvantage is that nobody can guarantee the safety of your personal data. Everyone has heard stories about hackers that published private and scandal photos of data base of the big company. It#039;s not really pleasant to know that somebody can easily find out math all your secrets. To sum up, Internrt is a wonderful tool for searching the necessary information, but social networks is quite tricky part of World Wide Web. Equiano! I think the internet very useful for us .bcz we can get anything without spend alot of time in complement math definition looking it . Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids! everything when we use it excessively and more than usually #039;it will be badthing. Math! Well, we must admit that on this perfectly imperfect planet nothing entirely good or entirely bad exists. Internet is included.
Surely it was meant for connecting people from all continents, but as the human mind has no border line we found out how to facts for kids use it for different things that provide us either with information or amusement. It is said that the Internet is a good servant but a bad master. Therefore, we can see that the problem isn#039;t in the Internet itself but rather in the humans, as it is us who are using it and who are asked FOR WHAT we are using it. So for our irresponsibility we shouldn#039;t blame the Internet but ourselves as we are unable to use a powerful tool for our own improvement but we use it for our own unwanted degradation. I think that#039;s quite right!! Nowadays, Internet has been the most important thing in about Jackie Kennedy of First mutimedia life.
Personally, l consider that the internet is bad or not,which depends on users. I think the Internet is something that we have to know, and facts, we should know what is good and bad for us, and keep ourselves away from what can damage ourselves in any way. I think it is the same for young people, we have to be responsible, because the Internet is a tool that helps us either with the school, or with any ordinary situation. i think internet is surrealism dali, useful for everyone. If it was a bad thing, something awful, it would have changed instead of reaching the whole world. Is something crazy, used 24hrs a day, everyday of the week, a lot of information, and a lot of people online. About teenagers who are addicted to games, that depends on each family. Olaudah For Kids! Parents could create rules, so no one would be in a bad position.
And that also depends on the teenager#039;s sense of what he or she can or can#039;t do. It#039;s impossible to live without internet in a society like nowdays, it#039;s just so easy to make a research, work on a project. c#039;mon, does anyone here wants to spend hours and hours looking for food food, few informations? Internet is for kids, useful for alan ayckbourn confusions, everyone, for young and old people. There#039;s a lot of sites that can help us a lot. But, today Internet ha gone too far away. Almost, there#039;s no home without the internet(more than 70% in equiano for kids whole world are with internet). Yes, there are a good and a bad sites on the Internet.
We have different web-sites(Facebook,Tumlr, Twitter, Instagram. Dali! ) that shows us a different world. We can learn a lot of things (English, French. Facts! ) and a lot of short, other things. Olaudah Facts! But we all know that Internet isn#039;t so much safe.Even if we think that we have good hide it our information, we don#039;t. There#039;s a lot of dangerous people in the world. Ayckbourn! To sum up, I completely agree with essay. No, i don`t thing internet bad for young people, because there is many information in olaudah for kids the internet.
In my opinion, I dont think Internet is bad for people. Without the Internet, I cannot learn language (English) by myself and alan, I wouldn#039;t be able to access to lots of useful information that school doesn#039;t teach me. Equiano! On the complement definition, other hand, internet is bad only when people dont know how to use it wisely. If young people use the Internet for studying and for kids, relaxing in proper way, internet would be very useful. To me, the internet#039;s the most wonderful tool that human had created.
In my own perspective, the Internet plays an important role in the communicating barrier. As you can see, people all around the world are using the Internet, including the elderly. We communicate with each other using the ayckbourn confusions, internet and it really helps us to stay connected with one another. Besides, without the equiano facts, internet, how are the countries going to alan ayckbourn confusions develop? Our knowledge and the view to the outside world, the perspective to equiano for kids the outside of our comfort zone will be just limited, like a frog in the well. So, why not?
The internet is the best connection between an individual to the whole wide world. It#039;s definitely a boon. Internet is very usefull for us. Internet is particularly useful for math, everyone, nearly all things are on the internet, you can get anything by only searching on it. Internet seems becoming really important nowadays, it helps people a lot, for example i use internet for learning English, reading news and doing research for my tasks. However, internet also can give many bad effects, people become so fanatical on social media and often forget about time and olaudah equiano facts for kids, everything they should do. I completely disagree that internet is gothic horror stories, bad for teenagers, internet can be useful or useless, it depends on olaudah for kids, the way people use the vs chinese food, internet. How does this photo make you feel?
Can you write a caption for it? . Olaudah Facts! Look carefully. What's this everyday object? Play Wordshake and see how many points can you get in 3 minutes. © British Council The United Kingdom's international organisation for cultural relations and educational opportunities. Japanese Vs Chinese! A registered charity: 209131 (England and olaudah for kids, Wales) SC037733 (Scotland).
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controllers resume Tracer1210A 10A MPPT. MPPT-10,MPPT-20 10A 20A Solar Charge Controller MPPT. Compared with normal solar charge controller, this MPPT controller could increase 10%-30% electrical power using efficiency from solar panel. The most outstanding feature of Maximum Power Point Tracking controller is intelligent tracking input voltage from solar panel, which could let solar panel always working at Maximum Power Point of V-A curve.
Compared with normal solar charge controller, this MPPT controller could increase 10%-30% electrical power using efficiency from solar panel. MPPT 10A solar charge controller regulator is facts not only have above mentioned special function, at the same time including completely Protecting and Controlling functions: Overcharge protection Over-discharge protection Battery Reverse Current Protection Overloading Protection. Short Circuit Protection Reverse Polarity Connection Protection. 2. Japanese Food Food! 1x Users` manual. Thank you very much for selecting our product.
This manual offers important information and suggestions with respect to installation, use and troubleshooting, etc. Olaudah Facts For Kids! Please read this manual carefully before using the product and pay attention to the safety recommendations in it. This MPPT controller is not only have above mentioned special function,at the same time including completely Protecting and Controlling functions: Over discharge protection. Battery Reverse Current Protection. Short Circuit Protection. Reverse Polarity Connection Protection. DC Јє 12V / 24V / 48V. Ў 8mA/12V / 24V Ў 30mA/48V. Max voltage of solar panel. 23V/12V Ј¬ 23V Ў 2/24V,23Vg Ў 4/48V.
Full charge cut. 14V/12V, Ў 2/24V, Ў 4/48V ЈЁ 25 ЎЈ© Low voltage cut. 10.5V/12V, Ў 2/24V, Ў 4/48V. 12.6V/12V, Ў 2/24V, Ў 4/48V. Electrical power using efficiency. Can increase 10 Ў« 30 ©‡ 188 Ў 93 Ў 55mm. 188 Ў 118 Ў 55mm. Solar Panel: 12V solar system should use 40pcs cells laminated solar panel.
The maximum power point voltage is over 18V. 24V solar system should use 2pcs above mentioned solar panels. Short Horror Stories! 48V solar system should use 4pcs above mentioned solar panels. Conductor: The cable between solar panel with MPPT solar charge controller should be better calculated by 1Ampere per 1mm2. Solar Charge Controller: We have 12V, 24V and 48V three kinds of MPPT solar charge controllers with 10A, 20A, (other specifications could be designed as customer special request). Fit for power of solar panels: MPPT-20ЎЄ200WpЈЁ12VЈ©, 40ЎЄ400WpЈЁ24VЈ©, 80-800Wp (48V). 1.Connected the Ў°+Ў±, Ў°-Ў± poles of the battery to the controller (3, 4 from facts for kids left) firmly and correctly. At this time the LOAD green LED is bright. If the LOAD green LED is not bright, it is indicate there is short gothic horror battery reverse polarity connection. Only LOAD green LED is bright, we could continue next step operation.
2.Connected the Ў°+Ў±, Ў°-Ў± poles of the solar panel to equiano facts for kids the controller (1,2 from the left) firmly and correctly. 3.Connected the Ў°+Ў±, Ў°-Ў± poles of the salvador LOAD to. the controller (5,6 from the left) firmly and correctly. For 12V system, measure the olaudah equiano input voltage from solar panel with multimeter (terminal 1, 2 of controller), it is normal if the voltage of Essay about The Queen of First solar panel more than battery voltage 0.5-6V. Generally, the higher input voltage, the olaudah facts better charge efficiency. For 24v and 48V system, the input voltage will be much more higher than battery voltage. (Note: It is normal phenomenon the controller can not find Maximum Power Point within 10 minutes from system start.) 1.Load indicator, green, bright indicate there is output, Load could work, Ў°offЎ± indicate there is not output, and Load can not work. 2.Low Voltage Indicator, red; bright indicate the voltage of the battery is Immigrants and the low. Load could not normal working. Olaudah Equiano! This is surrealism salvador dali normal phenomenon.
When the battery voltage recover to 12.6V or (25.2v), the Load will be automatically working, at this time the facts for kids indicator is off. 3.Charge Indicator, red, bright indicate the battery need to charge, flickering means float charging, off means charge has stop. Please notice the rated current of your controller, if there is short circuit or overload happened, the MPPT controller will close output. Short Gothic Horror! (Load indicator off, Low voltage indicator off.) If you need the olaudah facts for kids MPPT controller recover work, please check the reasons and clear out the alan ayckbourn confusions fault firstly. Then put a small stick such as toothpick, ball-pen tip inside the RESET hole, and press RESET button will be OK. 1.Please check the facts for kids rated voltage of the solar panel, battery, and load are all the same with 12V or 24V or 48V. 2.Please pay attention to Essay about American connection, do not connect the Ў°+Ў± Ў°-Ў± poles of solar panels and loads wrong.( Wrong connection will be burn your MPPT controller)
3.Battery must be connected earlier than solar panels and load. When take off the system, Solar Panels must be take down first, then cut off battery. EMPPT-30 30A 12V 24V 48V Solar Charge Controller. The product adopts DC/DC converting technology and equiano, MCU technology. Ayckbourn! It can adjust the working point of the solar panels array intelligently to make the olaudah equiano facts solar panels array realize the stories maximum power output. When the external condition changes, eMPPT controller bases on olaudah facts the MCU theory to track the maximum working point of the solar panels, this can improve the definition using efficiency of the solar panels and decrease the solar generating cost. Compared with average solar charge controllers, eMPPT can improve the output efficiency of the solar panels by olaudah facts for kids 5% to 30 %( the output increasing proportion affected by the factors such as the horror attribute of the solar panels, environmental temperature and lighting conditions). The product adopts in big screen lattice LCD, and uses the olaudah equiano facts for kids vivid icons to ayckbourn confusions indicate the parameters. Olaudah Equiano! It has concise and vivid interface. The product is wall mounting installation. Please refer to chapter 2.1 for the installing dimensions.
maximum power point tracking. Adopting DC/DC converting technology and MCU technology to about and the realize the equiano maximum output of the alan confusions solar panels. battery reversed connection protection. Battery polarity connecting to the controller reversely (under the condition not connecting solar panels) will not cause damage to equiano for kids controller. It can work normally after connecting right.
Anti-battery reverse discharge. When solar panels voltage is less than battery voltage, the battery will not charge to the solar panels array. Anti-solar panels reverse connection. Solar panels array polarity connecting to japanese vs chinese food the controller reversely will not cause damage to equiano controller. It can work normally after connecting right. three-stage charge control. Bulk Absorption Float. float charging voltage adjustable. The users can adjust the surrealism salvador float charging voltage within a certain scope.
temperature compensation for float charging voltage. Referring to the current battery temperature, take 25 Ў as a benchmark, the facts for kids controller will compensate the float charging voltage by -4mV/Cell/ Ў . For 12V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*6*(-0.004)V Ј» For 24V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*12*(-0.004)V Ј» For 48V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*24*(-0.004)V. Elevating charging voltage adjustable. The users can adjust the elevating charging voltage within a certain scope. solar panel input deviated from japanese maximum power point. When solar panel input power is over the acceptable power for the controller, the controller will make the solar panel work deviated from the maximum power to prevent itself damaged. So the equiano for kids controller charges the battery by rated current.
internal overheating protection. When the internal temperature sensor detects excessive temperature, the controller will stop working to short stories prevent it being damaged. It will resume working again when the internal temperature drops to a certain degree. temperature controlling fan. When the internal temperature sensor detects the equiano for kids temperature exceeding a certain degree, the controller will start the complement math definition cooling fan until the temperature drops to a certain degree. panel over voltage protection. When the input voltage of the solar panels exceeds the olaudah equiano facts for kids rated voltage, the controller will start protection automatically and ayckbourn, stop working until the input voltage resumes back to facts for kids the normal scope.
remote controlling function. This optional function can make it possible to view and set the complement math parameters of the system on PC. We suggest installing the controller on the vertical wall, and ensure there is the space over 10cm around the controller for olaudah facts for kids, heat emission. 1. We suggest the user to use the sheathed cable with the cross-sectional area over 6mm2. 2. Salvador! We suggest installing breaker and fuse on the negative loop of battery and solar panels. 3. Set the olaudah equiano controllerЎЇs ground terminal to about Jackie Onasis: of First Ladies reliably connect to the system ground bus. 4. For Kids! The capacity of the short gothic controller internal over voltage absorption is olaudah limited. Please make sure connect the salvador dali solar panel to the controller after connecting to the mine exchange line box. ўPrepare 6 mm2 black and facts, red sheathed cables, each one roll. Prepare several copper noses of§¶6-6mm2 since controller adopts in§¶6 terminals.
ўHydraulic pliers(for crimping copper nose and cable) and 6 mm2 die, one couple, 10mm wrench, 2 sets, Phillips screwdriver, 1 set, cutting pliers, 1set. ўCut the cables according to ayckbourn the cabling requirement. Use hydraulic and die to connect the copper nose and cables tightly, and facts for kids, prepare all the cables well. ўIf breaker is installed in horror, the battery loop, please make the breaker open. If fuse is installed, please take out the for kids fuse to prevent the phenomena of contact ignition. ўUse the prepared cables to connect the +,- polarity of japanese food battery to the battery terminals on facts for kids the controller. Please make sure the Essay Immigrants and the American connecting of the polarity is correct. ўUse the olaudah facts prepared cables to surrealism salvador connect the solar panel output of the main convergence box to for kids the solar panes terminals on the controller. Japanese Food Vs Chinese Food! Please make sure the connecting of the polarity is correct. ўUse the prepared cables to olaudah equiano connect the ground terminals to Essay Jackie Kennedy Onasis: Ladies the ground box of the system. ў Insert the temperature sensor to equiano facts the right place on the controller.
ўClose the breaker of the battery loop or insert the fuse of the battery loop, if the controller LCD screen starts to show the signal, the controller will start to alan ayckbourn confusions work. And if the facts LCD has no signal, please check whether the connecting of the polarity is correct, whether the connecting cables is in good condition, whether the ayckbourn breaker is closed, whether the fuse is inserter. Wait until the olaudah equiano facts LCD has signal, and then go to alan ayckbourn confusions next step. ўClose the breaker of the solar panels loop or insert the olaudah equiano for kids fuse of the solar panels loop, then the controller LCD screen will show the solar panels voltage. If the LCD shows the voltage is 0V, please check whether the breaker in the solar panels loop is closed. EMPPT-60 60A 12V 24V 48V Solar Charge Controller MPPT. The product adopts DC/DC converting technology and horror, MCU technology. It can adjust the working point of the for kids solar panels array intelligently to make the solar panels array realize the maximum power output. When the surrealism external condition changes, eMPPT controller bases on the MCU theory to track the maximum working point of the solar panels, this can improve the using efficiency of the solar panels and olaudah equiano facts, decrease the solar generating cost.
Compared with average solar charge controllers, eMPPT can improve the output efficiency of the about Immigrants and the solar panels by 5% to 30 %( the output increasing proportion affected by the factors such as the attribute of the solar panels, environmental temperature and lighting conditions). The product adopts in olaudah equiano, big screen lattice LCD, and uses the vivid icons to indicate the parameters. Surrealism Salvador Dali! It has concise and vivid interface. The product is wall mounting installation. Please refer to chapter 2.1 for equiano, the installing dimensions. maximum power point tracking.
Adopting DC/DC converting technology and MCU technology to realize the maximum output of the solar panels. battery reversed connection protection. Battery polarity connecting to the controller reversely (under the condition not connecting solar panels) will not cause damage to short gothic controller. It can work normally after connecting right. Anti-battery reverse discharge. When solar panels voltage is less than battery voltage, the olaudah for kids battery will not charge to the solar panels array. Anti-solar panels reverse connection. Solar panels array polarity connecting to japanese food the controller reversely will not cause damage to controller.
It can work normally after connecting right. three-stage charge control. Bulk Absorption Float. float charging voltage adjustable. The users can adjust the float charging voltage within a certain scope.
temperature compensation for float charging voltage. Referring to the current battery temperature, take 25 Ў as a benchmark, the controller will compensate the float charging voltage by -4mV/Cell/ Ў . Equiano Facts For Kids! For 12V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*6*(-0.004)V Ј» For 24V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*12*(-0.004)V Ј» For 48V battery, compensation voltage U=(t-25)*24*(-0.004)V. Elevating charging voltage adjustable. The users can adjust the elevating charging voltage within a certain scope. solar panel input deviated from maximum power point.
When solar panel input power is over the acceptable power for the controller, the surrealism salvador dali controller will make the olaudah equiano facts solar panel work deviated from the food maximum power to prevent itself damaged. So the controller charges the battery by rated current. internal overheating protection. When the internal temperature sensor detects excessive temperature, the facts for kids controller will stop working to prevent it being damaged. It will resume working again when the internal temperature drops to a certain degree. temperature controlling fan. When the internal temperature sensor detects the temperature exceeding a certain degree, the controller will start the cooling fan until the temperature drops to a certain degree. panel over voltage protection. When the complement math definition input voltage of the solar panels exceeds the rated voltage, the controller will start protection automatically and olaudah equiano facts for kids, stop working until the input voltage resumes back to the normal scope. remote controlling function.
This optional function can make it possible to japanese food view and set the parameters of the olaudah equiano for kids system on ayckbourn PC. We suggest installing the controller on the vertical wall, and ensure there is the space over 10cm around the controller for heat emission. 1. We suggest the user to use the sheathed cable with the cross-sectional area over 6mm2. 2. We suggest installing breaker and fuse on the negative loop of battery and solar panels. 3. Set the controllerЎЇs ground terminal to reliably connect to olaudah the system ground bus. 4. The capacity of the controller internal over voltage absorption is limited. Please make sure connect the solar panel to the controller after connecting to surrealism salvador the mine exchange line box. ўPrepare 6 mm2 black and olaudah facts, red sheathed cables, each one roll.
Prepare several copper noses of§¶6-6mm2 since controller adopts in§¶6 terminals. ўHydraulic pliers(for crimping copper nose and Essay about and the Dream, cable) and 6 mm2 die, one couple, 10mm wrench, 2 sets, Phillips screwdriver, 1 set, cutting pliers, 1set. ўCut the cables according to the cabling requirement. Use hydraulic and die to connect the copper nose and cables tightly, and prepare all the cables well. ўIf breaker is installed in equiano for kids, the battery loop, please make the breaker open. If fuse is installed, please take out the math definition fuse to prevent the phenomena of contact ignition. ўUse the prepared cables to connect the +,- polarity of equiano facts for kids battery to the battery terminals on the controller. Food Vs Chinese! Please make sure the connecting of the polarity is correct.
ўUse the prepared cables to connect the solar panel output of the main convergence box to olaudah for kids the solar panes terminals on short horror stories the controller. Please make sure the connecting of the polarity is olaudah equiano correct. ўUse the American prepared cables to connect the ground terminals to the ground box of the system. ў Insert the temperature sensor to the right place on olaudah equiano for kids the controller. ўClose the breaker of the definition battery loop or insert the fuse of the battery loop, if the controller LCD screen starts to show the signal, the olaudah equiano facts for kids controller will start to work. And if the LCD has no signal, please check whether the connecting of the polarity is correct, whether the connecting cables is in good condition, whether the breaker is ayckbourn confusions closed, whether the equiano fuse is inserter. Wait until the LCD has signal, and then go to next step. ўClose the breaker of the solar panels loop or insert the fuse of the solar panels loop, then the ayckbourn controller LCD screen will show the solar panels voltage. If the LCD shows the voltage is 0V, please check whether the olaudah breaker in Essay American Dream, the solar panels loop is closed. Tracer A series MPPT solar charge controller.
Tracer A series adopts common positive design and advanced MPPT control algorithm. Olaudah Equiano Facts! The products can track the MPP point fast and accurately in alan, any situation which will improve energy efficiency and obtain the maximum solar energy. • Advanced MPPT technology. • High tracking efficiency no less than 99.5% • Peak conversion efficiency of 98% • Ultra-fast tracking speed. • Accurately recognizing and tracking of multiple power point. • Multi-function LCD displays system information intuitively. • User programmable for battery types, load control etc. • 3-Stage charge with PWM output. • Common positive grounding design.
• RS485 port with industrial standard MODBUS open architecture. • Fully programmable function via PC software or remote meter. • PV reverse polarity protection. • PV short circuit protection. • PV over olaudah facts for kids, current alarm protection. • Battery overcharge protection. • Battery over discharge protection.
• Battery reverse polarity protection. • Load short circuit protection. • Load overload protection. • Controller overheating protection. Nominal system voltage. 12/24V auto work. Rated battery current.
Rated load current. Max. PV open circuit voltage. 100V(at minimum operating environment temperature) 92V(at 25Ў environment temperature) Battery input voltage range. Max. PV input power. Equalize charging voltage.
Sealed: 14.6V, Flooded: 14.8V. Boost charging voltage. Gel: 14.2V,Sealed: 14.4V,Flooded: 14.6. Float charging voltage. Low voltage reconnect voltage. Low voltage disconnect voltage. RS485 / RJ45 interface. Tracer BN series MPPT solar charge controller Negative controller) New Tracer series is the second generation of MPPT controller. Complement! Compared with CLASSIC Tracer series, it has extensive communication ability. And the die-cast aluminum design ensures excellent heat dispersion.
Ў¤Innovative MPPT technology. Ў¤Peak conversion efficiency of 98% Ў¤High tracking efficiency up to 99% Ў¤Several seconds tracking speed. Ў¤Die-cast aluminum design and nature cooling. Ў¤Diversified load control to meet different requirements. Ў¤Four battery type options: Sealed, Gel, Flooded, and USER. Ў¤Intelligent lighting and timer control for solar lighting system. Ў¤Energy statistics function. Ў¤RS485 ports with MODBUS communication protocol. Ў¤Optional PC monitoring software and remote meter for real-time monitoring and battery management parameter setting.
Ў¤Field upgradable firmware. Ў¤PV short circuit protection. Ў¤PV overvoltage alarm protection. Ў¤PV current limiting protection. Ў¤PV reverse polarity protection. Ў¤Battery overcharge protection. Ў¤Battery over discharge protection. Ў¤Battery reverse polarity protection. Ў¤Load overload protection. Ў¤Load short circuit protection. Nominal system voltage.
12/24V auto work. Rated battery current. Rated load current. Max. PV open circuit voltage. Max. battery voltage. Max. Facts! PV input power. Equalize charging voltage.
Sealed: 14.6V, Flooded: 14.8V,USER: 9. Boost charging voltage. Gel: 14.2V,Sealed: 14.4V,Flooded: 14.6VUSER: 9. Float charging voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 13.8V, USER: 9. Low voltage reconnect voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 12.6V, USER: 9. Low voltage disconnect voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 11.1V, USER: 9. RS485 / RJ45 interface. Tracer Series MPPT solar charge controller.
Ў¤Peak conversion efficiency of 97% Ў¤High Tracking efficiency of 99% Ў¤Several seconds tracking speed. Ў¤4-Stage charge with PWM output. Ў¤Nature convection cooling. Ў¤Full power output in ambient temperature up to 45 Ў. Ў¤Sealed, Gel and Flooded battery option. Ў¤Widely used, automatically recognize day/night. Ў¤Diversified load control. Ў¤RJ45 interface optional meter. Ў¤2 years warranty. Ў¤PV short circuit protection. Ў¤PV reverse polarity protection. Ў¤PV overvoltage alarm protection.
Ў¤PV over current protection. Ў¤Battery overcharge protection. Ў¤Battery over about Jackie Kennedy The Queen, discharge protection. Ў¤Battery reverse polarity protection. Ў¤Load short circuit protection. Ў¤Load overload protection. Rated system voltage.
12/24V auto work. Rated battery current. Rated load current. Max.PV open circuit voltage. Max.PV input power. 12V 130W; 24V 260W. Charge Circuit Voltage Drop. Discharge Circuit Voltage Drop. TTL232 / 8 pin RJ45. Storage temperature range.
156mm x 97mm x 68mm. Mounting hole size. Rated system voltage. 12/24V auto work. Rated battery current. Rated load current. Max.PV open circuit voltage. Max.PV input power. 12V 260WЈ¬ 24V 520W. Charge Circuit Voltage Drop. Discharge Circuit Voltage Drop.
TTL232 / 8 pin RJ45. Storage temperature range. 169mm x 118mm x 83mm. Mounting hole size. Rated system voltage. 12/24V auto work. Rated battery current. Rated load current. Max.PV open circuit voltage. Max.PV input power.
12V 390WЈ¬ 24V 780W. Charge Circuit Voltage Drop. Discharge Circuit Voltage Drop. TTL232 / 8 pin RJ45. Storage temperature range. 242mm x 169mm x 91mm. Mounting hole size. Rated system voltage. 12/24V auto work. Rated battery current.
Rated load current. Max.PV open circuit voltage. Max.PV input power. 12V 500WЈ¬ 24V 1000W. Charge Circuit Voltage Drop. Discharge Circuit Voltage Drop. TTL232 / 8 pin RJ45.
Storage temperature range. 242mm x 169mm x 91mm. Mounting hole size. Itracer MPPT solar charge controller. iTracer is an olaudah equiano facts industrial grade product with advanced Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm. Immigrants And The! It can deliver the maximum available power for charging batteries and charge a lower nominal voltage battery from a higher nominal voltage array. Advanced MPPT algorithm with the max. tracking efficiency of 99% Multi-phase synchronous rectification technology realizing peak conversion efficiency 98% Dual-core(ARM CPU+DSP) control architecture improves the system response speed and optimizes the performance of the system. Multiphase control technology, optimizes charging current smoothness, reduces ripple and improves the system efficiency. 128*64 dot-matrix LCD intuitively displays data and state, 6 buttons combinations for easy operation.
Four battery type options: Sealed, Gel, Flooded and User-defined. Energy statistics recording, it is convenient for users to olaudah equiano facts view charging and definition, discharging energy of each day, month, year and total value. Diversified load control mode. Programmable battery management parameters. Built-in running data and olaudah facts, event logging, max. 15 months. Extensive communication capabilities (RS232,RS485 with Modbus protocol, CAN Bus extendable) PC software available for real time monitoring and parameter setting. Field upgradable firmware. PV short circuit protection. PV overvoltage protection.
PV over current protection. PV reverse polarity protection. Reverse current protection at night. Over temperature protection. Battery reverse polarity protection. Load overload protection. Load short circuit protection.
Rated system voltage. 12V/24V /36V/48V auto work. Rated battery current. Rated load current. Max. PV open circuit voltage. Max.PV input power. Equalize charging voltage. Sealed: 14.6V, Flooded: 14.8V, User-defined: 9. Boost charging voltage.
Gel: 14.2V, Sealed: 14.4V, Flooded: 14.6V, Float charging voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 13.8V, User-defined: 9. Low voltage reconnect voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 12.6V, User-defined: 9. Low voltage disconnect voltage. Gel /Sealed /Flooded: 11.1V, User-defined: 9.
Peak conversion efficiency. Storage temperature range. Etracer MPPT Solar Charge controller. eTracer is an vs chinese food advanced Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller for off-grid photovoltaic (PV) systems up to 3KW. The controller features a smart tracking algorithm that maximizes the energy harvest from the PV by rapidly finding the equiano facts for kids solar array peak power point in all the weather condition. Ў¤12/24/36/48V auto work. Ў¤Advanced MPPT technology. Ў¤Several seconds tracking speed.
Ў¤High Tracking efficiency of food vs chinese food 99% Ў¤Multiphase synchronous rectification technology. Ў¤Peak conversion efficiency of 98% Ў¤DSPARM processors architecture ensures high speed and performance. Ў¤Gel, Sealed, Flooded battery option. Ў¤Max. 450 days data logging by connection to PC. Ў¤Multifunction LCD displays system data and olaudah facts, status.
Ў¤Three kinds of communication ports :RS232, CAN BUS and Ethernet. Ў¤Three stages charging optimizes battery performance.
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Olaudah Equiano - Fact Monster
The Equipment You Need for facts a Successful Virtual Reality Experience. The past few years have really seen a takeoff in about and the American, technology in both the olaudah functional tech industry and the entertainment tech industry. We have watches that can read our heart rates and headsets that can be played without any wireless connection. We even have devices you can fit on doors, unlocking your home to a rhythmic knock, or from the touch of an icon on the screen of your smartphone. The entertainment industry, in particular, has seen an explosive growth in advanced technology. Computers only stories, seem to be getting quicker and more advanced, while every year the facts world of food food gaming seems to advance in olaudah equiano, ways that we thought were impossible. One such way is through the integration of Virtual Reality (VR) into the world of gaming. A lot of people have been exposed to VR, without fully realizing it. Surrealism. One of the earliest examples is that of IMAX movies, movies that were designed to be watched with 3-D glasses to give the olaudah equiano audience a more engaging and captivating feeling.
VR has evolved immensely since then and has progressed the about Jackie of First entertainment industry to olaudah equiano the world of gaming. Often referred to complement math as head-mounted displays (HMDs), VR Headsets come primarily in two forms – one of which operates from an external device, and one which operates through the olaudah integration of a smaller device into the headset itself, such as a smartphone. Examples of the first type of VR headset include devices such as the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive. Examples of the second type of short horror this device are the Samsung Gear VR and the Google Daydream headset. Equiano Facts. For the sake of this article, we’re only going to dali discuss the first form. Using a lens inserted between the goggle and eyepiece, a VR headset expands the field of users’ views and utilizes expanded fields of view plus angle manipulation. Facts. Certain measures have to be taken to ensure that the user of the VR headset doesn’t make the user nauseous, something that could happen if the alan confusions images stutter or become distorted. Through a range of facts for kids fascinating technology such as motion tracking, head tracking, and eventually eye tracking, VR headsets help make gaming and other forms of entertainment quite fascinating.
Let’s take a look at all the pieces that go into math, creating a VR experience. How to Create Your Very Own VR Gaming Setup. Let’s take a look at every component you need for the best VR setup when you’re gaming. From computers to the headset itself, every component plays an facts, important part in total gaming immersion! (Note: The Steam VR and the HTC Vive are synomous) Gaming PC – We’ll get the tough-to-read details out of the way first before we get to the easy stuff regarding VR setup. While it can be easy to get away with mid-tier computer performance when it comes to normal gaming such as this gaming PC under 500, the lowest a computer can be run with a VR headset is Essay and the Dream exceedingly higher than that of facts for kids a normal computer. For starters, you’ll need the following pieces of tech to fit in your rig: Windows 7, more than 8GBs RAM, a NVIDIA GTX 1070 or AMD equivalent, and an Intel i5 or better processor. You will more than likely want to spend closer to $1,000, and that’s not including the monitor, which is even more specific to VR gaming. Monitor – This is another bit of information that might be hard to about Jackie Kennedy The Queen of First Ladies swallow. You’ll need a monitor that exceeds 1920p by olaudah equiano for kids 1080p resolution – the food food displays for the Oculus Rift and the Steam VR require monitors with at least 1080x1200p performance.
We also have to mention the required refresh rate of 90Hz, compared to a monitor’s typical 60Hz refresh rate. You’ll need some sophisticated visuals to get the most out of a VR headset designed for computer gaming. Spacing – The space requirements are different for the Oculus Rift and the Steam VR, two incredibly popular gaming headsets. You can get by with playing with the Oculus Rift in facts for kids, a small space such as your bedroom. The SteamVR, on complement definition the other hand, requires much more space for smooth operation.
A basement would be ideal. Equiano Facts. If you don’t have one of those, a spacious living room might suffice. Setup Requirements for the HTC Vive SteamVR Headset – One of the necessary items for VR to work is the setup of sensors, which usually come with the Essay about Immigrants Dream headset. Olaudah Facts For Kids. For the HTC Vive, the sensors should be placed as high as possible, in the room you plan on playing in. Both of the sensors need to be placed on the opposite corners of the room you plan on alan playing in, for optimal effectiveness. The room should be as large as possible if you plan on using the for kids HTC Vive; Steam wants its users to walk around as opposed to staying in one place while gaming. Setup Requirements for the Oculus Rift – This headset is slightly different its Steam counterpart, albeit operating the same type of way. Essay. The Oculus Rift comes with two sensors, both of which need to be mounted on facts for kids a desk or table, so the Rift can have the sensors in its line of sight while you’re playing it. A key difference between the Rift and the Vibe is that the short Rift is meant to be played sitting down, or at least the games that have been designed for it so far are designed to be played while sitting.
A Chair for Your Rift, an Ergonomic Mat for Your Vive – Both sitting and standing can be incredibly taxing on the human body. For the Rift, make sure you have a chair that is comfortable but has limited mobility. You don’t want to accidentally roll out of sight of the sensor, without realizing it! When it comes to the Vive, you’ll want a cushioned floor mat designed for long periods of standing. The cushioning will prevent your feet and knees from aching after hours of play. Additional Sensors – You might want to consider purchasing additional sensors for your VR headset if you wish to playin a larger space. For Kids. While this isn’t absolutely necessary for Essay about Immigrants and the American the Vive, it’s a must-do for equiano facts the Rift, which is limited with its movement tracking.
Controllers – A prerequisite for VR headsets is to have the necessary handsets. The design of these handsets differs slightly from one another, with respect to the Vive and the Rift. Surrealism. The handsets are necessities, not additions. While other headsets such as the Google Daydream and olaudah equiano, the Samsung Gear VR don’t require them, you need to ensure that you have the appropriate controllers for the Rif and the Vive, to play them correctly. The Appropriate Games – Unfortunately, you can’t just play any game and expect it to be an immersive, VR game. Alan. You need specific games, designed for the platform or VR headset that you’re using.
Unfortunately, there isn’t much wiggle room when it comes to the games designed for olaudah equiano facts VR headsets. [Video: How To Build a $1000 Virtual Reality Gaming PC] An Expensive, but Worthwhile Gaming Adventure. The total VR experience is costly, and you might have to spend your whole budget to japanese vs chinese food get everything you need for total immersion. It’s worth it, however – this new generation of gaming will certainly wrap its arms around the current world of gaming soon enough. Why not be at the forefront of facts for kids innovation?
Besides, the only thing that may change in surrealism, the near future with respect to both the Rift and olaudah facts for kids, the Vive is the japanese type of handsets that come with each VR headset. The rift, in particular, is launching a series of facts for kids new, touch-immersion handsets that should be dropping soon! The Rift and Vive are the two dominant VR headsets in the world of virtual reality gaming. Both aim to about Immigrants American give the user an immersive gaming feel that can make the player feel as if they’re actually in the game. While the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive are slightly different with respect to olaudah equiano for kids several features, they operate in the same manner and mostly require the same equipment to operate successfully. The most important part of the VR experience seems to be the PC operating system, which may cause doubts in the minds of people who want to involve themselves in the world of VR gaming, due to its sophisticated requirements.
These requirements may decrease, however, as technology evolves and new computers arrive on ayckbourn confusions the market. Apart from the equiano computer, you’ll need space, sensors, the food vs chinese food appropriate chair or mat, and olaudah equiano, an adequate set of controllers. Once you have all this, you’ll be set to start your VR adventure with either the Oculus Rift or the HTC Vive! The only short gothic horror stories, question left is: Which game should you buy first? 4 reasons why you need to buy a VR headset. Gaming has progressed a lot over olaudah equiano for kids, the years.
Graphics have become more realistic. Surrealism Salvador. And with the latest games looking so real and awesome, it is no wonder that virtual reality gaming has been developed. This kind of video gaming experience is the latest that you can try out. If you love playing video games, then you should definitely get a VR headset to play VR games on. There are actually a lot of compelling reasons why you should choose to do this. Equiano Facts. Virtual reality gaming promises a lot of food vs chinese enjoyment for anyone that purchase a VR headset that they can use at home. Using a VR headset and playing video games on facts for kids one, you will finally be able to fully immerse yourself in the fictional worlds that you love playing. Short. The immersion that you experience while playing VR games will be incomparable.
Even the video games that you have played on ultra-high graphical settings on a large television screen will not compare to the immersion of a VR headset. Playing on one will make you feel like you can actually touch and olaudah facts for kids, feel the virtual world that you are playing in. Virtual gaming is the newest gaming experience that you can try out. If you love trying out the latest and greatest, then you should get a VR headset. You will get to experience any of the latest and newest developments in the medium of gothic horror gaming. And virtual reality is not just a medium for facts video games it is also a medium for storytelling as well. You would be able to experience new stories and Jackie Onasis: Ladies, worlds that had never been experienced by people before. And you would be surprised at how awesome the new experience of virtual reality is. Ever want to feel more scared playing a horror game? Or perhaps you want to facts for kids feel more attached to your video game companions?
In virtual reality gaming, you will get to experience that heightened feeling for your video games. This is about and the because everything will feel and seem more real. Thus it would seem like the experience that you have in a virtual world will feel like they are happening to you personally. And you will not have to be afraid of getting bored or unimpressed by the world of virtual reality. The fact that you can feel like you can interact with the world directly makes you feel more involved. Video games are being produced for virtual game platforms all of the olaudah equiano facts for kids time.
Technology for virtual gaming is just getting more and more powerful. And pretty soon there are going to be VR games for complement everyone that wants to play them. If you doubt that there is currently a VR video game title that would suit your tastes, then you will only need to wait for olaudah equiano facts for kids a short while. Essay About Kennedy Onasis: The Queen Of First Ladies. Pretty soon, there will probably be a video game released for virtual reality, then will be more than enjoyable for you to play. Learn about exactly what equipment is needed for VR gaming here.
5 of the most hotly anticipated VR games. With virtual reality gaming just having been developed a lot of new games are beginning to pop up. And there is much to look forward to olaudah equiano facts this year when it comes to japanese vs chinese food the world of virtual reality gaming. Fans of VR games have got a lot of games that they cannot wait to play. And if you are such a fan, you should also be aware of these upcoming VR game titles as well. You are sure to love these following games as they are going to be released sometime in olaudah equiano, the year 2017. Here are some VR games to watch out for. In this video game, you will be in charge of controlling the bridge of a Star Trek spaceship!
If you have always loved science fiction and the Star Trek franchise, you will also love this new game addition to the series. You will get to see and touch the controls of your favorite Star Trek spaceship. Ayckbourn Confusions. Playing this virtual reality game is probably the closest experience that you will have to olaudah for kids be able to actually control your own spaceship. Gothic Horror. This will mean that you could fly around in space in your own home if you have got this virtual reality game. Explore the radioactive wasteland in virtual reality! By playing Fallout VR you will get to feel like you are actually in an apocalyptic wasteland. Olaudah Equiano Facts For Kids. The addition of the vs chinese element of virtual reality to Fallout means that the game will feel even more real. Olaudah Facts For Kids. You get to japanese vs chinese food battle the elements, raiders and radioactive monsters all in full immersion. For Kids. If you love playing the Fallout series of games then you will also love playing this one as well. Virtual reality just makes the game of Fallout so much more enjoyable.
And this Fallout video game is something to look forward to this year. Do you love dinosaurs and puzzles? If you do then you are sure to love this new VR game that is going to gothic horror be released for the Oculus and PlayStation VR. In this video game, you get to explore a park full of dinosaurs, all in immersive virtual reality. And while you are exploring the park and trying to go through it, you are also tasked with solving many simple and entertaining puzzles as well. You get to see predatory dinosaurs and massive sauropods. And the graphics of this game makes those virtual reality sights something really awesome to see and olaudah equiano facts, experience. This survival horror VR game is going to be released on multiple platforms.
And from the definition many different trailers that have been released for Syren, it sure promises to be a scary experience. Fans of horror games are not going to equiano facts for kids be disappointed with how unnerving this game will become. Virtual reality means that it is more likely that you will get scared as you play this VR game. Stories. The story of the game is that you are part of a scientific crew that is trying to olaudah equiano facts revive a bunch of dead mermaids. And The American. And your work has caused horrific problems in facts, a deep sea facility.
Robots get featured a lot in pop culture and video games in general. However, you will probably not have experienced them in virtual reality before. And that is one reason why Robo Recall played using a VR headset could be so fun! Household robots have suddenly gone berserk and it is up to you to stop and repair them. This game promises a lot of action-packed scenarios as you battle it out against confusions, metal machines that have gone out of for kids control.
The great graphics coupled with the ayckbourn strong storyline makes this VR game something to look forward to in 2017.